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The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

St. Petersburg Institute f Foreign Economic elations, Economics nd Law (IFEREL) Yerevan Branch THE COURSE PAPER On the Subject The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using”

St. Petersburg Institute

The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Usingof Foreign Economic

The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their UsingThe Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their UsingRelations, Economics

The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Usingand Law (IFEREL)

Yerevan Branch

The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using


THE COURSE PAPER

On the Subject “The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using”

By Academic Subject

The Practice and Theory of Translation of English

Made by the student of III-rd year Kyosababyn Diana Rafaelovna
The record-book # E-4112

Checked by:

The Head (Teacher) Badalyan L. A. _________

Signature

Yerevan 2 00 5

The List of Contents

#

INDEX

Page #

1. The List of Contents. – 3
2. Introduction: The Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs. – 4
3. The Predicative Constructions with Non-Finite Forms of the Verbs. – 6
4. Body: The Predicative Infinitive Constructions. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction. – 7
5. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction. – 12
6. The For-to-Infinitive Construction. – 14
7. The Absolute Infinitive Construction. – 16
8. Conclusion – 17
9. Bibliography 19

INTRIDUCTION

The words of every language fall into classes which are called Parts of Speech . Each part of speech has characteristics of its own. The parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, in form and in function.

One of the parts of speech is the Verb. According to content, the verb can be described as word denoting action (the term “action” embracing the meaning of activity (to walk, to speak, to play, to study), process (to sleep, to wait, to live), state (to be, to like, to know), relation (to consist, to resemble, to lack) and the like. According to form, it can be described as a word that has certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech; they have the category of tense, aspect, voice. According to the function, verb can be defined as a word making up the predicate of the sentence.

The English Verbs can be divided into two main groups, according to the function they perform in the sentence – the finite forms and non-finite forms .

The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicate forms .

The non-finite or non-predicative forms can have various other functions. These forms are also called the verbals.

The non-finite forms or the verbals, unlike the finite forms of the verbs do not express person, number or mood. Therefore they cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. Like the finite forms of the verbs the verbals have tense and voice distinctions, but their tense distinctions differ from those of the finite verb.

There are three verbals in English: the participle, the gerund, and the infinitive. In Russian there are also three non-finite forms of the verb, but they do not fully coincide with those in the English language ( причастие, деепричстие, инфинитив ).

In English the verbals have the following characteristic traits:

a) They have a double nature: nominal and verbal . The participle combines the characteristics of a verb with those of an adjective; the gerund and the infinitive combine the characteristics of a verb with those of a known.

b) The tense distinctions of the verbals are not absolute like those of the finite verbs, but relative. The form of a verbal does not show whether the action it denotes refers to the present, past or future. It shows only whether the action expressed by the verbal is simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb or prior to it.

In the sentence a verbal may occur.

a) singling (without accompanying words)

Eg. She went away smiling. – Она ушла , улыбаясь .

Reading is out of question , I can t fix my attention on books . – О чтении не может быть и речиб я не могу сосредоточить свое внимание на книгах.

b) in phrase (i.e. with one or several accompanying words – an object or an adverbial modifier to the verbal). The phrases form syntactic units serving as one part of the sentence. A phrase should not be confused with a predicative construction. Between the elements of a phrase there is no predicate relation as it does not include a noun or pronoun expressed by a verbal.

Eg. Not to disquiet his sister, he had said nothing to her of the matter. – Чтобы не тревожить сестру , он ничего не сказал ей об этом .

c) in predicative constructions.

Eg. She heard him open the door and go out the yard. – Она услышала , как он открыл дверь и вышел во двор .

All the verbals can form predicative constructions. They consist of two elements: a nominal (noun or pronoun) and a verbal (participle, gerund or infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominal element. That is to say it stands in the subject and the predicate of the sentence. It most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.

Eg. The sat down to supper, Jerry still talking cheerfully. – Они сели ужинать ; Джери продолжал весело разговаривать .

“Jerry still talking cheerfully” is a predicate relation to the noun Jerry, which denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.

Predicative Constructions with the

Non-Finite Forms of the Verb

The Non-Finite forms of the Verb are more simple and economical expressive means of thought.

Combinations of non-finite forms of the verb with a noun or pronoun standing a front of them form various grammatical constructions.

In English there are three non-finite forms of the verb: Participle, Gerund, and Infinitive. Therefore, there are three groups of predicative constructions. These are the constructions with Participle, Gerund, and Infinitive.

Participial, Gerundial and Infinitive constructions are highly varied. The structure of some of them is foreign to the Russian language, although their meaning can be fully conveyed in Russian with the help of forms, characteristic of Russian. The constructions are translated into Russian by objective, attributive, adverbial or other subordinate clauses.

eg. 1) My son having lost the key , we could not enter the house. – Поскольку мой цын потерял ключ , мы не могли войти в дом . (Participle)

Here Participle is translated into Russian as the predicate of a subordinate clause.

2) There is no mistake about his being a genius . – Не может быть никакого сомнения в том, что он – гений. (Gerund)

3) She heard him open the door and go out into the garden. – Она слышала , как он открыл дверь и вышел во двор . (Infinitive)

My course paper aims at analyzing the Predicative Constructions with the Infinitive, the ways of translating them into Russian.

BODY

Predicative Infinitive Constructions

In Modern English we distinguish the following predicative constructions with the infinitive:

1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

2. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction

4. The Absolute Infinitive.

I. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a Complex Object . In translating the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction into Russian there is always used a subordinate clause.

Eg. She is a wonderful teacher and I’ve never seen her lose her temper or get angry about anything . – Она замечательная учительница , и я никогда не видела , чтобы она вышла из себя или рассердилась из - за чего - нибудь .

I believe him to know this subject well . – Я пологаю , что он хорошо знает этот предмет .

I consider this question to be very important . – Я считаю , что этот вопрос очень важен .

Although, sometimes a sentence containing The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction may be translated by a simple sentence.

Eg. The dread of the unknown made me recede (step back) . – Страх перед неизвестностью заставил меня отступить .

He won t allow himself do otherwise . – Он не позволит себе поступить иначе .

One’s gaze made me turn round . – Чей - то пристальный взгляд заставил меня обернуться .

His parents let him go to country excursion . – Его родители позволили ему поехать на загородную экскурсию .

She will never let him leave . – Она никогда не позволит ему уйти .

The Use of the Objective Infinitive Construction

The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used:

1. After verbs denoting sense perception , such as: “to hear ”, “to see ”, “to watch ”, “to feel ”, “to observe ”, “to notice ”, etc.

Eg. I haven’t heard anyone call me . – Я не слышал , чтобы

кто-нибудь меня звал .

I saw David enter the room . – И видел, как Девид вошел в комнату .

After verbs of sense perception only the Indefinite Infinitive Active is used. If the meaning is passive Participle II is used.

Eg. I saw the fire slowly faded . – Я видел , как пожар постепенно потух .

If a process is expressed, Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

Eg . He saw Wendy coming – Он увидел, как Венди идет .

It should be noted that the verb “to see ” should be followed by a clause and not by the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction, when it is used in the meaning of “to understand ”.

Eg. I saw that he did not realize the danger. – Я видел (понимал) , что он не осознает опасность.

After the verbs “to see ” and “to notice ” the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is not used with the verb “to be”. In such cases Subordinate Clause is used.

Eg. I saw, that he was pale. – Я видел , что он побледнел .

When the verb “to hear ” is not a verb of sense perception and is used in the meaning “to learn ”, “to be told ”, a clause or a gerund is used, but not the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.

Eg . I heard that he had left for France . – Мне сказали (Я слышал), что он уехал во Францию.

We have heard that she has found a job. — Мы узнали , что она нашла работу .

2. After verbs denoting mental activity , such as: “to know ”, “to think ”, “to consider ”, “to believe ”, “to suppose ”, “to expect ”, “to imagine ”, “to find ”, “to feel ”, “to trust ”, and etc.

After verbs of mental activity in the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction the verb “to be ” is generally used. But this restriction does not apply to the verb “to expect ”. The use of this construction after most verbs of mental activity is more characteristic of literary than of colloquial style.

Eg . I know you to be the most honest , spotless creature that ever lived . – Я знаю, что Вы самое честное и безупречное существо из всех , когда-либо живших на свете.

If you suppose that boy to be friendless , you deceive yourself . – Если вы предполагаете, что у этого мальчика нет друзей , вы ошибаетесь.

Everybody expected her to marry Pete . – Все ожидали , что она выйдет замуж за Пита .

After verbs of mental activity the Perfect Infinitive is used, but seldom.

Eg. The doctor found his heart to have stopped two hours before. – Доктор установил , что его сердце перестало биться два часа тому назад .

In the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction after verbs “to think ”, “to consider ”, “to find ”, the verb “to be ” is left out.

For instance, instead of “I consider him to be a good specialist” we can say “I consider him a good specialist” and translate into Russian literally “ Я считаю его хорошим специалистом ”. (This sentence is translated by simple sentence.)

3. After verbs of declaring : “to pronounce ”, “to declare ”, “to report ”.

Eg. The surgeon pronounced the wound to be a slight one . – Врач сказал , что рана легкая .

She declared him to be the most disobedient child in existence . – Она заявила , что это самый непослушный ребенок на свете .

4. After verbs denoting wish and intention : “to want ”, “to wish ”, “to desire ”, “to mean ”, “to intend ”, “to choose ” (in the meaning “ хотеть ”) and also after the construction “I would like ” ( Я хотел бы ).

Eg. He intended me to go with him to India . – Он хотел , чтобы я поехала с ним в Индию .

I want you to come and dine with me . – Я хочу , чтобы вы пришли со мной пообедать .

I don’t choose you to go by yourself to a hotel . – Я не хочу , чтобы вы жили в госитнице одна .

I would like her look to through my report. – Я бы хотел , чтобы она посмотрела мой доклад.

5. After verbs and expressions denoting feeling and emotion : “to like ”, “to dislike ”, “to love ”, “to hate ”, “cannot bear ”, etc.

Eg. I dislike you to talk like that . – Я не люблю , когда ты так говоришь .

I hate him to be flogged . – Я терпеть не могу , когда его бьют .

I cannot bear you to speak of that . – Я не могу выносить , когда вы

говорите об этом .

6. After verbs denoting order and permission : “to order ”, “to allow ”, “to suffer ”, “to have ”, etc.

Here we find the Objective-with-the-Infinitive only if the object is expressed by a noun or pronoun, denoting lifeless thing or when the Infinitive is passive. This restriction does not apply to the verbs “to suffer” and “to have”.

Eg. Mr. Sinclair ordered his carriage to be ready early in the morning . – Мистер Синклер распорядился , чтобы экипаж был готов рано утром .

She had never allowed the name to John Gordon to pass her lips . – Она никогда не позволяла себе произносить имя Джона Гордона . (This sentence is translated by simple sentence.)

He ordered the wounded to be carried away from the field of battle . – Он приказал , чтобы раненного унесли с поля боя .

However, if the noun or pronoun denotes a person and it is followed by an inactive form as a rule the Infinitive is not a part of the Complex Object and has the function of second Direct Object, immediately subordinated to the Verb.

Eg. He ordered the prisoners to go away . – Он приказал пленным ( закл - ченным ) уйти . (This sentence is translated by simple sentence.)

7. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used after verbs denoting compulsion : “to make ” (in the meaning “ заставить ”), “to cause ” (“ заставить ”, “ распорядиться ”), “to get ” (“ добиться ”), “to have ” (“ заставить ”,” сказать чтобы ”).

Eg. Light steps in the gravel made him turn his head . – Легкие шаги по гравию заставили его повернуть голову . (This sentence is translated by simple sentence.)

She caused a telegram to be sent to him . – Она распорядилась , чтобы ему послали телеграмму .

The noise caused her to awake . – От шума она проснулась . (This sentence is translated by simple sentence.)

I cannot get her to finish her lessons . – Я не могу заставить ее закончить уроки .

8. Though the Infinitive as a rule is not used with verbs requiring prepositions, the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is widely used with the preposition “ for ”. This construction consists of the preposition “ for ” plus noun in common case (or pronoun in objective case) plus Infinitive. These construction are translated into Russian by a subordinate clause, usually introduced by the conjunctions “ что ”, “ чтобы ” and at the same time the noun or pronoun of that construction together with proceeding preposition “ for ” is translated by a noun (or a pronoun) in the function of the subject of subordinate clause, and the infinitive is translated by a finite for of verb which is the predicate of the subordinate clause.

Eg. He waited for her to speak but she did not . – Он ждал , чтобы она заговорила , но она молчала .

Occasionally the Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction occurs with the preposition “ on ” or “ upon ” (after the verb “ to rely ”).

Eg. I rely on you to come in time . – Я расчитываю , что вы придете вовремя .

I rely upon you not to go over to the opposition . – Я надеюсь , что вы не переметнетесь к оппозиции .

The gerund however is also possible here.

Eg. I rely on your coming in time . – Я расчитываю , что вы придете вовремя .

II. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

(The Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction )

The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction traditionally called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or pronoun in the nominative case.

The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence. One of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.

Eg. Jane is said to resemble me. – Говорят , что Джейн похожа на меняю .

The Infinitive with the Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction cannot refer to a future action except with the verbs and word groups whose meaning allows of it: “to expect ”, “to be sure ”, “to be certain ”, and “to be likely ”.

Eg. We are sure to come at the heart of the matter . – Мы обязательно доберемся до сути дела .

He is expected to give us an answer tomorrow . – Ожидают , что он даст нам ответ завтра .

This fire is certain to produce a panic in the morning . – Этот пожар , беспорно ( несомненно ) вызовет утром панику .

The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is used with the following groups of verbs in the Passive Voice.

1. With verbs denoting sense perception : “to see ”, “to hear ”, etc.

Eg. Mr. Mc’Cord was heard to laugh heartily. – Слышно было , как смеется мистер Мак Корд .

The rider was seen to disappear in the distance. – Видно было , как всадник скрылся вдали .

If a process is expressed Participle I Indefinite Active is used.

Eg. Jill’s father was heard approaching at that moment. – В этот

момент они услышали, что подходит отец Джилл.

The sentences (The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction) with the verbs denoting sense perception are translated into Russian by complex sentence.

2. With verbs denoting mental activity : “to think ”, “to consider ”, “to know ”, “to expect ”, “to believe ”, “to suppose ”.

Eg. He was thought to be honest and kindly . – Его считали честным и добрым человеком .

My father was considered by many to be a great man . – Многие считали моего отца незаурядным человеком .

The manuscript is believed to have been written in the 15th century . – Полагают , что эта рукопись написана в XV веке.

The sentences (The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction) with the verbs denoting mental activity can be translated into Russian both by simple and complex sentence.

3. With verb “ to make ”.

Eg. Little boy was aroused and made to put on his clothes. – Маленького мальчика разбудили и заставили одеться .

Parents made him to do his lessons. – Родители заставляли его

учить уроки . (Simple sentence)

4. With verbs “ to say ” and “ to report ”.

Eg. The gods had given her dark-brown eyes and golden hair, which

is said to be the mark of a weak character . – Боги наделили ее

темно-карими глазами и золотистыми волосами, что,

как говорат, является признаком слабости характера.

It should be noticed that after verbs in the Passive Voice the Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is more characteristic of literary than of colloquial style, except with the verbs “to suppose”, “to expect”, “to make”. With these verbs the Subjective Infinitive can be found both in fiction and in colloquial language.

III. The For-to-Infinitive Construction

The For-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition “for ”.

In translating this construction into Russian a subordinate clause or an infinitive is used. The construction can have different functions in the sentence. It can be:

1. Subject , often with the introductory “it

Eg. I sometimes think it is shame for people to spend so much money this way . – Я иногда думаю , что стыдно людям тратить на это

так много денег .

2. Predicative

Eg. That was for him to find out . – Выяснить это должен был он.

3. Attribute

Eg. There is nobody here for him to play with . – Здесь нет никого ,

скем он мог бы поиграть.

4. Complex Object

Eg. He waited for her to speak . – Он ждал , когда она заговорит .

He asked for the papers to be brought . – Он попросил принести

бумаги.

5. Adverbial Modifier :

a) of result

Eg . He spoke loud enough for you to hear . – Он говорил достаточно

громко, чтобы Вы могли его слышать.

He had consented, and it was too late for him now to recede . – Он уже

дал согласие , и теперь было поздно отступать .

b) of purpose

Eg. He stepped aside for me to pass . – Он отошел в сторону , чтобы я могла пройти .

He spoke loud for me to hear . – Он говорил громко , чтобы я могла услышать .

With the expressions “to be sorry”, “to be glad”, “to be pleased” the Infinitive is used only if the subject of the sentence represents at the same time the doer of the action expressed by the Infinitive, over wise a subordinate clause is used.

Eg. I am pleased to have got a ticket for the concert. – Я рада , что достала билет на этот концертю

I am glad to have seen you . – Я раг , что встретил тебя .

I am glad you got a ticket for the concert. – Я рад , что Вы достали билет на этот концерт.

IV. The Absolute Infinitive Construction

The subject of the infinitive in all adverbial functions is the same person or thing as denoted by the subject of the sentence. But the Infinitive may also have a subject of its own with which it forms the so-called Absolute Construction with the Infinitive .

The Absolute Construction with the Infinitive is introduced by the preposition “with ”. The Infinitive is used with the particle “to ”.

The Absolute Construction with the Infinitive has the function of adverbial modifier of attending circumstances in the sentence.

Eg. Miss Jillian is bellow, Sir, with a carriage to take you home . – Сэр , мисс Джиллиан находится внизу , с экипажем , который отвезет Вас домой .

There are two parallel actions in this sentence. One of them is expressed by the predicate, the other – by the Infinitive. Each action has its own subject.

The Infinitive Absolute Construction is infrequent and found only in literary style.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion it should be noted that the Predicative Constructions are the constructions consisting of two elements: a nominal (noun or pronoun) and verbal (Participle, Gerund or Infinitive). The verbal element stands in predicate relation to the nominate element, that is to say in a relation similar to that between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In most cases predicative constructions form syntactic units, serving as one part of the sentence.

In English there are three groups of predicative constructions. These are the constructions with Participle, Gerund, and Infinitive.

Participial, Gerundial and Infinitive constructions are highly varied. The structure of some of them is foreign to the Russian language, although their meaning can be fully conveyed in Russian with the help of forms, characteristic of Russian. The constructions are translated into Russian by objective, attributive, adverbial or other subordinate clauses.

The Predicative Constructions with the Infinitive are divided into four types:

1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

2. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction

3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction

4. The Absolute Infinitive.

1. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case. In the sentence this construction has the function of a Complex Object .

2. The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction traditionally called the Nominative-with-the-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or pronoun in the nominative case.

The peculiarity of this construction is that it does not serve as one part of the sentence. One of its component parts has the function of the subject, the other forms part of a compound verbal predicate.

3. The For-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the Infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition “for ”.

In translating this construction into Russian a subordinate clause or an infinitive is used. The construction can have different functions in the sentence. It can be: subject, predicative, attribute, complex, object, adverbial modifier (of result, purpose).

4. The Absolute Construction with the Infinitive is formed by the subject of the Infinitive which in all adverbial functions is the same person or thing as denoted by the subject of the sentence.

The Absolute Construction with the Infinitive is introduced by the preposition “with ”. The Infinitive is used with the particle “to ”. The Absolute Construction with the Infinitive has the function of adverbial modifier of attending circumstances in the sentence.

The Infinitive Absolute Construction is infrequent and found only in literary style. That’s why it is consider that in Modern English there are only three Predicative Constructions.

It should be noted that the Predicative Constructions with the Infinitive are translated into Russian by subordinate clause, but sometimes they can be translated by simple sentence.

Eg. The noise caused her to awake . – От шума она проснулась . (Simple sentence, Objective Infinitive Construction)

Jane is said to resemble me. – Говорят , что Джейн похожа на меняю . (Subordinate clause, Subjective Infinitive Construction)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

E. M. Gordon,

I. P. Crylova

“A Grammar of Present-day of English (Parts of Speech)”

2nd addition revised and enlarged

In Moscow 1980

«Высшая Школа» Москва

2. Каушанская В.Л.

«Грамматика Английского Языка»

(на английском языке)

4-ое издание

Ленинград 1973

Издательство «Просвещение»
3.

Т.М.Новицкая,

Н. Д. Кучин

«Практическая Грамматика Английского Языка»

4-ое издание, исправленное

Мослва «Высшая Школа» 1979

4.

A.J. Thomson,

A.V. Martinet

“A Practical English Grammar”
4th addition
Oxford Universities Press, 1986
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