Exercises on lexicon and the English grammar
Complete the dialogues
1. Telephone Conversation with the British Firm – 1 person (I) in Present or Future Indefinite Tense, Active Voice;
- Continental Equipment. Can I help you?
- I’d like to speak to Mr. Cartwright?
- Mr. Cartwright? Who’s calling, please?
- This is Victor Klimenko, from TST Systems.
- Hold on, please. I’ll find out if he is in.
- What is it, Miss Elliot?
- Mr. Klimenko want’s to talk to you, sir.
- I’m very busy at the moment. Ask him to phone later.
- Yes, sir.
- Oh … wait a minute, Miss Elliot. Who is Mr. Klimenko?
- He said he was from TST Systems.
- From TST System? … Oh, ask him what his telephone number is. I’ll ring him back.
- Hello? Is that TST Systems?
- This is John Cartwright from Continental Equipment. May I speak to Mr. Klimenko?
- Yes. Klimenko speaking … .
- Did you want to speak to me?
- Yes, Mr. Cartwright. I’m the new Commercial Director of TST Systems. I’ve pleasure in informing you that we carefully studied your materials and decided to accept your proposal.
- Thank you. Mr. Klimenko. Goodbye.
- Goodbye Mr. Cartwright.
2. The contract – in Past Tense, Passive Voice;
Continental Equipment Plc, Brighton, England, hereinafter referred to as “the Seller”, on the one part, and TST Systems Ltd., Kiev, Ukraine, hereinafter referred to as “the Buyer”, on the other part, have concluded the present Contract as follows:
Subject of the Contact
The Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought the machinery, equipment, materials, and services (Equipment) as listed in Appendix I being an integral part of this Contact.
1. medium of exchange - ж) засіб обміну
2. measure of value- і) міра вартості
3. store of value- а) запас вартості
4. to be any substance- з) бути будь-якою річчю
5. toissuemoney- и) випускати гроші в обіг
6. modern money- д) сучасні гроші
7. to go out of circulation- ї) виходити з обігу
8. paper/soft money- г) паперові гроші
9. money supply- є) грошова маса
10. to express worth- е) виражена вартість
11. to be converted- в) бути конвертованим
12. payment- б) плата, платіж
Translate into English
1. Якби автомобіль не їхав так швидко, нещасного випадку не сталося б.
2. Якщо він не прийде завтра, надішліть йому телеграму.
3. Якщо я буду там і побачу його, я скажу йому про це.
4. Цього б не сталося, якби ви були там.
5. Йому доведеться піти в лікарню завтра, якщо йому не буде ліпше.
6. Було б дуже люб’язно з вашого боку, якби ви могли це зробити для мене.
7. Чому ви не покликали його? Я певен, що він прийшов би, якби його покликали.
8. Мені потрібно було багато часу, щоб перекласти цю статтю. Якби ви мені дали хороший словник, я б витратив менше часу.
9. Вона б не губила гроші так часто, якби не була такою неуважною.
10. Якби ви сіли на більш ранній поїзд, ми б змогли подорожувати разом.
11. Якби я знав, що він завтра прийде, я б не поїхав сьогодні ввечері до нього.
12. Якби я був певен, що він уже повернувся до Києва, я б поїхав до нього зараз.
13. Якби ви сказали нам кілька днів тому, що у вас є цей довідник, ми б попросили вас дати нам його на певний час.
14. Якби я знав його адресу, я б написав йому зараз, що ви згодні допомогти йому.
15. Куди б ви пішли, якби були зараз вільні?
1. If the car hadn’t driven so fast, the accident wouldn’t happened.
2. If he doesn’t come tomorrow, send him a telegram.
3. If I am there, and see him, I shall tell him about it.
4. It wouldn’t have happened, if you had been there.
5. He will go to the hospital tomorrow, if he doesn’t feel better.
6. It would be very polite, if you could do this for me.
7. Why didn’t you call him? I’m sure that he would come, if you called him.
8. I had to use much time to translate this article. If you had given me a good dictionary, I should have spent less time.
9. She didn’t lose her money so often, if she wouldn’t be so inattentive.
10. If you took the earlier train, we should be able to travel together.
11. If I knew that he would come tomorrow, I shouldn’t have gone to him today evening.
12. If I was sure that he had returned to Kyiv, I should go to him now.
13. If you had told us a few days ago, that you had this reference book, we should have asked you to give it to us for a while.
14. If I had his address I should write him now that you were agree to help him.
15. Where would you go, if you were free now?
Open the brackets, using the correct form of the Participle
1. He didn’t pay any attention to the ringing telephone.
2. The method followed by scientists was not simple
3. Having found no one at home he went to his neighbours.
4. This is the book being so much spoken about.
5. A letter lying on the table must be posted.
6. Having obtained new results, they decided to publish them.
7. Never having visited the place before, she got lost.
8. The house being built at the corner of the street will be a library.
9. You needn’t repeat the lesson so well having been remembered by everybody.
10. He sat in a comfortable armchair smoking a cigarette.
11. Having read half the book, he fell asleep.
12. Having realized that she had missed the train the woman began to walk slowly.
13. It being very cold, they made a fire.
14. The book taken from Petrenko is very interesting.
Past Simple - Past Continuous
1. Last year I decided to go to England for my holydays.
2. When I left Kyiv it was raining, but when I arrived in London it was clearing up.
3. A cold wind blew from the sea.
4. I went to my hotel by bus. As soon as I sighed in I saw a friend of mine from Ukraine.
5. She stayed at the same hotel.
6. In the afternoon we went shopping.
7. Street traders sold souvenirs.
8. We listened to their chatter trying to understand them.
Put the sentences into Direct Speech with appropriate punctuation
1. He asked what the weather had been like during my holiday , and Isaid that it had been awful”.
2. Bill asked what country I came from.
3. I asked if I should write to Ann.
4. She asked him not to interrupt her.
5. I begged to make the coffee a bit stronger.
6. Ann said not to wait for her if she was late.
7. I asked her if she would like to borrow the book but she thanked me and said that she had already read it and had not liked it very much.
8. I stopped a man in the street and asked him to help me with my car.
1. He asked: “What the weather was like during your holiday?”, and Isaid: «That it was awful».
2. Bill asked: “What country do you came from?”
3. I asked: “Shall I write Ann?”
4. She asked him: “Don’t interrupt me”.
5. I begged: “Make the coffee a bit stronger”.
6. Ann said: “Don’t wait for me if I am late”.
7. I asked her: “Would you like to borrow the book”, but she thanked me and said: “I’ve already read it and didn’t like it very much”.
8. I stopped a man in the street and asked: “Help me with my car, please”.
Translate into English
1. Він сказав, що повинен зробити цю роботу сам.
2. Лікар не велів мені виходити кілька днів.
3. Я спитав, чи прийде він сюди ввечері, і він сказав, що прийде.
4. Він щойно сказав, що він повністю задоволений результатами нашої роботи.
5. Я запитав її, чи іде дощ. Вона відповіла, що йде.
6. Лікар звелів йому кинути курити.
7. Запитайте його, чи погодиться він допомогти нам.
8. Я не був упевнений, що цю роботу буде зроблено вчасно.
9. Ніхто не розумів, чому вона відмовилася від такої цікавої пропозиції.
1. He said that he should do this jod himself.
2. The doctor didn’t allow me to go out for several days.
3. I asked if he would come here in the evening, and he said he would .
4. He has just said that he’s completely satisfied by the results of our work.
5. I asked her if itwas raining. She asked that it was.
6. The doctor ordered him to stop smoking.
7. Ask him whether he will agree to help us.
8. I wasn’t sure that this job would be done in time.
9. Nobody understood why she refused such an interesting proposition.
Use the correct form of the Gerund. Add a preposition if necessary
1. I think I’ll have a chance of introducing you to my friends.
2. Boys always enjoy swimming.
3. I’ve just had the pleasure having introduced to your sister.
4. She insisted on helping me.
5. They had much difficulty of finding the house.
6. I have no intention of staying here any longer.
7. He is afraid of catching cold.
8. She had to leave the house by having seen by anybody.
9. Are you fond of playing chess?
10. He is engaged having written a book.
11. I think of going to the south in summer.
12. The rain prevented me from coming.
13. Tom is proud of doing an important work.
14. There is no possibility of finding his address.
Insert prepositions where necessary
1. He succeeded in getting what he wanted.
2. This prevented the letter from being sent off.
3. He has a strange habit of drinking strong tea in the evening.
4. They insisted on our beginning the negotiations at once.
5. He left the house by waking anyone.
6. There is no excuse of his doing such a thing.
7. We have heard of the agreement having been reached.
8. Have you the means of helping him now?
9. You can improve your knowledge of English by reading more.
10. He has had very much experience of teaching.
11. By receiving the telegram I phoned to my brother.
12. We were informed of their taking part in this work.
1. Is there anybody here who can introduce me to the President of the company.
2. Jorge Lopez. I seem to remember that name. Isn’t he the man whom we owe the check to?
3. We are prepared to reduce the price of the toothpaste because is approaching its sell-by date.
4. They take on extra staff at Easter. That’s the time of the year when they are at their busiest.
5. I’m talking about the advertisement that appeared in Kiev Post of March 26.
6. I’m looking for the person whose coat’s lying on my desk.
7. We are searching for a place where we can have a new office.
8. Do you remember that restaurant in Paris where we had such a good time.
1. We could not cancel the order because they had already sent it.
We could not cancel the order because it had already been sent.
2. The inflation influenced our business in the Middle East very badly.
Our business in the Middle East was influenced by the inflation.
3. They will make their advertisement soon.
Their advertisement will be made soon.
4. We are printing our catalogues by Friday this week.
Our catalogues are being printed by Friday this week.
5. We make the compressors for those machines here.
The compressors for those machines are made here.
Put the verbs in brackets into the Gerund or Infinitive
1. I am looking forward to see you.
2. We arrange meeting them here.
3. I wish to see the manager.
4. It’s no use to wait.
5. Don’t forget to lock the door before going to bed.
6. My mother told me not to speak to anyone about it.
7. He tried to explain but she refused to listen.
8. I’m beginning to understand what you mean.
9. Most people prefer spending money to earning it.
10. The boys like to play games but they hate to do lessons.
11. I know my hair wants being out but I never have time to go to the hairdresser’s.
12. After having heard the conditions I decided not to enter for the competition.
1. If I had a map, I would have been all right.
2. If I had realized that the traffic lights were red, I should have stopped.
3. If I had been ready when he called, he would have taken me with him.
4. If you had arrived a little earlier, you would have found me there.
5. If you had prepared for the exam more thouroughly, you would have get a better mark.
6. The man would have been killed if the train hadn’t stopped quickly.
7. If I had been in your place, I should not have said this.
8. If he had known that the river was dangerous, he wouldn’t have tried to swim across it.
9. If he hadn’t lost his spectacles, he would have been able to finish this work in time.
10. I should have called you up yesterday if I had been in town.
1. You’ll get pneumonia if you don’t change your wet clothes.
2. If she hadn’t changed so much, I should have recognized her.
3. If someone offered to buy you one of those rings, which would you choose?
4. If you had read the instructions carefully, you wouldn’t have answered the wrong question.
5. If I had been ready when he called, he would have taken me with him.
6. If I had been you, I should have appologised to her.
7. We should have stayed at home if we had known he was coming.
8. They wouldn’t believe me if I told them this.
The third factor of production is capital – the tools, equipment and factories used in production of goods and services. It is a produced factor of production, a durable input which is itself an output of the economy. For example, we build a textile factory and use it to produce shirts, or assemble a computer and then employ it in educating students.
As noted earlier, such items are also called capital goods. This is to distinguish them from financial capital, the money used to buy the tools and equipment used in production.
Capital is unique in that, it is the result of production. A bulldozer may be an example of capital goods used in construction. At the same time, it was manufactured in a factory which makes it the result of earlier production.
When the three inputs – land, labour and capital – are present, production or theprocess of creating goods and services, can take place. Even the production of the service called education requires the presence of land, labour and capital.
Entrepreneurship, the managerial or organizational skills needed by most firms to produce goods and services, is the fourth factor of production. The entrepreneur brings together the other three factors of production – land, labour and capital. When they are successful, entrepreneurs earn profits, the return or reward for the risks, innovative ideas and efforts put into the business. When they are not successful, they suffer losses.
Третім фактором виробництва є капітал - інструменти, обладнання і фактори, що використовуються для виробництва товарів і послуг. Це виробничий фактор, тривале використання якого створює продукт економіки. Наприклад, ми будуємо текстильну фабрику з метою виробництва сорочок, або збираємо комп’ютер, а потім використовуємо його для навчання студентів.
На основі цього можна сказати, що такі фактори ми називаємо виробничим капіталом. Це відрізняє їх від фінансового капіталу, грошей, використаних для покупки інструментів та обладнання, що використовуються у виробництві.
Капітал унікальний тим, що він є результатом виробництва. Бульдозер може бути прикладом виробничого капіталу, що використовуються у виробництві. У той же час, він був виготовлений на фабриці, що робить його результатом попереднього виробництва.
Коли три фактори - земля, праця і капітал використовуються, виникає процес виробництва чи створення товарів та послуг. Навіть надання послуг вимагає використання землі, праці і капіталу.
Підприємницькі, управлінські чи організаційні здібності є необхідними на більшості підприємствах для того щоб виробляти товари чи надавати послуги, і вони є четвертим фактором виробництва. Підприємець об’єднує три фактори виробництва – землю, працю, капітал. Коли це поєднання є успішним, підприємці отримують прибуток, винагорода за ризик, інноваційні ідеї та зусилля, вкладені у бізнес. Коли це поєднання не є успішним, вони зазнають збитків.
1. Гапон Ю.А. Business English. Англійська мова для ділового спілкування. Інтенсивний курс. Навчальний посібник з англійської мови. – К.: Видавництво Європ. університету, 2004-230с.
2. Богацкий И. С., Дюканова Н. М. Бизнес-курс английского языка. – 5-е изд., испр. – К.: «Логос», 2001. – 352 с.