I. Read and translate the phrases:
Ocean marine insurance, cargo, hull, shipowner, protection, loss, damage, indemnity, perils, stranding, sinking, fire, collision, coverage, liability, policy, warehouse, danger, general averaging, custody, care, injury, crew, pier, dock, underwater cables, pollution, premium, marine repair, facility, shipyards, riots, underwriter, commodity, craft, maintenance of a vessel, waterborne, clause, shipper, transaction, insurer,
2. Read and translate the paragraph about marine insurance.
Marine Insurance is insurance that generally applies to the risk associated with the transportation of goods. Over time, marine insurance has become a mixture of broad property coverages. These coverages are divided between land risks (inland marine) and sea risks (ocean marine). Inland marine insurance covers domestic risks associated with some element of transportation. It has been broadened to include perils incidental to transportation of property and now deals mostly with personal and commercial property of a mobile nature. Its most familiar form is the personal articles "floater," which offers an opportunity to insure many valuables, such as jewelry, furs, silverware, and fine arts, in a single policy.
Read the text A) think of the most suitable heading, B) write the
Ocean marine insurance is broken into three basic types: hull (involving loss or damage to the ship); cargo (involving loss or damage to cargoes); and protection and indemnity (involving liability of shipowners to others).
Hull insurance affords protection to owners of all types of ships for loss or damage to their waterborne property. Typical perils insured against are stranding, sinking, fire, and collision. The hull policy offers an unusual coverage under its collision clause, which provides liability insurance for loss or damage to the other vessel involved in a collision, as well as to its cargo.
Cargo insurance is available for shippers of goods moving by sea or air in international trade. The terms of insurance can be specific (for example, loss or damage resulting from sinking or fire) or "all risk" and can be underwritten for a single transaction (special policy) or on an open-ended contract (open cargo policy) for the international trader. The open cargo policy is the most common form used and usually covers the cargo "warehouse to warehouse," thus including exposure to those risks that are associated with land transportation as well.
When a ship is imperiled at sea because of fire, storm or other danger, all efforts must be made to keep the ship afloat. Such efforts often cause damage to portions of the ship or cargo. To prevent inequity, each owner assumes a share of the property damaged or lost as a result of actions taken to save the ship. This method of apportioning losses is known as general averaging.
Protection and indemnity (called P & I) insurance protects the vessel owners against their liability for damage to cargo in their care and custody;
death or injury to passengers, crew, cargo loaders, and others; damage caused to piers, docks, underwater cables, and bridges; and, more recently, damage caused by pollution.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What does ocean marine insurance include?
2. What is hull insurance?
3. When is cargo insurance available?
4. What does protection and indemnity insurance protect?
5. Read the text and define the main idea.
Other forms of related coverages are included in ocean marine insurance, such as miscellaneous liability policies for owners of piers, docks, marine repair facilities, marinas, and shipyards. Policies on yachts can be underwritten by an ocean marine insurer (usually for larger pleasure craft), providing property and liability insurance in one policy. Powerboats and smaller pleasure craft are more often insured by inland marine insurers. Builder's risk insurance is available to cover damage to a ship under construction.
Common exclusions found in marine insurance policies are loss or damage resulting from strikes, riots, civil commotions, and war. These risks can be, and frequently are, insured through use of endorsements for additional premiums.
Ocean marine insurance rates and policy forms are not regulated by any government authority. Coverage can be tailored to suit the individual needs of ship and cargo owners, and rates are based on the underwriter's experience and judgment in a competitive worldwide marketplace.
Underwriters consider many factors in setting terms and rates for a risk. Factors common to all marine policies are the underwriter's experience with a commodity or vessel, the cargo owner's or shipowner's loss history, and current competition in the industry. Important factors relating to the ship include owner management, crew experience, trade routes, ports frequented, and age and maintenance of a vessel.
III. Documents of Title (Товарораспорядительные документы)
1. Translate the phrases.
Delivery, promise, payable, bearer, drawer, bill of exchange, claim, receipt, to certify, loading, terms of contract, carrier, consignor, port of destination, to transport the goods, obligation, to store, transfer, mate's receipt, dock receipt, transferor, holder, validity, on demand, order.
promissory note, determinable, defenses, to be turned in, valuable, party, intention, to pass, to create, on sight.
2. Read the text and translate the text.
Negotiable Instruments are contracts in writing. They are transferable by endorsement or by delivery. In order to be negotiable, an instrument must meet several qualifications: it must be in writing; it must contain an unconditional promise to pay a certain sum in money, on demand or at a fixed and determinable future time; it must be made payable to bearer or order; and it must be signed by the maker of a promissory note or the drawer of a bill of exchange.
3. Read the text and answer the questions:
1. What documents are called documents of title?
2. What is a bill of lading?
3. What document is issued on receiving the goods alongside or on
4. What does the bill of lading incorporate?
What is a warehouse receipt?
Documents of title
Whereas negotiable instruments embody a claim for the payment of money, documents of title embody claims to goods. The most common documents are the bill of lading and the warehouse receipt. A bill of lading is a receipt for goods delivered for transportation by a ship. On receiving the goods alongside or on board, a dock or mate's receipt is issued. Then it is turned in for the bill of lading proper. The bill of lading may certify receipt of the goods either on board the ship ("shipped on board") or alongside ("received for shipment"). This latter form of bill of lading is less valuable since it does not prove the fact and date of loading. Apart from proving receipt of the goods to be shipped, the bill of lading incorporates the terms of the contract concluded between the carrier and the consignor for the transportation of the goods to the port of destination. The warehouse receipt is a document that shares the essential traits of a bill of lading. But the duty to transport the goods is replaced by an obligation to store them. This receipt also embodies the claim for delivery of the goods and may, (if made out to order) be transferred by endorsement and delivery.
4. Translate the text.
Draft (finance) is written order for the payment of money. It is drawn by one person, directing a second person or financial institution to pay a
third person. A draft is called a check when it is drawn on a bank. When money is transferred between institutions in different countries, a draft is called a bill of exchange. Whereas bills of exchange are always negotiable, drafts may be nonnegotiable. A draft is payable on sight or on demand; however, in some transactions drafts are often payable at a stated date in the future.
5. Read the text A) think of the suitable heading, B) write the summary.
The consignee (the person to whom the goods are being shipped) may, by virtue of the bill of lading, demand delivery of the transported goods at the port of destination. In the simplest case the consignor sends the bill of lading by airmail to the consignee so that the latter may claim the goods on the arrival of the ship. The carrier may only deliver the goods to a person holding a duly negotiated bill of lading.
A bill of lading and the claim it represents may be transferred to another person by endorsement and delivery of the document.
If made out to bearer (which happens rarely), the bill may even be transferred by mere delivery. By such transfer all the rights and obligations embodied in the document are transferred to the new holder. The latter is entitled to demand delivery of the goods unless the carrier proves that the holder knew or through gross negligence was unaware of the transferor's lack of title to the bill. In contrast with the rules on negotiable instruments, an endorsement of a bill of lading does not make the endorser liable for any default of the carrier or previous endorsers. The bill represents the goods, and transfer of the bill is, therefore, equivalent to delivery of the goods to the transferee. It depends on the intention of the parties whether ownership in the goods or merely a security interest in them is to be transferred. A security interest is typically acquired by a bank, which gives credit on the security of the shipped goods. The above rules on bills of lading, though not formally unified, are essentially the same in all the seafaring nations. Most of them apply also to bills of lading issued in river navigation.
ЧАСТЬ 6. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №4
Вариант 11. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов перепишите и переведите на русский язык.
Образец : to consign - consigning - отправляющий
То deal, to couple, to convey, to drive, to draw, to enter, to examine, to expand, to fasten, to control.
2. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие
Образец : a broken cup разбитая чашка
Worn out parts, delivered weight, landed weight, worked out cargo plan, unexecuted plan, unexpected circumstances, insured accident, unsolicited offer, unsold goods, thrown out claim.
3. Переведите и перепишите следующие словосочетания, обращая
внимание на Infinitive.
Образец: texts to be typed тексты, которые след yem напечатать
Tо send the letter to inform them, the experiment to be carried out, a conference to participate in, to use powerful machinery to assemble huge parts, new branches to be developed.
4. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст:
I. The Hague Rules signed at the Brussels Convention in 1924 govern liability for loss or damage to cargo carried by sea under a bill of lading, and state that the carrier will not be responsible under the following conditions:
Acts of war, riots, civil disturbances;
Force majeure, i.e. exceptional dangers such as storms, abnormal disturbances, or unusual hazards;
Negligence, i.e. when the goods have not been properly packed, or were in a bad condition when packed;
Inherent vice, i.e. when goods are subject to deterioration because of their content or nature. For example, fish can go bad, wood can carry insects, metal can oxidize.
2. The Hamburg Rules of 1978 have extended the shipping companies' liability for damage or delay to goods their charge' unless they can prove they took all measures to avoid problems. To be safe, the most companies insure their consignments under all risk cover, which protects them against most contingencies, but special "war insurance' is necessary for particularly dangerous zones.
5. Найдите в тексте причастия, определите их форму и функцию
6. Найдите в тексте
Infinitive, определите форму и функцию
7. Составьте аннотацию к тексту в письменном виде.
8. Прочитайте текст и письменно составьте аннотацию.
Перевозчик несет имущественную ответственность (в виде неустойки, штрафа, возмещения убытков) в случае невыполнения плана перевозки грузов, несохранности принятого к перевозке груза, просрочки его доставки, утраты, недостачи, порчи или повреждения принятого к перевозке багажа, несоблюдения сроков доставки, увечья или иного повреждения здоровья, причинённого пассажиру, и др. Всякого рода требования клиента оформляются в виде претензии, предъявляемой им к перевозчику. В случае её отклонения или оставления без ответа в течение срока, установленного законом, клиент вправе обратиться с иском к перевозчику в суд или арбитраж. Обстоятельства, явившиеся основанием для предъявления претензии, оформляются коммерческими актами.
Вариант 21. Образуйте Participle I от следующих глаголов перепишите и переведите па русский язык.
Образец : to consign consigning отправляющий
То fall, to govern, to head, to inspect, to handle, to issue, to lift, to inhale, to install, to inspect.
2. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие
Образец : a broken cup - разбитая чашка
Anticipated profit, fixed price, pledged goods, intaken weight, unfulfilled commitment, confirmed letter of credit, accepted draft, a concluded contract, entered ship, frozen cargo.
3. Переведите и перепишите следующие словосочетания, обращая
внимание на Infinitive.
Образец: texts to be typed тексты, которые следует напечатать
The house to he built, to work hard to pass the exam, to construct the bridge to connect two towns, a book to read, methods to be used.
4. Прочитайте и письменно переведите весь текст:
MARINE INSURANCE POLICIES
All consignments can be covered against all risks in the form of a valued or unvalued policy. These policies will fall under five main headings:
- Time policy. It insures goods or the vessel for twelve months, e.g. 1
May 1993 to 30 April 1994.
- Voyage policy. It covers the cargo on a voyage from, say, London to
- Mixed policy. It covers a voyage from A to В and then for a further
period of time. This may be used when a ship is going from Southampton to
Bermuda, then doing a series of trips from Bermuda to ports along the North