Diabetes Outline Essay, Research Paper
Craig R. Kevorkian
Bell C Health Seminar
January 31, 2001
Diabetes Type 2
1. Insulin in a healthy human body
1. a pancreatic hormone that helps the body to convert glucose into energy.
2. Effect of Insulin on Protein Synthesis
(1) the total quantity of protein in the body is increased by insulin
(1) results from three functions of insulin similar to growth hormone
(1) increased active transport of amino acid into the cells
1) amino acids- the basic building blocks of proteins
(2) accelerated translation of the messenger RNA code by the ribosomes to form increased quantities of proteins
1) Ribosomes- the sites within a cell where protein is manufactured
(3) Increased transcription of DNA in the cell nuclei to form increased quantities of RNA, which in turn leads to still further protein synthesis
2. Diabetes Mellitus: An Introduction
1. 90% of all diabetics have type 2 diabetes
2. Affects 16 million people in the united states alone, 100 million in the world.
1. Estimated that half of all diabetics are unaware that they have it.
3. Most common disorder of the endocrine system
4. Brought on by disorders in blood levels of insulin.
3. Short- and long-term complications
1. A short term effect of diabetes in which the blood sugar is too low
2. Can be easily remedied if symptoms are recognized
1. A serious diabetic condition brought on by a lack of insulin
2. Blood becomes increasingly acidic from accumulation of ketone
(1) toxic by-products produced by the body as it breaks down fat for energy.
3. Also occurs if the body is starved for sources of energy.
4. Can occur if the body comes under sudden physical stress, illness, or from an accident
5. Warning signs:
(2) excessive thirst
(3) frequent urination
(4) extreme weakness
(5) abdominal pains
(6) rapid deep breathing
(7) loss of appetite
(8) reddened and warm skin
(11) fruity-smelling breath
(13) ketone in urine
6. Failure to respond immediately can result in coma or death
3. Diabetes can damage the following
(1) Diabetes accounts for twelve to twenty-four thousand of new cases of blindness annually
(2) the leading cause of blindness in patients ages twenty to seventy-four
2. Nervous system
(1) decreased or distorted nerve function particularly in the nerves responsible for sensation
(5) burning sensations in the extremities
(2) if the nerves are damaged, a person may be unaware of minor wounds that have become infected.
(3) if diabetes affects the autonomic nervous system, abnormalities of blood pressure control, bowel and bladder function, and sexual function in males may occur.
(4) in some cases neuropathy can block warning chest pains for heart disease and heart attacks
(5) diabetic patients should be aware of other signs of a heart attack
(1) sudden fatigue
(3) shortness of breath
3. Cardiovascular system
(1) heart attacks account for 60% of deaths in diabetics
(2) strokes account for 25% of deaths in diabetics
(3) people with diabetes and no family history for heart disease have the same seven-year risk for heart attacks as a non-diabetic with heart disease.
(4) diabetes accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis or blockage of the arteries
(1) leads to three major conditions
(1) coronary artery disease
(2) heart attack
(5) people with type 2 diabetes are more likely than the general population to have high triglyceride levels and lower high-density lipoprotein
(1) risk factors for heart disease
(1) kidney damage is a very serious complication of diabetes
(2) the risk for kidney damage is compounded by the presence of
(2) coronary artery disease
(3) problems in the urinary tract
(3) symptoms include
(1) swelling in the feet
(2) swelling in the ankles
(4) pale skin color
5. Overall resistance to infections
4. People with diabetes are prone to gum problems
5. Prone to yeast infections
4. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes?
1. Causes of Insulin Resistance
1. Insulin resistance is believed to be caused by elevated levels of three factors.
(1) free fatty acids
(1) acids in the blood produced by the breakdown of fat
(1) a protein produced by fat cells
(3) tumor-necrosis factor or TNF
(1) a component of the immune system
(4) how each of these factors are involved is under investigation
2. Genetic Factors
1. Impairment of beta cell functions and an abnormal response to insulin are involved.
2. P2 gene
(1) appears to be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance
3. Researchers have identified a link between low birth weight and diabetes type 2.
4. Women have a higher rate of insulin resistance than men.
1. Onset typically occurs after age 40
2. Major concern for increase of diabetes type 2 in children possibly due to rising rate of child obesity
1. Rate of obesity in type 2 diabetics is very high
2. Regardless of family history, even mild weight gain is associated with an increased risk for diabetes.
3. Excess body fat plays a strong role in insulin resistance, but the way it’s distributed is also important
(1) weight concentrated around the abdomen and in the upper part of the body (apple-shaped body) is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes.
(2) fat that settles around the hips and the flank (pear-shaped body) appears to have lower association with these conditions.
1. Smokers are at a higher risk for diabetes type 2 and its complications
6. Family History
1. Between 25% to 33% of patients have a family history
2. People with first degree relatives have a 40% lifetime risk for diabetes
1. The risk for type 2 diabetes is higher in Africans and in Hispanics than in Caucasians.
5. Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
1. Symptoms may not appear for years or even decades.
2. Excessive thirst
3. Increased urination
5. Blurred vision
6. Weight loss
7. Severe gum problems
9. Unusual burning or tingling sensations in the extremities
10. In Women:
1. Vaginal yeast infections are common.
2. Fungal infections may appear under the breasts or in the groin.
11. In Men: