Surrogate Motherhood Essay, Research Paper
Approximately 10 to 15 percent of married couples in the United States who want to have children find that they are not able to bear children due to infertility problems attributable to one couple member or both. The American Fertility Society estimates that as many as 50 000 couples each year need the help of a third person- either a surrogate mother or a donor of sperm or egg- to have a child. Depending on the circumstances, surrogate parenting is one possible option for couples facing infertility. The woman who wants to be the surrogate mother is the one who replaces the babies biological mother via implamentation into her womb. Then giving birth to the baby after its gestation. The process is completed when the surrogate mother forfeits the baby to the couple who will adopt it. Since this new reproductive technology has occurred there is a huge emotional flight to maintain classical views of pregnancy, childbirth and motherhood. Many people including doctors are using surrogate motherhood as a business deal. They are doing things one cannot fathom to satisfy those using surrogate motherhood as an option. Morover, the amounts of money they are demanding are an absolute abonishment.
The medical science field has produced virtually unlimited combinations a donor eggs, donor sperm, and donor wombs. With artificial insemination the science found the way to do a possibility into a common reality. And with in vitro fertilization allows parents to retain genetic link to there off spring even as another women carries it to delivery. Above vitro fertilization allows parents to keep there genetic link, parents still have emotional problems. The emotional complications can be related to the surrogate mother. With artificial insemination, in which the husband’s sperm is used to fertilize the surrogate’s egg, those feelings have biological basis and the effects can be particulary devastating. Furthermore, this process of fertilization has developed into a business deal. It is a business because doctors make an unbeliveable amount of money due to the expensive fee the surrogate mother receives.
There are several advantages of using a surrogate mother over adoption. First of all, a surrogate mother shares part of the genetic material of the parents who will raise him. The surrogate mother is able to carry a child conceived from the father’s sperm and her own egg which an ables the baby to share his father’s genetic traits. Moreover, the surrogate mother can carry an embryo conceive in vitro from the egg and sperm of his natural parents and implanted into the womb of the surrogate mother. This allows the infant to share the genetic code of both parents. The biological parents and the birth mother are all outraged that the only way the biological parents can get legal custody of their own off spring is to go through adoption proceedings. “A legal process, such as an adoption following the birth, or some sort of judicial review and court order prior to the birth”, says George Gay, director of the registration methods branch of the National Center for Health Statistics (Collins 2), provides valid protection for all parties involved.
There is not state in the union where surrogacy contracts are legal and enforceable. This contracts have been declared legally void and unenforceable in 12 states. The state of Michigan has the most severe laws against surrogacy penalties include imprisonment up to 5 years and 50 000 fine for persons acting as brokers. “We are acting to set boundaries on the use of new reproductive technologies, because they can pose serious risks to human health and safety”, Ding Wall said (Moysa A1). Canadian women who acts as surrogate mothers would not be liable. Health officials say their intent isn’t to punish the poor or vulnerable who may get tangled up in such arrangements. The proposed law also would ban the selling of human eggs and sperm along with embryos. Scientists, doctors and infertile couples who violate legislation banning the use of 13 controversial reproductive and genetic technologies will face up to 10 years in prison and fines of up to $500 000. On the other hand since the in-vitro fertilization took place in Arizona, The Ambrose’s would have to adopt the child under Arizona’s adoption laws. In Paris laws prohibiting surrogate parenting and establishing strict regulations for parents of “test-tube” babies. A law concerning “medically assisted procreation” requires that the parents be married or have lived together for at least two years.
William Handel, director of the center of Surrogate Parenting in Los Angeles, said: “It’s someone you trust implicity, whom you’ve known a long time. It’s someone you feel comfortable with and someone who probably will not try to take the child back. And they’re probably not going to charge you” (Twedt B1+). Many surrogate mothers are close friends or relatives of the childless couple. However, the practice of commercial surrogacy has increased greatly in the last 10 years. Many major cities have surrogate agencies that maintain lists of potential surrogate mothers and help match these with couples wanting to have a baby. Surrogates agencies are often run by doctors or lawyers and has local organizations such as the bar association or medical society. Commercial surrogate agencies typically charges a fee of $10 000 or more to make the arrangements. Commercial surrogate arrangements are not legal in all states.
Some couples choose to remain detached from the surrogate mother both during and after the baby’s birth while other couples maintain close personal contact during the pregnancy and delivery. Sometime contracting couple accompanies the surrogate mother into the delivery room to experience the birth of their baby. After the baby is born, the surrogate mother may terminate all contact with the infant or may maintain contact with the child and his family as a close friend of the family. Again, the arrangement concerning contact between the surrogate mother and the baby’s parents is whatever is most comfortable and satisfying to those involved. A family counselor may be helpful in deciding these important issues.
“The surrogate wants to be there. The couples don’t want to be there. The surrogates walk in and do this of their free choice; for the couple it’s a last resort”, said Nancy Hurwitz, adoption and surrogacy expert (Edmiston 237). Surrogate motherhood first start as a last resource for infertile couples. The joy at having a child was must important and now doctors, etc… take advantage at these unhappy people to rob them out of thousands of dollars. People continue to pay the money, in order, to fulfill their dreams of being parents and the business is now more corrupt then ever because it is illegal in almost every state. There is no stopping it, these couples are desperate. In the last fifteen years, an impossible hope of surrogate motherhood has become the reality to many couples that had given up hope.