Dewey Essay, Research Paper
#1Whitehead claims that philosophy is the search for the solution to a problem. The problem is that throughout generations models used to analyze nature become outdated so to speak. This creates doubt in the systematic evaluation of nature which leads to philosophical inquiry into the interwoven concepts of nature and those of life and mind.
#2Dewey claims that all experience objects have a double aspect. The first is the individual object complete in itself. It is the final unchanging concept of the object. The second aspect is the potentiality of the object to influence future interactions and experiences. Immediately and directly objects are just what they are however the interactions of the object in future experiences is uncertain and therefor the difference arises.
#4Dewey states that taste is worthy of dispute as long as by disputing taste you are referring to reflective inquiry. He also states that taste and preference reveals an individual more completely than anything else.
#5The beginning of wisdom for Dewey is the moment science was realized to be indifferent to its external uses. Science itself does not discriminate from one situation to another. The same method is applied for each investigation.
#6Whitehead states that philosophy is the voyage toward the larger generalities. By this statement he is suggesting that science is more focused on detail than philosophy, while philosophy focuses on the larger picture and putting the pieces together. In the early stages of science it was not easily distinguished from philosophy because the general ideas were being questioned.
#1 By Dewey?s claim that religious belief was not the key opposition to Darwin he is looking at religion from the point of view that religious beliefs tend to be conservative. That is instead of creating their own beliefs they attach their beliefs to the current beliefs of the day. Religion therefor adds its own twist to the popular thought of the time period in question. He does state however that religion added to the intensity of the controversy the origins were founded in science and philosophy.
#2 Darwinism revolutionized our whole world view in Dewey?s opinion because not only did it provide a strong theory but it freed a new logic that is used in mind, morals, and life. The social impact that Darwin?s theory had jump-started new thought in logic. The new realization that nature is not fixed and permanent but however it is in a state of constant change broke barriers in many scientific fields.
#1 From what I gather about the passage in question, Dewey is arguing that science builds off of itself. He states, ?without the methods Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and their successors in astronomy, physics, and chemistry, Darwin would have been helpless in the organic sciences.? Darwin gained the methodology that he used in his discovery of his theories from previous methodologies used in other fields in the past. The transition into the kingdom of plants and animals was by all means a remarkable feat that opened many doors.
Darwin?s scientific investigations focused on the results of his observations. This method could be considered pragmatic in the Peircean sense because of the reliance on the physical consequences that the environment had on the observed subjects. However, the platform of Darwin?s work is built from observation instead of experimentation. Through observation alone his work could only be considered a theory and therefore could not be a belief because there were no testable consequences. From this angle, Darwin?s work would lean more toward the Jamesean style of pragmatism. The belief structure in James? version of pragmatism would more readily accept Darwin?s theory than the more straight-lined Peircean version.