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Study Guide For European History Or Global

Studies Essay, Research Paper study guide for European History or Global Studies 1. Petrarch.- Called the “Father of all Humanism.” Revered Roman Cicero above all

Studies Essay, Research Paper

study guide for European History or Global Studies

1. Petrarch.- Called the “Father of all Humanism.” Revered

Roman Cicero above all

others. Followed Cicero’s example of elequence and put

emphasis upon language such as

Latin and Greek.

2. Medici.- Wealthy banking family controlling Florence.

Had much influence in

government and influenced The Signoria, the ruling council

in Florence. Created a lasting

dynasty with children who had power.

3. Nepotism.- Keeping Position in the Church within the

family.

4. Peace of Ausburg.- Ended forty years of religous

struggle in Germany. Through the

treaty the emperor of Germany allowed the country to

establish the religion of theri

people. Protestant princes would govern Prtestant states,

Catholic princes Catholic states.

5. Bill of rights.- The English constitutional settlement

of 1689, confirming the deposition

of James II and the accession of William and Mary,

guaranteeing the Protestant

succession, and laying down the principles of parliamentary

supremacy.

6. Edict of Nantes.- An edict of 1598 signed by Henry IV of

France granting toleration to

Protestants and ending the French Wars of Religion. It was

revoked by Louis XIV in

1685.

7. Boccaccio.- Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 75), Italian

writer, poet, and humanist. He is

most famous for the Decameron (1348 58), a collection of a

hundred tales told by ten

young people who have moved to the country to escape the

Black Death.

8. Patronage.- Support given by members of Rennaisance

Society. Founding and

recognizing the arts.

9. Jesuits.- A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman

Catholic order of priests founded

by St Ignatius Loyola, St Francis Xavier, and others in

1534, to do missionary work. The

order was zealous in opposing the Reformation. Despite

periodic persecution it has

retained an important influence in Catholic thought and

education.

10. Thomas More.- More, Thomas (1478-1535). One of the most

respected figures in

English history, Thomas More was a statesman, scholar, and

author. He was noted for his

wit and also for his devotion to his religion. More was

executed as a traitor for his refusal

to acknowledge King Henry VIII’s supremacy over the church.

The story of More’s life

and death became familiar to many through Robert Bolt’s

play, ‘A Man for All Seasons’,

first performed in 1960.

Utopia-greek word meaning,”no place”Plato wrote this

constitution tackling the ultimate

problem of politics,”How should the state be ordered?”His

answere was an image of a just

society, created by a philosopher-king and ruled by hand-

picked body guards.His ideal

state resembles the greek polis in size.Sir Thomas Moore

created a second Utopia, it was

a convincing social satire. his vision at a carefully

planned and permanently contended

society.

Frederick the Great-ruller of Prussia after father

(Frederick I)Frederick the Great had a

great love music, against his father’s will, he secretly

collected any books he could find on

the subject. When he became king, his love of music came

out in the open and he began

to entertain many people. Frederick’s military prowess

earned him his title, “the Great.”He

also forged an alliance w/the Prussian nobility,

interigation the minto a unified state. A

tightly organized control adminstration, which depended

upon the cooperation of the local

nobility directed both military and bureaucratic affairs.

At the center, Frederick worked

tirelessly to oversee his government.Frederick declared, “I

am the state.” “I am the 1st

servant of the state.” He codified the laws of Prussia,

abolished torture and capital

punishment, and instituted agricultural techniques imported

from the states of western

Europe. By the end of Frederick’s reign, Prussia had

become a model for bureaucratic

organization, military reform, and enlightened rule.

Primogeniture-inheritance by eldest son

Adam Smith-he was a Scottish political theorist whose

work,”The Wealth of Nations,”was

the 1st great work of economic analysis in European

history. Smith had wide-ranging

interests and wrote with equal authority about

manufacturing, population, and trade. He

was the 1st to develop the doctrine of free trade, which he

called “laissez-faire.” Smith

argued that the government that governed least governed

best, and he was an early critic

of protective tariffs and monopolies.

Francis Bacon-leading supporter of scientific research in

England. He proposed a

scientific method through inductive empiical

experimantaion. He believed that

experiments should be carefully recorded so that results

were both reliable and repeatable.

he advocated the open world of the scientist over the

secret world of the magician. In his

numerous writings, he stressed the practical impact of

scientific duscivery and even wrote

a utopian work in which science appeared as the savior of

humanity. Although he was not

himself a scientific investigator, Bacon used his

considerable influence to support scientific

projects in England.

Versailles-the greatest palace of the greatest king of the

greatest state in 17th century

Europe. It was a reflection of Louis XIV and of France.

Van Eyck-not found

Michelangelo-Renaissance paiter and sculptor; was

responsible for such great works as the

ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and “David,” a sculpture.

Shakespeare-famous playwriter of the medieval period; his

works inclueded “Macbeth”

and “Hamlet.” Providing entertainment for all and expressed

his views through his plays of

certain situations.

Johann Tetzet-he sold indulgences which inspired Martin

Luther’s 95 theses. Tetzel

answered with 122 of his own but was rebuked and disowned

by the Catholics.

95 Thesis – These were posted by Martin Luther, professor

of theology at Wittenberg

University, on the castle church attacking the sale of

indulgences.

Anglican – the official Protestant Christian religion of

the English state

Humanism – Renaissance intellectualism and celebration of

the human as an individual

Galileo Galilei – Italian astronomer; most famous scientist

of the European new scientific

revolution; credited for telescope and helocentrism (Sun is

central, Earth around Sun) for

which he was placed under house arrest by Church for most

of his life

Huguenots – followers of Calvinsism in Western Europe

Laissez-faire – “self-govern,” the theory of John Locke

that people should govern

themselves and hold the sovereignty

Voltaire – French intellectual; wrote Philosophical Letters

Concerning the English Nation

after visiting England for two years in which he explains

the greatness of religious

tolerance as practiced in England, the theory for which he

is known

Charles I – This ruler of Spain was also Charles V, Holy

Roman Emperor; as a Holy

Roman Emperor, he made peace with Protestants unlike with

Spain

Protestant – Religion based on the original (now known as

Catholic) principles but

changed to form new Christian religion (Protest-ant)

The Prince – Machiavelli wrote this explaining how “men

must either be pampered or

crushed;” most important and contraversal writing of

Renaissance; begins science of

politics

Luther:

-entered Augustinian monastery and ordained priest in 1507

-received doctorate and appointed to theology faculty in

1512

-opposed the sale of indulgences

-wrote doctrine of salvation by faith(sola-fida)

-wrote 95 Thesis (things wrong with Catholic Church)

-excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521

-his religion, Lutheranism challenged Catholic Church

Balance of Power: distribution of power in which no single

nation is able to dominate.

Kepler:

-German astronomer and natural philosopher

-noted for verifying the three laws of planetary motion

(known as Keplers Laws)

-published Cosmographic Mystery in 1596

-Also published Epitome of Copernican Astronomy (book of

Keplers discoveries)

Henry IV:

-King of England (1399-1413)

-Leader of party that opposed King Richard II

-was exiled for six years by King Richard II because of

arguement with Thomas

Mowbray

-raised army, invaded England and captured Richard

-elected king by parliament

-Scot tryed attaching English but were defeated

Fronde:

-series of revolts against french monarchy between 1648-1653

-Louis XIV was king

-parliament and citizens were against the kings heavy

taxation policies

Montesquieu:

-french writer and jurist

-wrote Persian Letters

-it satirized contemporary french politics, social

conditions and eccesiastical matters and

literature

-book was very popular and one of enlightenments earliest

works

William and Mary:

-William revived the Grand Alliance and initiated a massive

land war against France and

Spain

-Mary restored catholism in England

Heliocentric:

-atronomical theory thata the sun is the center of the

solar system

-first postulated by polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicas

Index:

-catalog of forrbidden books

-published by Roman Catholic Church

-if u were to read, sell or transmit any literature w/out

permission u would be

excommunicated

I couldn’t find the word “raison d’ etat”

John Calvin-Founder of Calvinism which is a religion that

was independant of the state,

self governing, and therefore was able to flourish in time

of crisis. Calvinisim emphasized

the beliefs of predestination.

Devine Right Theory-Theory that a King has the right to

rule as stated to him by God.

Isaac Newton-Greatest of all english scientists,

mathematician. Studied physics and

astronomy. Discovered Gravity

Sun King-Louis XIV, Richelou’s successor and Cheif

Administrator

30 Yrs. War-War lasting 30 years, involving the Bohemian

stage, Danish stage, Swedish

phase, and the Frech and Swedish phase. The war ended with

the Peace of Westphalia.

John Locke-Theorist of the Revolution of 1688, Developed

contract theory of Gov’t,

Designed to maintain person’s natural rights of life,

liberty, and property

James II-King of England, Attempted to use his power of

appointment to foil constraints

that Parliament imposed upon him.

Geocentric Theory-The Earth is the center of the Universe

and everything revolves around

it.

Counter Reformation-Rebut taking place after reformation,

Aggressive Catholic response

that was determined to meet Protestantism head on and repel

it. Militant Church

1. Rabelais: I have no idea…couldn’t find em and I

don’t have any idea what he or it has

to do with.

2. Indulgences: (Page 393) A portion of the treasury of

good works performed by the

righteous Christians throughout the ages; granted to those

who desired to atone for their

sins. * Major factor in the reformation. Most of Luther’s

95 Theses attacked the church

and the sale of such Indulgences.

3. Philosophes: (Page 578) (No direct definition) “A

monster in society who feels under

no obligation towards it manners and morals, its

proprieties, its politics, or it’s religion.

One may expect anything from men of their ilk.”

Philosophes saw law (concepts), and

applied the laws to people -> natural rights. They

believed that nature was not in dispute.

4. Peace of Lodi: (Page 344) (1454-Italian Renaissance)

The Five powers (Naples, the

Papal States, Florence, Milan, and Venice) established the

peace. It created 2 balanced

alliances: Florence and Milan, Venice and Naples. The

pledged mutual nonaggression.

The Peace lasted 40 years.

5. Leviathan: (Page 504) Thomas Hobbes greatest work. In

the literature, Hobbes

argues that before civil society had been formed, humans

lived in a savage state of nature.

No morality or law. People then came together to form

government for one purpose:

self-preservation. Hobbes believed that without

government, they were determined to live

a life that was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”

6. Renaissance: (begins on page 322) (1350-1550)

Literally: Rebirth. An era of rapid

transitions. Had three distinct phases: 1: (1350-1400)

Declining population, uncovering

of classical texts and experimentation in a variety of art

2: (1400-1500) Cultural valves

and artistic and literary achievements. City states were

able to form government, slow end

to warfare. 3: (1500-1550) The spreading of ideas

throughout Europe.

7. Machiavelli: (Page 337) Founder of the “Science of

Politics”. Famous for his

controversial work The Prince. This book was to serve as a

handbook for anyone who

wanted to establish a lasting government. It attempts to

set down principles and examples

on how to maintain power. The book was very important as

well as very controversial

during the Renaissance.

8. Hume, David: (Page 581) Scotish Athiest who wrote A

treatise of Human Nature and

An enquiery Concerning Human Understanding. Argued that

nothing could be proved to

exist with any certainty; only perceptions existed. If

their was no certainty, then the

revealed truths of Christian religion could have no basis.

Therefore, no G-d.

9. Puritans: (Page 499, 502) Led by Oliver Cromwell

after the beheading of Charles I.

Believeded in a large measure of religious toleration for

Christians.

10. Mercantilism: (Page 534) A set of assumptions about

ecomomic activity that were

commonly held throughout Europe and that guided the

policies of almost every

govermnent. 2 interrelated ideas: One: wealth of a

nation resided in its stock of precious

metal Two: Ecomonmic activity was a zero-sum game. There

was a fixed mount of

money, number of commodities and amount of conumption.

What one country gained,

another lost.

salons French visiting areas or inns where many

Enlightenment thinkers spread there Ideas

of change to the common man.

salvation by faith this is an idea that Martin Luther

thought of; that you don’t go to

heaven because you were good, but you go to heaven because

of the amount of faith that

you have to god.

nationalism the idea of loving your country or having

extreme pride in one’s country.

copernicus a polish scientist who thought of the idea of

heliocentrism…the sun in the

center of the universe.

louis 14 called the Sun King. Was the High Point in

French Absolutism. Created the

palace Versailles, and started spending a lot of money

which later led to the French

Revolution.

hobbes was an English philosopher who thought that

revolution was not justified unless

the government was not protecting the people from any

physical danger. he did not

believe in private property like Locke did.

glorious revolution was the “revolution”( it wasn’t a

war, not shots were fired, just a term

given to a period) which replaced James II and the Stuart

Monarchy with William and

Mary.

Glorious Revolution also brought about the English Bill of

Rights.

charles 2 was the son of the English King Charles I who

was beheaded. Charles II took

the throne after the Cromwellian Revolution.

council of trent was the Catholic Council which tried to

make reforms to the Catholic

Church after the reformation.

the courtier was an informant to the King. usually of

France. Some examples are

Mazarin, and Richelu.

In Praise of Folly-a satirical book written by Erasmus

(below), information came from

conversations with Thomas More, praised the foolish

comments and declared wise

comments to be wrong

Erasmus-first worked on Latin translations but then

realized the importance of recovering

Greek texts so he dedicated his time to translating Greek

texts. Most of his books were

‘how-to books’. Expanded Christianity to people lower in

the social order

Simony-the buying or selling of church offices

Enlightenment-a period of time when people started to

question traditions, customs, and

standards and started relying on logic and reason, some

main people of the time were:

Diderot, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rene Descartes, Locke,

Hobbes

Inquisition- couldn’t find this one

Richelieu-advisor of Louis XIV’s main advisor, taught Louis

to rule as an absolute

monarch more or less the leader of France because Louis was

so young, he just told him

what to do, led France through many years of war, raised

taxes, but made France very

powerful

Castiglione-Italian author of The Courtier (an etiquette

book telling how to become and

‘ideal state servant’

Secularism-not relating to the church (religion)

Descartes-French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist,

shared many of the same

opinions and mathematical proofs as Galileo, invented

analytic geometry, made

contributions to the science of optics and physics

Oliver Cromwell- the most important leader of the English

Revolution, one of the

principal commanders of the rebel army that defeated the

forces of King Charles I, he

played a leading role in the king’s subsequent trial and

execution named himself Lord

Protector, his primary concerns were to provide a stable

government and to give

toleration to all the Puritan sects

Florence- An Italian city, which was based upon the

foundations of money and wool. The

Medici family, wealthiest family in Florence, often ruled

Florence. Florence was the

center of Renaissance culture, and the wealthiest cities,

until the plague occurred.

Balance of trade- the difference in value between imports

and exports, said to be favorable

to a county when exports are greater.

Treaty of Versailles- Peace treaty between the Allies and

Germany in 1919. It put

limitations on the German army, and the land run and owned

by Germany. The harsh

punishments set upon Germany were not strong enough to

prevent them from striking

again 20 years later.

Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty ending the thirty years war in

1648. Series of agreements

that established the outlines of political geography of

Europe.

Gutenberg (1400-68)- German printer who was the first to

print with movable type.

Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable type

in Mainz Germany.

The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defense of

Christianity from the charge

that the disaster resulted from Rome abandoning its

traditional gods. Became a inquiry

into the nature of human society.

Rousseau- A French philosopher and social reformer who

published several books,

especially The Social Contract. He was part of the

Enlightenment.

Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)- Spanish ecclesiastic; founder

of the Society of Jesus.

Loyola’s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.

James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was not a

lovable monarch but he was

generous. He was not liked cause he succeeded a legend and

he was Scottish. Was King

of England and Ireland from 1603-1625.

????–> need help for this one Cervantes- Spanish novelist.

(1547-1616)

Florence- An Italian city, which was based upon the

foundations of money and wool. The

Medici family, wealthiest family in Florence, often ruled

Florence. Florence was the

center of Renaissance culture, and the wealthiest cities,

until the plague occurred.

Balance of trade- the difference in value between imports

and exports, said to be favorable

to a county when exports are greater.

Treaty of Versailles- Peace treaty between the Allies and

Germany in 1919. It put

limitations on the German army, and the land run and owned

by Germany. The harsh

punishments set upon Germany were not strong enough to

prevent them from striking

again 20 years later.

Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty ending the thirty years war in

1648. Series of agreements

that established the outlines of political geography of

Europe.

Gutenberg (1400-68)- German printer who was the first to

print with movable type.

Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable type

in Mainz Germany.

The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defense of

Christianity from the charge

that the disaster resulted from Rome abandoning its

traditional gods. Became a inquiry

into the nature of human society.

Rousseau- A French philosopher and social reformer who

published several books,

especially The Social Contract. He was part of the

Enlightenment.

Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)- Spanish ecclesiastic; founder

of the Society of Jesus.

Loyola’s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.

James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was not a

lovable monarch but he was

generous. He was not liked cause he succeeded a legend and

he was Scottish. Was King

of England and Ireland from 1603-1625.

secularism the idea that there is a separation of Church

and of nature. The movement

away the church and more toward science and technology for

ideas on man and nature.

Descartes French philosopher, mathematician, and

scientist, transferred European Ideas

from that of the Medieval Ages to those of more modern

characteristics.

Oliver Crumble was the English Lord Protector during the

Cromwellian Revolution

between the reigns of Charles I and Charles II. He set up

a Protestant Commonwealth,

which the people of England objected to. His reign did not

last long, and soon the people

forced the government to change back to the Absolute

Monarchy.

Black Death- time between 1347 and 1352 when 1/2 to 1/3 of

Europe’s population died

from a combination of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic

plague–the disease was carried

by fleas who bit into infected rats and came to Italy from

Asia on a merchant vessel.

Natural Rights- rights that every human is entitled to such

as the right to breath

Catherine the Great- ruled from 1762-1796–her policies

were complex and were

influenced by the French ideas of social justice and

nobility of the human race but were

also influenced by the traditional Russian ideals of an

absolute rule–the most important

event of her reign was the establishment of a legislative

commission to review the laws of

Russia

The Social Contract- one of the most important works of

social theory and was written

by enlightenment philosphe, Rousseau

Diderot- editor of “The Encyclopedia,” which was one of the

greatest achievements of the

time–it attempted to summarize all acquired knowledge know

at the time

Versalius- a great palace in France for King Louis XIV–

palace had huge gardens,

fountains and life size statues

da Vinci- one of the famous painters of the Renaissance

whose achievements also included

scientific and technical endeavors–his most famous

paintings were “The Last Supper” and

“The Mona Lisa”

“Eternal City”- i need help with this one

Peter Breugel- a painter form Belgium who painted themes of

country landscape and

peasant life

Habsburg- allies of the Luxenbourgs and begun as a minor

comitial family in the region of

the Black forest–they aquired territory from the east and

when Rudolf I of Habsburg was

elected emperor he was later dismissed as “poor”

Spanish Armada- comprised of over 130 ships, pride of the

Spanish Armada

and Portuguese navies. These ships were bigger and

stronger than anything

owned by the English. However, the English ships were

faster and more

manuevarable. With these advantages, the English prevented

the Spanish from

reaching the ports in the Netherlands and destroying

individual ships.

Hohenzollern- name of a European dynasty whose ruling line

became electors

of Brandenburg, Kings of Prussia, and emperors of Germany.

Deist- believed in the existence of God on rational

grounds only. Believed

that nature conformed to its own materialistic laws and

operated without

divine intervention. The opposed the ritual forms of both

Catholic and

Protestant worship and the role of the Church in education.

Low Countries – region in northwest Europe lying on the

coast of the North

Sea between France and Germany. Netherlands, Belgium, and

Luxembourg.

Albrecht Durer- German artist; marveled at the subtle

ingenuity of the men

in those distant lands after viewing a display of Aztec

art.

Physiocrats- group of French thinkers; thought that land

was wealth and

argued that agricultural activity should take first

priority in state

reforms. They also came to believe that the gov t should

cease to intervene

with private economic activity. Laissez faire, laissez

passer. ( Let it

be, Let it go. )

Encyclopedia- edited by Dierot, 35 volumes; attempted to

summarize all

acquired knowledge and to dispose of all imposed

superstitions.

Candide- written by Voltaire; philosophical novel that

recounts the

adventures and misfortunes of Candide, and satirizing

optimism by his tutor

Pangloss

Alexander the Great- King of Macedonia; conquered Persian

empire and

annexed it into Macedonia; conquered almost all the then

known world and

gave new direction to history.

Enlightened despot- a king that believes in the ideas of

the Enlightenment

The Divine Comedy- written by Dante; view of the whole

Christian universe;

Dante s personal summary of all that is good and bad in

medieval culture and

politics.

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