Problems With Immigration Essay, Research Paper
PROBLEMS WITH IMMIGRATION
The English word migration derives from the Latin verb migrave, meaning to move from one place to another. Migration also means a temporary or permanent change of residence by one or a group of people. (pp. 605 Webster Dictionary) As far back as people can remember there has been a continuing movement of people from one place to another. These people all had different reasons for these migrations. Whether it be from poverty, famine , political persecution, religious reasons, or just for a chance at a better life. Sometimes these reasons will lead to breaking the law known as legal immigration. These numbers of illegal immigration have slowly been rising throughout this century. ( Lee M. Sharon Global Trends In Migration: Theory and Research on International Movements pp. 304-310 )
It has been proven that when ever a country becomes industrialized it attracts vast quantities of workers dramatically affecting immigration. Immigrants have also contributed many different cultures to societies around the world. In the United States official count of immigration began in ,1820. The numbers of immigrants in the United States in 1830 numbered more than twenty thousand. Immigration also increased from sixty thousand a year between 1831-1840 to two hundred sixty thousand immigrants in 1851-1860. Immigration is sometimes encouraged by countries such as after the American civil war, when the labor pools had been depleted from the casualties suffered during the war. After world war two many countries faced severe labor shortages many of them encouraged the emigration of foreign guest workers. ( Muller, Thomas. Immigrants and The American Cities pp. 20-50 )
Between the Russian revolution of 1917 , and 1921 about 15 million Russians fled their homeland for destinations in Europe and the United Sates. In 1920 and 1950’s dissidents and several thousand soviet Jews were allowed to leave mostly to Israel ,and United states. Also in 1989 an estimated forty eight thousand soviet Russian Jews came to the United States. Australia like the united states is a nation of immigrants. But yet their population in the twentieth century was largely from British descent having been a colony from England. ( Richmond H. Anthony Immigration and Ethnicity. pp . 105-115 )
Between 1925 and 1945 about twenty million Chinese migrated to Manchuria and Mongolia after the communist victory in 1949. About two million Chinese went to Hong Kong ,and Twaiwan. In the late 1970’s this pattern of out migration as the Chinese left war torn Indochina to return to their homeland. By 1978 Indochina refugees we’re arriving in large numbers of the more than eight hundred thousand persons who entered the United states in 1980 more than one hundred and fifty thousand we’re refugees. Indo Chinese ,and some one hundred twenty five thousand Cubans were seeking political asylum. From 1981 – 1989 almost 2.5 million people emigrated from Asia and were granted legal permanent residence in the United States. By 1990 the Asian population had increased by one hundred eight percent from its level a decade before. About 5 million immigrants mainly from Europe entered Canada in the ninetieth ,and twentieth century. During same period of time thousands of French Canadians immigrated to the United States in search of better economic opportunities. After world war two Canada’s immigration greatly increased due to Canada’s remarkable post war economic growth. From 1950 – 1959 more than 1.5 million people entered the country. A record was set in 1954 with two hundred eighty two thousand one hundred sixty four arrivals. About one quarter of all European refugees settled in Canada after world war two. In the 1970’s United States had the biggest numbers of incoming illegal immigrants since the total number illegal aliens succeeded that of the legal aliens. ( Sowell Thomas. Migrations and Cultures. pp. 25-40 )
The first era of immigration ended shortly after world war one when some of the first laws against immigration such as the passing of a Quota Act in 1921 by congress. It limited European countries to three percent of the nationality it had in the U.S. in 1910. In 1924 the government lowered the quota to two percent. In 1882 the Chinese exclusion act was passed putting restrictions on Chinese immigration. But the Chinese exclusion act was revoked in 1943. Amendments in 1965 abolished quotas by countries, and then setup limitations by hemispheres. The immigration act of 1990 brought about the most sweeping changes since 1924 many of these we’re focused on correcting imbalances of previous policies. From 1992-1994 the total number of immigrants allowed each year rose up to two hundred thousand four hundred sixty five thousand more of whom where relatives of American citizens or permanent resident aliens then these numbers would drop down to six hundred seventy five thousand in 1995. ( Muller, Thomas. Immigrants and The American Cities pp. 75-78 ,91-95 )
Today illegal immigration is currently becoming a world wide topic. Politicians debate on what to do concerning illegal immigrants. Such as how much money should they spend on preventive measures. In Mexico the Bracero program was terminated because Americans that it limited their opportunities. This program ran from 1942-1964 and found part time jobs for four million Mexicans. Creating a massive surge of illegal Mexicans in the 1970’s. Debating whether or not to even allow any type of immigration. . In 1991-1994 thirty thousand illegal Irish aliens were granted permanent residency. Central American refugees we’re granted 18 month safe haven. In 1991-1994 forty percent of lottery visas we’re set aside for Irish Immigrants. No matter what politicians decide they will probably never stop this flow of immigration.
“Migration is comparable to a flow responding to pressure differentials at opposite ends of a pipeline.”
( Babour, Williams. Illegal Immigration pp. 30-35, 42-43, 51-54 )
Illegal immigration became a growing problem in the United states in the early 1970’s. It is estimated that one half million people entered the country illegally in the 1980’s. Joining the two million immigrants or more already there. In 1986 after much debate the immigration reform and control act was passed ,and signed into law. This act said that anybody found guilty of hiring an illegal immigrant would have jail fines to pay and possible jail term. Because of possible jail terms of people who hired illegal immigrants By 1990 there was a widespread pattern of ethnic discrimination by employers afraid of violating the law unintentionally. Changes in immigration laws affected other groups as well in 1990 many soviet Jews who lacked relative in the United States were negligible for resettlement there and migrated instead to Israel.( Babour, Williams. Illegal Immigration pp. 100-104 )
Large funds of money are spent on law enforcement to prevent border hopping. The border between Mexico and the United States stretches for one thousand nine hundred fifty miles from near Braunsville, Texas In the east to Tijuana, Mexico , San Diego California on the west. I is the longest border in the world separating dire poverty from parallel affluence, and opportunity. Because Mexico has never been able to develop a working and prosperous economy for all its citizens the lure of the north has been powerful. From 1960-1975 largest source of illegal immigrants was Mexico followed by Cuba, the Philippines, Italy, and Taiwan. Estimates are highly inaccurate and vary drastically but it is believed that some where between four to eight million Mexicans relocated to the united states between 1970 and 1985 . An increasing number of highly qualified technicians and professionals have found their way north ward causing a brain drain for Mexico. The landscape also helps influences immigrants. Florida is a natural destination for Cubans been barely ninety miles apart. Very large numbers of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans enters the country to escape poverty. ( Richmond H. Anthony Immigration and Ethnicity. pp . 63-65, 200-210 )
Large companies will often hire illegal immigrants because they do not have to pay them minimum wages thus keeping the prices down. Many people will argue whether or not illegal immigration is beneficial to the United States. they may lower prices by working for big companies those jobs they are taking may cause many to lose their jobs or be replaced by illegal immigrants. Their is even an under ground black market where business men will ship Asian or Hispanics, and force them to work in sweat shops or other manually extensive jobs for scarcely any wages. Sometime it will be years before they can pay off their debts and some just stay after their debts has been paid because there is nowhere else for them to go. Some Americans believe they should allow a certain number of illegal immigrants to pass threw the border since they Americans that immigrants are a vital source of income to farmers or as factory workers. Some farmers also greatly depend on immigrants having little money to spare they often are seeking a source of cheap labor. This labor often refers to menial jobs such as picking strawberries, grapes, onions, or picking rocks out of fields. ( Perez, Tianguis Ramon. Diary of undocumented Immigrants. pp 104-106, 180-184 )
Immigration both legal and illegal have significant effects in the south west. It created what one author called a “third country” in which characteristics of both Mexico and the United states are blended. This third country increases the use of the Spanish language. It also has help revive the Mexican culture in the west. This blending has caused some public outcry. Because both illegal an legal migration only a small percentage of the immigrants speak English. Because of this, people are starting to segregate. Such as privately owned bars for Spanish their own newspapers their own radio ,and television station in fact becoming a third country. Some of the public would like to pass laws forcing immigrants to learn English. But these come in conflict with freedom of speech. (unknown” Immigration Just The Facts” The New York Times March 25, 1996 p. A19 )
The presence of illegal aliens also put a financial strain on the public services offered by the states. The United supreme court ruled in 1982 that states are required to pay for educating the children of illegal aliens. This decision became very unpopular with social services group having to put their funds for the children of illegal immigrants. Many social services are available to illegal aliens at state and local level. Many Americans are getting angry at the government in how they use their taxes to help immigrants. Welfare was a big problem until lately on how a pregnant Mexican women would just have to cross the border then on the United state side of the border ,and go into labor. Law enforcement officers would there for have to take her to the nearest hospital where she would give birth. The tax payers would there fore have to pay for the bill. The baby would then be born a United States citizen. The mother would then be eligible for welfare. If she decides she can always have another baby which the taxpayers would pay for. She would now be receiving more welfare for a second child and this would keep on going, New Welfare Reforms have help eliminate some of these problems. (unknown” Immigration Just The Facts” The New York Times March 25, 1996 p. A19 )
In the mid 1980’s nearly half the Mexican working population was either unemployed or under employed. This condition provided an even greater reason to move north ward. The lack of stable government, and balanced currency contributes greatly to the flow of immigrants coming to the United States. The Mexican communities in the United Sates is continually augmenting do to both legal and illegal immigration. There were in 1990 an estimated two million illegal aliens in the United States, and about 55 percent of which were Mexicans. The south western United States has the biggest problem concerning immigration. According to a survey in 1980 found out that thirty nine percent of the apparel jobs we’re held by illegal immigrants, thirty seven percent in leather foot wear ,and thirty six percent in canned foods. No mater where you go around the world, their will always be people fleeing for their lives or for their welfare. ( Lee M. Sharon Global Trends In Migration: Theory and Research on International Movements pp. 102-110 )
Immigrants are often risking their lives in trying to cross the border by using all sorts of ploys. There were fifteen immigrants who died in an attempt to cross the border. The immigrants all hid inside a big gasoline tank on a gasoline truck. It never occurred to them that the metal container would have heated, and suffocated them. Many Mexicans and Cubans have drowned trying to swim to Florida. Some have crash threw the borders with cars destroying private property injuring some in even killing some.( author unknown New York times Nov. 24, 1997 p. 17 )
Another problem to illegal immigration is that when immigrants sneak across the border they will often be carrying narcotics with them. Mexicans played key roles in bringing drugs to Miami, New York ,and Los Angeles. Because of this the government has had to put extra funding into helicopters for parols. The coast guard is also increasing its patrols in the gulf of Mexico. The coast guard in the gulf does not only have to worry about smugglers about also all the refugees from Cuba and until recently also Haiti. Smugglers will often grab the first immigrant who wants to cross the border. These smugglers will promise them a free ride the border if they will do something for them. If agreed on the favor the smuggler will teach the immigrant a story which he can there for use in requesting for asylum. Once on the other side of the border the immigrant will deliver the smugglers narcotics. Dillan Sam. ” Illegal Immigrants Warned to Stay South ” The Wall Street Record. Jan. 7, 1997, p.3(N) )
New United States studies show that after two years a large majority of immigrants will find themselves back into their native country. Many immigrants have said that once they found themselves in the United States they we’re met by discriminations and racism. Once employers find out that their employees are illegal aliens the aliens are often taken advantage of. Sometimes their wages are so low and working conditions so bad that they just pick and leave towards home. ( Rose Fredericks Wall Street Records, Jan., 29, 1997 p.2 )
Illegal immigration also has led to a new type of business smuggling. This Type of smuggling does not necessarily mean the smuggling of objects of narcotics. This type of smuggling concerns people. These people will sell fake passports ,and means of transportation. This might be beneficial to leave the country but their are times when the immigrants want to come back and visit their loved ones they left behind. A women named Ligi said she paid thirty thousand dollars for a smuggler to get her to New York. Missing her newborn son that she left behind, she arranges to go see a smuggler known as Snakehead. She then pays the smuggler two thousand dollars for a passport labeled replacement. When she arrived back in China and authorities check on her passport they found that the replacement passport was not replacing anything. She was then detained and put in prison. This has been a reoccurring scene at the Chinese ,and Mexican passport checks. This has caused such a problem that the Chinese government has started to place adds in newspapers asking for rewards on these smugglers. ( Lii H. Jane, The New York Times, Many immigrants buy faked passports July, 6 1994 p.A12 )
. American citizens do not appreciate illegal immigrants for the main reason that they are breaking the law by coming here. Most immigrants are industrious but that is no excuse for breaking the law. People also complain that these illegal immigrants are adding to the overcrowding of countries. Americans feel that every illegal immigrant captured should be thrown in jail fined and deported. (Unknown “Illegal Immigrants Add to Population Peril” The New York Times June 19, 1996, p. A14 )
The United States likes to take pride on the fact that we have one of the best economic system, that we’re the most technologically superior, and most powerful, but this is an area where we can observe other countries. Even tough the United states have passed several laws on immigration they still have a way to go. Canada recently passed new laws which allowed their officials to deny political amnesty for eighty five thousand foreign nationals already in Canada claiming political asylum. Another way the united states has tried to stop this migration is naturalization. Naturalization is a formal and legal process by which individuals who are born in one nation become citizens of another. Not event country in the world allows this outsiders to acquire citizenship. The reason for this are usually because of over population or economic under development. ( Sowell Thomas. Migrations and Cultures. pp. 5-12 )
One of the ways to discourage immigrants would be to increase the penalties. The Mexican government and the United States government have not been seeing eye to eye on illegal immigration policies. Their would also be the catching of illegal aliens by rangers patrolling the border. Their could also be motion detectors placed around the Mexican United states border. Stricter laws can be passed concerning unskilled workers. Another way to discourage illegal immigration could be some kind of humiliation. (Unknown “Illegal Immigrants Add to Population Peril” The New York Times June 19, 1996, p. A14 )
A way to decrease the amount of immigration would be to give people no reason to leave in the first place. The United States , and other countries who are suffering from an intake of immigrants should get involve in what ever country the immigrants are coming from. By this the country should pump money and resources in the problematic country. The country should also get involved politically by supporting candidate who support humanitarian issue. Their can also be an embargo place on the country to help motivate them into fixing the problem. Penalties should be raised and fully explained to immigrants trying to illegally cross into another country.( Ricmond H. Anthony Immigration and Ethnicity. pp . 141-147 )
Other solutions would require the government to get directly involved. Mexico could reestablish the Bracero program. This program found temporary jobs for four million Mexicans. If this program could be reactivated a large source of immigrants of immigrants would come back if they could get the same conditions home that they get here. ( Sowell Thomas. Migrations and Cultures. pp. 191-193 )
Another way to deal with immigrants would be cooperating ,or pressuring with the neighboring country causing the immigration overflow. The country should be responsible for its citizen if doing a bad job of controlling its population. All the violations of miss controlling the population can be evaluated by a neutral country. This neutral country would be decided by both countries involved. This evaluation would be paid for by both countries.
Babour, Williams. Illegal Immigration. San Diego California. Greenhaven press, 1986.
Dillan, Sam. ” Illegal Immigrants Warned to Stay South ” Wall Street Records Jan. 7, 1997, p.3(N)
Frederick, C. . Aliens In The Work Place. Boston Mass. press, 1996.
Fredericks, Rose. ” Many Mexicans Don’t Stay Long In U.S., According To New Study” Wall Street Records Jan. 29, 1997, p.2
Lee, M. Sharon. Global Trends In Migration: Theory and Research on International Movements. New York. The Center for Migration studies, 1981
Lii, H. Jane “Many Immigrants Buy Faked Passports ” New York Times July 6, 1994 ,p.A12
Muller, Thomas. Immigrants and The American Cities. Boston Mass. press, 1993.
Perez, Tianguis Ramon. Diary of Undocumented Immigrants. Houston Texas. Arte Publico press, 1991.
Richmond, H. Anthony. Immigration and Ethnicity. New York. New York press, 1972.
Sowell, Thomas. Migrations and Cultures. New York. Basic Books, 1996.
Unknown ” Immigration Just The Facts ” The New York Times March 25, 1996, p. A19
Unknown ” Illegal Immigrants Add to Population Peril ” The New York Times June 19, 1996, p. A14
Unknown ” Four Mexicans Die Swimming U. S. Mexican Border ” The New York times Nov. 24, 1997 p. A17