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Problem of sraff personnel adaptation

Subject: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION “PROBLEM OF STAFF (PERSONELL) ADAPTATION” Authors: Chek Cherk Lyah Abstract 23 pages, 2 tables, 17 sources. The definition of the problem is the adaptation of personal in the Publishing House “Prapor”.

Subject: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

“PROBLEM OF STAFF (PERSONELL) ADAPTATION”

Authors: Chek Cherk Lyah


Abstract

23 pages, 2 tables, 17 sources.

The definition of the problem is the adaptation of personal in the Publishing House “Prapor”.

Object of research–the process of adaptation of personal in the Publishing House “Prapor”.

The purpose of work – to analyse a industrial-economic activities, a control system and a condition of processes of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor” and developing the project on perfection of process of adaptation.

The method of research – qualitative analysis of the adaptation of personal.

The main idea of the report is the analysis of the plan of preparation of the personnel for leading in the project of adaptation. In this course paper is talked about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, about main aspects and stages of adaptation. Here are analysed the industrial-economic activity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process on the publishing house “Prapor”. Also here is uncovered problems of adaptation, problems of the hiring and selection the staff.

Contents

Introduction

1.Methodological characteristics of the adaptation process nowadays

1.1. Essence and main Aspects of Adaptation

1.2. STAGES of Adaptation

2. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of

management and the condition of adaptation process

2.1. Brief characteristics of the Publishing House “Prapor

2.2. Analysis of the hiring and selecting the Staff and Adaptation

Process in the Publishing House “Prapor

2.3. Inference of the Results after the Analysis of the hiring and

selecting the Staff

2.4. The Project of increasing the corporate Attention to Problems

of the Staff Adaptation

3. Elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the

Publishing House “Prapor”

3.1. Standard of the Staff Adaptation

3.2. The functionary Regulations of the Expert on Adaptation of the Personnel

3.3 The Plan and the Schedule of Introduction of the Project

3.4. The Plan of Preparation of the Personnel for Introduction of the Project

Conclusion

Bibliography

Introduction

Adaptation is a dynamic process owing to which mobile systems of alive organisms, despite of variability of conditions, support the stability necessary for existence, development and continuation of a sort. The mechanism of staff adaptation developed as a result of long evolution, provides an opportunity of existence of an organism in constantly varying conditions of environment. Owing to process of adaptation preservation of a homeostasis is reached at interaction of an organism with an external world. In this connection processes of adaptation include not only optimization of functioning of an organism, but also maintenance of equation in system "organism-environment". Process of adaptation is realized every time when in system "organism-environment" there are significant changes, and provides formation new гомеостатического a condition which allows to reach peak efficiency of physiological functions and behavioural reactions. As the organism and environment are not in static, and in dynamic balance, their parities vary constantly and consequently, also constantly should process of adaptation is carried out.

The definition of the problem is the adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”.

In our course paper we try to analise the plan of preparation of the personnel for introduction of the project of adaptation. In this work we will tell about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, about main aspects and stages of adaptation. We tried to analise the industrial-economic activity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process on the publishing house “Prapor”. Also here we uncovere problems of adaptation, problems of the hiring and selection the staff.

For 15 years of work the Publishing House "Prapor" faces a problem of adaptation and a problem of management of the personnel repeatedly. Management of the personnel of the organization for a long time is recognized by one of "whales" of efficient control the managing subject irrespective of scales of business and its organizational-legal forms, efficient control the personnel becomes the mortgage of durability and success of any commercial undertaking. In management of the personnel one of priority directions - creation and development of systems of adaptation of the personnel in the organization. The decision of this problem with application of modern scientifically-practical methods allows to level the majority of negative factors of the internal environment of the organization in the field of group dynamics of collective, labour productivity, turnover of staff and other defining parameters of activity of firm.

Nevertheless in modern Ukraine not enough attention is given these problems noticeably. Unlike world experience, in Ukraine of the organizations with the solved problems of corporate culture and, as its components, systems of adaptation of the personnel, no. Same concerns also to branch of a press in which carries out the activity the Publishing House "Prapor".

1.Methodological characteristics of the adaptation process nowadays

In this chapter will be described the adaptation with its essence, main aspects, stages and methods. It will be uncovered the essence of the process of the mutual adaptation or labour adaptation between employee and organization, and employee with collective. In this chapter will be turned our attention to the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation as key condition of its successful realization and to an importance of a problem of management of innovations.

1.1. Essence and main aspects of adaptation

The modern organizations in which business of management is well put, consider, that the engaging of suitable people is only the beginning. For the blessing of the organisation the management should work constantly above the increase of potential of the staff. Development of the staff, increase of potential leads to growth of labour productivity and profitableness of the enterprise.

For development of potential of a labour use following methods:

- professional orientation and social adaptation in collective;

- an estimation of industrial activity;

- system of compensation;

- professional training, instruction, improvement of professional skill;

- - promotion;

- management of career.

One of problems of work with the personnel in the organization at attraction of the staff is management of labour adaptation. There is their mutual adaptation during interaction of the worker and the organisation which basis is made with gradual occurrence of workers in new professional and social - economic working conditions.

Adaptation is a mutual adaptation of the worker and the organization, based on gradual work-in the employee in new professional, social and organizational-economic working conditions.[1;32] Again gone to work simultaneously employee joins inside in the system of organizational attitudes, borrowing in it several positions simultaneously. To each position corresponds to set of requirements, norms, the rules of behaviour defining a social role of the person in collective as the worker, the colleague, The subordinate, the head, a member of collective controls, a public organisation, etc. From the person borrowing each named positions, the behaviour corresponding it is expected. Acting for work in this or that organization, the person has definite purposes, needs, norms of behaviour. According to them the employee makes the certain demands to the organization: to working conditions and its motivation. The process of the mutual adaptation or labour adaptation of the employee and the organization by that will be more successful, than in a greater degree of norm and value of collective are or become norms and values of the separate employee, than more quickly and better it accepts, acquires the social roles in collective.

Two directions of adaptation are allocated:[2;114-116]

- primary, i.e. the adaptation of the young employees who are not having experience of professional work (as a rule, it is a question in this case of graduates of a various level);

- secondary, i.e. the adaptation of the employees having experience of professional work (as a rule, changing object of activity or the professional role, for example, passing in a rank of the head).

It is necessary to note, that the role of secondary adaptation increases in conditions of formation and functioning of a labour market. On the other hand, it is necessary for domestic personnel services to address to experience of foreign firms which give traditionally enhanced attention of primary adaptation of young employees. This category of workers requires special care of them from administration.

In the theoretical and practical plan some aspects of adaptation are allocated:[3;35-36]

- psycho-physiological is the adaptation to the new physical and psychological loadings and physiological working conditions;

- socially-psychological is the adaptation to rather new society, norms of behaviour and mutual relations in new collective;

- professional is the gradual completion of labour abilities (professional skills, additional knowledge, skills of cooperation, etc.);

- organizational is the mastering of a role and the organizational status of a workplace and division in the general organizational structure, and also understanding of features of the organizational and economic mechanism of management of firm.

There is a development of set of all conditions during psycho-physiological adaptations which rendered various psycho-physiological influence on the worker during work. It is necessary to carry to these conditions: physical and mental loadings, a level of monotony of work, sanitary-and-hygienic norms of industrial conditions, a rhythm of work, convenience of a workplace, external factors of influence (noise, light exposure, vibration, etc.). During social adaptation-psychological there is an inclusion of the worker in system of relations of collective to its traditions, norms of a life, valuable orientations. During such adaptation the employee receives the information on system of business and personal mutual relations in collective and separate formal and informal groups about social positions of separate members of group. It perceives this information actively, correlating it with the last social experience and with the valuable orientations. There is a process of identification of the person or to collective as a whole at acceptance by the employee of group norms or with any formal or informal group Professional adaptation is characterized by additional development of professional opportunities (knowledge and skills), and also formation of professionally necessary qualities of the person, the positive attitude to the work. As a rule, satisfaction work comes at achievement of the certain results, and the last come in process of development by the employee of specificity of work on a concrete workplace.

During organizational adaptation the employee gets acquainted with features of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of firm, a place of the division and a post in the general system of the purposes and in organisational to structure. At the given adaptation at the employee the understanding of own role in the general production should be generated. It is necessary to allocate one more important and specific party of organizational adaptation. This is readiness of the employee to perception and realisations of innovations (technical or organisational-economic character). Despite of distinction between aspects of adaptation, all of them are in constant interaction, therefore managerial process demands presence of uniform system of tools of the influence providing speed and success of adaptation.

Success of adaptation depends on the whole row of conditions. The main things from which are:

- a qualitative level of work on professional orientation of potential employees;

- objectivity of a business estimation of the personnel (both at selection, and during of the labour adaptation of workers);

- work of the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation;

- prestige and appeal of a trade, work on the certain speciality in the given organisation;

- features of the organisation of the work which realising a motivational installations of the employee;

- presence of the fulfilled system of introduction of innovations;

- flexibility of system of training of the personnel which operated inside of the organization;

- features of the socially-psychological climate which has developed in collective;

- the personal properties of the adapted employee connected with its psychological features, age, the marital status, etc.

Especially it is necessary to stop on a question of the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation as key condition of its successful realization. Non-work of the given mechanism for the domestic organisations is one of the main reasons of pretentiousness of management of adaptation and slogan declaration of its necessity.

Management of labour adaptation demands the study, first of all, of three organizational elements:

- structural fastening function of management of adaptation;

- technology of managerial process of adaptation;

- a supply with information of this process.

As possible organizational decisions of a problem of structural fastening functions of management by adaptation the following can be offered:

1) Allocation of corresponding division (a group, a department) in structure of control systems of the personnel. More often functions on management of adaptation are a part of division on training the personnel.

2) Distribution of the experts who engaged in management of adaptation, on divisions (to shops, departments) or to groups of divisions. In this case the expert on the personnel becomes the curator of the certain divisions. It is necessary to notice, that the expert on management of adaptation can be as the employee of one of divisions of a control system of the personnel, and the employee of other functional division prepared for this role.

3) ) Development of preceptor ship which is forgotten in the domestic organizations last years. Foreign firms consider the preceptor ship as actively application of the form of trust to the skilled employee, and also as the certain stage in its service promotion. Thus preceptor ship is supported by material stimulus. . As instructors can heads, and the young employees who worked of some years and have positively proved can act as skilled workers with the experience. This experience originating in Japan, successfully develops in last years in the European firms.

4) Development of structural interrelations of a control system by the personnel (in particular, divisions of management of adaptation) with service of the organization of management. In many foreign firms this service is structurally included in system of controlling. A subject of functional interrelations between divisions of management of adaptation and the organizations of management are mainly questions of forms and principles of the organisation of work, system of introduction of innovations, etc.[4;68-69]

It is necessary to pay attention to importance of a problem of management of innovations. The thought over realisation of the given function becomes the factor of successful adaptation of workers to new conditions. As possible organizational decisions on technology of managerial process by adaptation the following can be offered:

- the organisation of seminars, rates, etc. on various aspects of adaptation;

- carrying out of individual conversations of the head, the instructor with the new employee;

- intensive short-term rates for the heads for the first time entering this post;

- carrying out organizational-spadework at introduction of innovations;

- special rates of preparation of instructors;

- use of a method of gradual complication of the tasks which are carried out by the new worker. The control over the constructive analysis of the mistakes admitted at performance of tasks is simultaneously necessary. Expediently thus to think over system of additional encouragement of the employee for the successful decision of tasks in view;

- performance of single public assignments for an establishment of contacts of the new worker with collective;

- performance of single assignments on the organization of work of controls (a production meeting, board of directors, etc.);

- preparation of replacement of the staff at their rotation;

- carrying out in collective of division of special role games on rallying employees and development of group dynamics.

Besides this, it is necessary to pay attention to realization of principles of the organisation of the work which are rendered motivational influence on the personnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees. It is possible to carry to such principles of the organization of work:

- creation of target problem groups, creative brigades, a variation of their structure, time and a problematic of work;

- definition of a rational degree of freedom of a mode of work, wide use of an accord principle of work;

- optimum duplication of problems of divisions, introduction of competitive divisions, projects, etc.;

- publicity of results of work (both group, and individual);

- participation of workers in management (use of methods of group development of decisions, collective participation in development of strategic programs, delegation of powers and the responsibility, etc.);

- carrying out of meetings with rational periodicity and duration;

- rational use of the arising referential groups;

- use of creative methods of development of decisions;

- maintenance of a feedback with administration and colleagues concerning the reached results of work and adequacy of their estimation.[5;83]

The centre of gravity of a supply with information of process of adaptation lays on gathering and an estimation of parameters of its level and duration. These parameters conditionally share on objective and subjective. To objective what characterise efficiency of labour activity concern, activity of participation of employees in its various spheres.

Besides this, parameters of adaptation are subdivided on an accessory to one of its aspects, for example, to professional aspect (conformity of qualifying skills to requirements of a workplace); to socially-psychological (a degree of conformity of behaviour of the person to the norms which have developed in given collective); to psycho-physiological (a degree of fatigue, a level of a nervous overload).

Subjective parameters characterise satisfaction of the employee work as a whole or its separate displays. They are subdivided similarly objective on an accessory to one of aspects of adaptation and define own estimation the worker. Exactly, the attitude to a trade and qualification; attitudes with collective of employees, with a management; state of health, conditions and weight of work; understanding of a role of individual problems in the decision of the general problems of the organization. Gathering and processing of the information on a level and duration of adaptation is expedient for spending within the limits of procedure of a current business estimation of the personnel. Here difference consists that in relation to new employees procedure of a business estimation should have higher periodicity within the limits of term of adaptation. For the domestic organizations the main problem of a supply with information of adaptation consists in necessity of accumulation of normative parameters of a level and duration of adaptation. The conclusion about its successful carrying out is done on the basis of comparison of actual and normative parameters.

1.2. Stages of adaptation .

Each enterprise or its collective possesses specific, only to it inherent features on which account successful or less successful work of collective as a whole depends. Procedures of adaptation of the personnel are called to facilitate occurrence of new employees during a life of the organization. Practice shows that 90 % of the people discharged from office within the first year have made this decision already in the first day of the stay in the new organisation . As a rule, the beginner in the organization collides from greater quantity of difficulties which great bulk is generated by absence of the information on the operating procedure, the location, features of colleagues, etc. That is special procedure of introduction of the new employee in the organization can promote removal of a lot of the problems arising in the beginning of work. Conditionally process of adaptation can be divided into four stages:

Stage 1.

The estimation of a level of readiness of the beginner is necessary for development of the most effective program of adaptation.

If the employee has not only special preparation, but also an operational experience in similar divisions of other companies, the period of its adaptation will be minimal. However it is necessary to remember that even in these cases in the organisation variants of the decision of problems already known to it are possible unusual for it. As the organizational structure depends on some parameters such as technology of activity, an external infrastructure and of the personnel. The beginner inevitably gets to some extent in a situation unfamiliar to it. Adaptation should assume both acquaintance to industrial features of the organization, and inclusion in communicative networks, acquaintance to the personnel, corporate features of the communications, etc.

Table 1.1. Distribution of duties on orientation [6;76-78].

Functions and actions of the organization

Duties

Of the direct head

Of the manager of the personnel

Drawing up of the program of the orientation

Carries out

assists

Acquaintance of beginners with firm and its history

Carries out

Carries out

the Explanation of problems and requirements which are shown to work

Carries out

Functions and actions of the organization

Duties

Of the direct head

Of the manager of the personnel

Put beginner in the work group

Carries out

Stimulation the help to beginners from the experienced employees

Carries out

Stage 2. Orientation.

Orientation is the practical acquaintance of the new employee with its duties and requirements which are presented by organization. To this work are attracted not only direct heads but also managers of personnel. As usually the duties are distributed like we see in the table 0.1. Usually the program of orientation consists of the row of not big lectures, excursions, practices (the work on the some work places or with some equipment).

Stage 3. Actually adaptation.

This stage consists in the adaptation of the recruit to its status and in the inclusion of the recruit in relation with collective. In limits of this stage necessary to give the recruit a opportunity to be active in different shares, to check in itself the given knowledge about organization. It is important, in this stage, to give a maximum help to recruit, regularly to conduct the appraisal of effectiveness of activity and peculiarities interactions with colleges.

Stage 4. Functionality.

This is the last process of adaptation. It is characterized by gradual decision of productive and interpersonal problems. It also characterized by crossing to the stable work. As a rule, this process of adaptation comes after 1-1.5 years of the work . If it process is regular, it will be more effective in few months of work.

In this chapter we considered methods for development of potential of a labour power. Also it were noted two directions of adaptation and some aspects of adaptation. We showed the success of adaptation depends on the row of conditions. It were offered organizational decisions of problem of structural fastening functions of management of adaptation. Also it were offered possible decisions on technology of managerial process of adaptation. Besides this, we paid attention to realization of principles of the organization of the work which are rendered motivational influence on the personnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees. On example table 1.1., we showed distribution of duties on dentition.

2. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of

management and the condition of adaptation process

In this chapter we will give the inormation about the Publishing Hause “Prapor”. The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” - satisfaction of needs of the market in release of the various book and periodic literature, and also in manufacture of other kinds of the printed matter corresponding a structure of a printing house. After the brief characteristics of the PH “Prapor” will be given the analysis oh hiring and selection staff. Planning of the personnel in the organization actually is absent. The list of staff and funds of a payment affirm annually. On selection of the personnel the Publishing House does not resort to services of specialized firms.

The Adaptation sutuation in the PH“Prapor” will be described. Such a difficuld situation will show that the process of adaptation has to be improved. Purpose of development of the project which character can be defined as mainly social, is increase of corporate attention to problems of adaptation of again staying personnel, decrease in turnover of staff, growth of satisfaction by work.

2.1. Brief characteristics of the Publishing House “Prapor”

The Publishing House "Prapor" is opened joint-stock company, the polygraphic enterprise created in 1991. Its history totals 11 years in the market of polygraphic works in Ukraine, and the organization continues development and expansion of activity, rendering any more only polygraphic services to publishing houses, but also making own editions, the consumer goods.

The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” - satisfaction of needs of the market in release of the various book and periodic literature, and also in manufacture of other kinds of the printed matter corresponding a structure of a printing house.

The open joint-stock company the society which actions are distributed among its founders or other, in advance certain circle of persons admits. Such society has the right to spend the open subscription to actions let out by it or to offer them for purchase to a unlimited circle of persons. The Publishing House "Prapor" specializes basically on release of the art, study of local lore literature, dictionaries, directories. [7; interview]

2.2. Analysis of the hiring and selecting the staff and adaptation process in the Publishing House “Prapor”

Planning of the personnel in the organization actually is absent. The list of staff and funds of a payment affirm annually. On selection of the personnel the Publishing House does not resort to services of specialized firms. Each post (trade) of the list of staff has the corresponding duty regulations corresponding ETKS. The competition of candidates at selection of the staff on vacant posts practically is not present. Exception is made with a trade "printer" owing to the highest wages. Selection is made according to a work-record card of the candidate. The requirement of recommendations, characteristics from the previous place of work, gathering of the information on candidates does not practise. With employed the typical labour contract consists.

The basic directions of perfection of selection and hiring of workers can be development of an individual approach to the candidate, carrying out of testing at employment, application of a trial period, an individualization of the labour contract regarding granting guarantees and indemnifications, payments of the most valuable employees. Process of adaptation of the personnel in the Publishing House "Prapor" is ignored. So, there is no technology of adaptation, the documentation on process of adaptation, there is no expert which official duties would include functions on adaptation of new workers. The institute of preceptorship is not developed. Thus, process of adaptation should be constructed from the basis.

The estimation of candidates at employment actually is not made by ways others, rather than documentary acknowledgement of qualification. During work periodic certification of the personnel to which surcharges for harmful working conditions (printers, type-setters, programmers, etc.) are appointed is spent, And also certification with a view of:

- planning and carrying out of actions on protection and working conditions according to operating normative legal documents;

- certifications of industrial objects on conformity to requirements on a labour safety;

- decisions of a question on communication of disease with a trade at suspicion on occupational disease, establishments of the diagnosis of an occupational disease, including at the decision of disputes, disagreements in the judicial order;

- considerations of a question on the termination (stay) of operation of shop, a site, the industrial equipment, change of the technologies representing direct threat for a life and (or) health of workers;

- inclusions in the labour contract (contract) of working conditions of workers;

- acquaintance working with working conditions on workplaces;

- applications of is administrative-economic sanctions (measures of influence) to guilty officials in connection with infringement of the legislation on a labour safety.

To an estimation of the personnel it is possible to consider the approach traditionally limited and demanding perfection with a view of optimization of an estimation at a stage of selection of the personnel. [8;48-51]

2.3. Inference of the results after the analysis of the hiring and selecting

the staff

The publishing House "Prapor" has set while not used opportunities of improvement of the financial, economic and social condition. There are positive tendencies - updating of working machines and the equipment, development of the thought over system of a payment and awarding. At the same time, the general condition of means of work unfavourably - the degree of deterioration of the basic means is great, the supply with information of management is ineffective, the organizational structure of a printing house demands completion. The approach to loan of means can be reconsidered also. Practically others are not developed, except for material, ways of stimulation and adaptation of the personnel, consequence of that, apparently, became high fluidity of again accepted workers and "ageing" of collective. [9;114-115]

The further studying of questions of adaptation of workers in collective can be directed on development of the project of perfection of system of adaptation of the personnel and calculation of economic efficiency of such project, development of concrete actions on its introduction.

As the basis for fulfilment of process of adaptation of the staff objective necessity of creation at the enterprise of effective system of adaptation of the personnel which by the moment of a writing of the given work actually is absent has served. But such necessity for a long time has ripened. So, the parameter of turnover of staff reaches 3,1 % (one worker has already left three newcomers - 33 %). Relative density of workers of a pension age - among workers-men - 15 %, as a whole on a printing house - 14,5 % is great enough. Ageing of collective can speak low enough parameter of average earnings

2.4. The project of increasing the corporate attention to problems of the

staff adaptation

Purpose of development of the project which character can be defined as mainly social, is increase of corporate attention to problems of adaptation of again staying personnel, decrease in turnover of staff, growth of satisfaction by work. Via these factors the system of adaptation will render positive influence on achievement economic and is industrial-commercial objectives the organizations. Design offers consist in development of following documents:

1. The standard of adaptation of the personnel

2. The Duty regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel

3. The plan and the schedule of introduction of the project

4. Calculation of social and economic efficiency of the project

5. The plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction of the project [10;32]

Basis for development of the project is necessity of creation at the enterprise of effective system of adaptation of the personnel which by the moment of a writing of the given work actually is absent has served. The parameter of turnover of staff reaches 3,1 % (one worker has already left three newcomers - 33 %). Relative density of workers of a pension age - among workers-men - 15 %, as a whole on a printing house - 14,5 % is great enough. Ageing of collective can speak low enough parameter of average earnings. The project for achievement of an object in view should be under construction in view of the situation which have developed in the Publishing House operating of methodical base, safety requirements of work, conditions labour and the collective agreement of the organization, achievements of a modern science. So, the Standard of adaptation of the personnel should contain the detailed rules of process of adaptation with breakdown on stages and the detailed description of purpose of each of them. The list of functions of management of adaptation of the personnel should reveal functional interrelations of divisions of the organization during functioning system of adaptation.

The duty regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel regulates activity of the expert and contains requirements to the worker replacing this post. It is made on the basis of deep studying work on the given post with definition of concrete requirements to the worker concerning its knowledge, experience, skills (the personal specification). Contains sections: the general parts, the purposes, functions, the information, the rights, the responsibility. [11;35-36]

The operational program of functions of management of adaptation of workers is called to break process of adaptation of workers and sequence of actions of various persons and divisions within the limits of functioning system of adaptation. Calculation of social and economic efficiency of the project pursues the purpose of an estimation of economic benefit of its introduction and quality standard of the remote social and economic consequences.

The plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction of the project is made in view of the requirement of creation at the personnel of a positive image of system of adaptation, positive expectations and readiness fully to participate in realization of process of adaptation of the personnel.

In the second chapter we opened the problem of adaptation in Publishing House ‘Prapor’. The main problem is that there is no technology of adaptation, the documentation on process of adaptation, there is no expert which official duties would include functions on adaptation of new workers. The institute of preceptorship is not developed. Thus, process of adaptation should be constructed from the basis. The operational program of functions of management of adaptation of workers is called to break process of adaptation of workers and sequence of actions of various persons and divisions within the limits of functioning system of adaptation. Calculation of social and economic efficiency of the project pursues the purpose of an estimation of economic benefit of its introduction and quality standard of the remote social and economic consequences.

3. Elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the Publishing

House “Prapor”

This chapter reviews the elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor” stage by stage on corresponding standards of the staff adaptation, also will be opened the functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel, the plan and the schedule of introduction of the project, and also will be shown the plan of preparation of the personnel for introduction of the project.

3.1. Standard of the staff adaptation

Stage 1. Acquaintance with industrial peculiarities the organizations, inclusion in communicative networks, acquaintance to the personnel, corporate peculiarity of communications, corporate ethics, rules of behaviour.

Stage 2. Practical acquaintance of new worker to the duties and requirements which to him are shown from the organization. The direct head spends acquaintance of beginners with firm and its history, personnel selection, conditions of work and rules, explains problems and the requirements shown to work, enters the worker into working group, encourages the help to beginners from skilled workers. [12;69-74]

The program of orientation includes a number small lectures, excursion, practical works (work on certain workplaces or with the certain equipment). Are without fail made instructing under the safety precautions and a labour safety.

During carrying out of the program of orientation following questions should be mentioned:

1. The general representation about the company

2. A policy of the organization

3. The Payment

4. Side benefits

5. The Labour safety and observance of the safety precautions

6. The worker and its attitudes with trade union

7. The Consumer services

8. Economic forces

After passage of the general program of orientation the special program in which following questions can be mentioned can be lead:

1. Functions of division

2. Working duties and the responsibility

3. The demanded reporting

4. Procedures, rules, instructions

Stage 3. Effective adaptation. For increase of efficiency of effective adaptation to the beginner the instructor is appointed.

A stage 4. Functioning. Process of adaptation comes to the end with this stage, it is characterized by gradual overcoming industrial and interpersonal problems and transition to stable work.

The standard of adaptation can assume also testing of beginners for adaptation in group, for example, with application of the questionnaire which allows to reveal type of behaviour of the individual in group.

As a parameter of type of the given perception the role of group in individual activity perceiving acts:

· the Individual perceives group as a handicap of the activity or concerns to it neutrally. The group does not represent independent value for the individual. It is shown in evasion from joint forms of activity, in preference of individual work, in restriction of contacts. This type of perception can be named the individual of group "individualisticheskim".

· the Individual perceives group as the means promoting achievement of those or other individual purposes. Thus the group is perceived and estimated from the point of view of its "utility" for the individual. Is preferred more competent members of the group, capable to assist, incur the decision of a challenge or to be a source of the necessary information. The given type of perception can be named the individual of group "pragmatical".

· the individual perceives group as independent value. On the foreground for the individual problems of group and its separate members act, interest as in successes of each member of group, and group as a whole, aspiration to bring the contribution to group activity is observed. The need for collective forms of work takes place. This type of perception can be named by the individual of the group "collectivistic".

On the basis of three described hypothetical "types" of perception the individual of group had been created the special questionnaire revealing prevalence of this or that type of perception of group at the investigated individual. [13;103-105]

The questionnaire consists from 10 items-judgements containing three alternative choices. In each item of the questionnaire of alternative are randomized. Each alternative corresponds to the certain type of perception the individual of group. On each item of the questionnaire examinees should choose the alternative most suitable them according to the offered instruction. On the basis of answers, examinees by means of "key", calculation of points on each type of perception is made. Prevailing consider the type of the perception which has typed the greatest quantity of points.

3.2. The functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation of the

personnel

The expert on adaptation of the personnel in the Publishing House «Prapor» should know organizational structure of Open Society, technological features and needs of manufacture, corporate requirements to work and ethics, psychological features of process of primary and secondary adaptation.

The expert should manage with basics of psychology on adaptation in group, abilities of suggestion and belief in the importance of adaptation, skills of recognition of the concealed problems of adaptation and the reasons of their origin.

The expert should be able to reveal and resolve conflict situations before deep crisis, the way out of which can become dismissal of the worker, falling of a labour discipline, labour productivity; to find out internal reserves of fast and free adaptation of new workers in collective.

The expert should supervise periodically process of adaptation in the organization, develop explanatory work, consultations, lectures, « round tables », to inform about necessity of actions on adaptation for all workers of the organization.[14;85-88]

The typical functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel in the Publishing House «Prapor» can look as follows:

THE FUNCTIONARY REGULATIONS

1. The general part

1.1. Department – a personnel department

1.2. Full name of a post – the inspector on adaptation of the personnel

1.3. The post is subordinated and receives orders and instructions from the chief of the personnel department

1.4. You can receive additional orders from heads of groups of inspectors, of functional groups of a staff department.

1.5. The post gives the order and methodical instructions to all subdivisions of the organization within the limits of the competence.

1.6. Work in the given post demands from the worker:

Features of strengthening in a post

Requirements

Education

Higher education

Speciality

The psychologist and/or the expert on work

The minimum work experience in a speciality

-


2. Purposes

The management of the organization for the given post has put forward the following purposes:

2.1. The organization and current regulation of actions on adaptation of the personnel

2.2. Consultation of workers and officials on problems of adaptation.

3. Functions

The list of functions

Periodicity and term of execution

1.

The organization of training of heads of subdivisions on problems of adaptation

Monthly – during term of introduction of the project and in the first year of its application;

As required, but not less often than two yearly – the next years

2.

Consultation of workers on social, economic, psychological, juridical questions of adaptation

As required – in the individual and group order

3.

Drawing up of plans of measures on adaptation of the personnel

Annually – in the end of year for the next calendar year

4.

Drawing up of the report on results of activity

Quarterly, more often – by requirement of the head of the organization or one of subdivisions

4. Information

4.1. Performance of official duties assumes information interchange with all subdivisions:

Receiving

Delivering

The content of the information

The form

Term and periodicity of receiving

The content of the information

The form

Term and periodicity of delivery

1

2

3

4

5

6

1. The notice on presence of conflicts or other problems in a realization of planned arrangements on adaptation

Memo

As required

1. A plan of arrangements within the limits of the program of adaptation for a year

Plan of arrangements

Annually – in the beginning of year

2. The request for carrying out of training

Inquiry

As required

2. Data on optimization of processes of adaptation of new workers for subdivisions

Recommendations, methodical materials

As required

3. Data on turnover of staff and other qualitative and quantity characteristics of success of adaptation

The report on turnover of staff

As required, but not less often than 1 time a quarter

3. The report on the done work and results

The report

As required, but not less often than 1 time for a quarter

4. The request for consultation from the worker

Oral

As required

4. Answers to questions of workers

Oral/written

As required

4.2. You are obliged to note an account log of worker’s references for consultation, log of actions within the limits of the program of adaptation of new workers, personal cards of the workers, who applied for consultations or with complaints with reflection in them of results of done work.

5. The rights

5.1. To offer actions within the limits of the program of adaptation of the personnel

5.2. To initiate consideration by a management of problems of adaptation

5.3. To organize training the staff

5.4. To adopt experience of other organizations

5.5. To develop and put forward under consideration to a management a methodical materials on problems of the adaptation, addressed to heads of subdivisions and the organization, the collective, separate workers.

5.6. To initiate imposing discipline penalties on workers or the officials, who interfere with the processes of adaptation of the new personnel.

6. The responsibility

6.1. On the given post you account for poor work, delays in realizations of the established purposes, incomplete use of the given rights.

6.2. Your work is estimated by the direct head on the basis of data about turnover of staff, quantity and content-richness of the hold actions, responses of the workers who have applied for consultation.

7. Additions and changes[15;74-76]

3.3 The plan and the schedule of introduction of the project

The project, in our opinion, can be introduced within a year. This time is required on creation of service of adaptation (attraction of the expert or investment of one of inspectors of a staff department corresponding functions); on creation at workers of a positive image and positive expectations from introduction of system of adaptation; a choice of instructors and their instructing; creation of the program of actions on adaptation and the evident information in this sphere.[16]

The table 3.2. The schedule of introduction of the project for the Publishing House «Prapor» in 2008 year.

Month

Action

January

Selection of the expert on adaptations, the statement of the standard of adaptation and the functionary regulations of the expert

February

Establishment of instructors, training of instructors

March

Explanatory work in the organization,

Creation of a corporate standard of work,

Efficient formulation and explanation to collective of the purposes of the organization, both long-term, and current,

Evident propaganda,

Instructing of workers,

Enhancement of a financial interest in work,

Detection of a role of the individual in a group,

Interrogation of workers for their readiness for introduction of system of adaptation

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

3.4. The plan of preparation of the personnel for introduction of the

project

Preparation of the personnel for introduction of the project assumes the creation of a positive image of actions of the project for each worker, development of understanding of its importance not only for again arriving workers, but also for all workers of the organization, whereas, fast adaptation and a low parameter of turnover of staff promotes the growth of labour productivity and a production efficiency.

The plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction of the project should correspond on terms and a set of actions to the schedule of introduction of the project (see above):

[17;22-28]

Action

The responsible executor

Terms

Selection of the expert on adaptation

The personnel department manager

The first stage of introduction of the project

The statement of the standard of adaptation

The personnel department manager

The first stage of introduction of the project

The statement of the functionary regulations of the expert

The personnel department manager, director

The first stage of introduction of the project

Establishment of instructors, training of instructors

The personnel department manager, the expert on adaptation

The first stage of introduction of the project

Explanatory work in the organization

The expert on adaptation

Constantly

Creation of a corporate standard of work

Director, the expert on adaptations, collective

Constantly

Efficient formulation and explanation to collective of the purposes of the organization, both long-term, and current

Director

Constantly

Evident propaganda

The expert on adaptation

Constantly

Instructing of workers

The expert on adaptation, heads of divisions, instructors

Constantly

Enhancement of a financial interest in work

Director, financial service, the expert on adaptation

Constantly (revision not less often, than one time in 2-3 years)

Detection of a role of the individual in a group

The head of subdivision, the direct head of the worker, the expert on adaptation

Constantly

Interrogation of workers for their readiness for introduction of system of adaptation

The expert on adaptation

Anticipates introduction of the project

In this chapter was opened the elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”. And we can draw a conclusion that there are four stages of standard of the staff adaptation: acquaintance, practical acquaintance of new worker to the duties and requirements, effective adaptation and functioning.

The second stage of the standard includes the program of orientation during the carrying out of which should be mentioned the following questions:

1. The general representation about the company

2. A policy of the organization

3. The Payment

4. Side benefits

5. The Labour safety and observance of the safety precautions

6. The worker and its attitudes with trade union

7. The Consumer services

8. Economic forces

After this program of orientation could be carried out the special program.

The standard of adaptation can assume also testing of beginners for adaptation in group, which allows to reveal one of the three types of behaviour of the individual in group: "individualisticheskim", "pragmatical" or "collectivistic".

In the functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel there are many duties, which the expert should be able to do and to control.

The functionary regulations consist of the general part, purposes, functions, information, rights, responsibility, and additions and changes.

In this chapter was shown the possible plan and schedule of introduction of the project for the Publishing House «Prapor» in 2008 year.

And we can notice that the plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction of the project should correspond on terms and a set of actions to the schedule of introduction of the project.

Conclusion

During course paper we have tried to find the cause of problem of adaptation of personal at the base enterprise - the Publishing House "Prapor", and we have considered that this problem based on modern approaches to systems of adaptation of the staff. Work pursues the purposes of creation of effective system of adaptation in the organization providing decrease of turnover of staff, growth of labour productivity, motivation, social guarantees for the personnel. Overall objectives of work can be named:

· decrease in negative labour parameters due to formation of corporate labour culture and healthy competition during work;

· maintenance of manufacture with qualified personnel;

· development of the mechanism of adaptation of the personnel to collective and process of work;

· the general increase of efficiency of activity of the base enterprise, etc.

In our opinion, the positive result from introduction can achieve in a year after the beginning of corresponding actions. Summing up it is necessary to note, that adaptation is social process of development by the person but-howl a labour situation when the person and the labour environment actively cooperate with each other. It has complex structure and represents unity of different kinds of adaptation socially-psychological, political and cultural and community. Efficiency of mental adaptation depends on the organization of microsocial interaction. At disputed situations in family or industrial sphere, difficulties in construction of informal dialogue of infringement of mechanical adaptation were marked much more often, than at effective social interaction.

Also the analysis of factors of the certain environment or an environment, the Estimation of personal qualities of associates directly is connected with adaptation as factor involving in overwhelming majority of cases the estimation of the same qualities as factor pushing away - with its infringements was combined with effective mental adaptation. But not only the analysis of factors of an environment defines a level of adaptation and emotional intensity. It is necessary to consider also individual qualities, a condition of a direct environment and feature of group in which microsocial interaction is carried out.

Effective mental adaptation represents one of preconditions to successful professional work. In professional administrative activity stressful situations can be created by dynamism of events, necessity of fast decision-making, a mismatch between specific features, a rhythm and character of activity. The factors promoting occurrence of emotional stress in these situations, can be insufficiency of the information, its discrepancy, an excessive variety or monotony, an assessment of works as exceeding opportunity of an individual on volume or a degree of complexity, inconsistent or uncertain requirements, critical circumstances or risk at decision-making. The important factors improving mental adaptation in professional groups, are social unity, ability to build interpersonal attitudes, an opportunity of the open communications.

In connection with the aforesaid becomes obvious, that without researches of mental adaptation there will be incomplete a consideration of any problem of mental discrepancy, and the analysis of the described aspects of adaptable process is represented an integral part of psychology of the person. Thus, the problem of mental adaptation represents the important area of scientific researches located on a joint of various branches of knowledge, getting in modern conditions all greater value. In this connection the adaptable concept can be considered as one of perspective approaches to complex studying the person.

The personal potential of the worker is closely connected with adaptation as set of the certain features and qualities of the worker. The personal potential characterizes internal physical and spiritual energy of the person, its active position.

However adaptation passes more quickly and more successfully if the trade is correctly chosen. Professional selection is carried out in two stages. On first stage, on the basis- results of supervision, interrogations, testing, also the professional program is made. At the second stage bents, social, psychological displays of the young man are studied.

Purpose of our course paper was to research the problem of adaptation of personal and to show how to avoid this problem, by example of the Publishing House "Prapor”. We have drawn a conclusion that this problem is present at all kinds of business. And it is very important to sovle it at the beginning of it origin.

For management of process of adaptation and career at the enterprise on again acted young worker the special card of adaptation and professional promotion is made. It helps to trace professional and qualifying changes of the worker and to operate this process.

Bibliography

1. Грачев М.В. Суперкадры: управление персоналом и международные кор­порации. - М.: Дело, 1993.

2. Егоршин А.П. Управление персоналом. - Н. Новгород: НИМБ, 1997.

3. Ивановская Л.В., Свистунов В.М. Обеспечение системы управления пер­соналом па предприятии. - М.: ГАУ, 1995.

4. Иванцевич Дж. М., Лобанов А.А. Человеческие ресурсы управления: ос­новы управления персоналом. - М.: Дело, 1993.

5. Кибанов А.Я. Комплексное проектирование систем управления в маши­ностроении. - М.: МИУ, 1987.

6. Кибанов А.Я., Дятлов В.А., Пихало В .Т. Управление персоналом./ Под ред. А.Я. Кибанова - М.: «Издательство ПРИОР», 1998.

7. Interview with Kurganov V.D. – manager of the personnel in Publishing House “Prapor”

8. Кибанов А.Я., Захаров Д.К. Организация управления персоналом на предприятии. - М.: ГАУ, 1994.

9. Кибанов А.Я., Захаров Д.К. Формирование системы управления. - М.: ГАУ, 1993.

10. Мескон М.Х. и др. Основы менеджмента – М.: «Дело», 1992.

11. Одегов Ю.Г., Журавлев П.В. Управление персоналом. - М.: Финстатинформ, 1997.

12. Предприятие: стратегия, структура, положения об отделах и службах, должностные инструкции. - М.: «Экономика», 1997.

13. Самыгин С.И. и др. Основы управления персоналом – Ростов-на-Дону: «Феникс», 2002.

14. Травин В.В., Дятлов В.А. Основы кадрового менеджмента. - М.: Дело, 1995.

15. Управление организацией. Учебник. /Под ред. А.Г. Поршнева, З.П. Ру­мянцевой, Н.А. Саломатина. - М.: ИНФРА - М, 1998.

16. Управление персоналом организации. / Под ред. А. Я. Кибанова. - М.: ИНФРА - М, 2000.

17. Управление персоналом организации. Практикум. / Под ред. А. Я. Кибанова. - М.: ИНФРА - М, 1999.

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