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Грамматика английского языка Морфология. Синтаксис

Н. А. КОБРИНА, Е. А. КОРНЕЕВА, М. И. ОССОВСКАЯ, К. А. ГУЗЕЕВА ТИКА НГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫК Морфология. Синтаксис СОЮЗ С.-ПЕТЕРБУРГ 1999 81.2 Англ. Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева, М. И. Оссовская, К. А. Гузеева


Н. А. КОБРИНА, Е. А. КОРНЕЕВА,

М. И. ОССОВСКАЯ, К. А. ГУЗЕЕВА

ГР А ММ А ТИКА А НГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫК А

Морфология. Синтаксис

СОЮЗ

С.-ПЕТЕРБУРГ

1999

ББК 81.2 Англ.

К 85

Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева, М. И. Оссовская, К. А. Гузеева

К 85

Грамматика английского языка: Морфология. Синтаксис. Учебное пособие для студентов

педагогических институтов и университетов по специальности № 2103 "Иностранные языки". - СПб., СОЮЗ, 1999. - 496 с.

ЛР № 065425 от 30.09.97

ISBN 5-87852-108-3

Пособие представляет собой второе дополненное и переработанное издание ранее изданного курса практической грамматики в двух частях - Морфология (М., Просвещение, 1985) и Синтаксис (М., Просвещение, 1986).

Пособие было допущено Министерством просвещения СССР в качестве учебного пособия для студентов педагогических институтов по специальности №2103 "Иностранные языки".

Рецензенты:

Кафедра грамматики английского языка Минского ГПИИЯ;

профессор М. Я. Блох (МГПИ им. В. И. Ленина)

Авторы уделяют особое внимание тем грамматическим явлениям, которые не имеют аналогов в русском языке.

Оригинал-макет

Подготовила

К. П. Орлова

© Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева,

М. И. Оссовская, К, А. Гузеева

© "СОЮЗ", 1999

© В. А. Гореликов, оформление

обложки, 1999

Новелла Александровна Кобрина, Елена Александровна Корнеева,

Мария Ильинична Оссовская , Ксения Александровна Гузеева

ГРАММАТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Морфология. Синтаксис

Учебное пособие

Подписано в печать 25 июля 1999 г. Формат 70х1001 /16.

Гарнитура «Таймс». Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная.

Объем: 31,0 печ. л. Тираж 10 000 экз. Заказ № 830.

Издательство «СОЮЗ»

195197, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Васенко, 6.

Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов

в ГИПК «Лениздат» (типография им. Володарского)

Государственного комитета РФ по печати.

191023, Санкт-Петербург, наб. р. Фонтанки, 59.

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее пособие дает достаточно полное и систематическое описание строя современного английского языка, подробно излагая разделы грамматики, предусмотренные Программой Министерства просвещения СССР для студентов I-III курсов факультетов и отделений английского языка педагогических институтов. Задача пособия состоит в том, чтобы дать студентам практическое знание грамматического строя английского языка, необходимое для владения языком.

Основной материал учебника излагается с позиций современной английской литературной грамматической нормы, однако фиксируются и американские варианты, а также коллоквиализмы и архаические формы, используемые в поэзии.

Каждой новой теме предпосылаются краткие сведения, дающие общую характеристику описываемого явления.

Пройденный материал рекомендуется закреплять сериями упраж­нений, среди которых значительное место должны занимать упражне­ния коммуникативного типа.

Для удобства пользования весь материал учебника разделен на параграфы, имеющие сквозную нумерацию.

Основной иллюстративный материал почерпнут из англо-амери­канской литературы последних десятилетий.

Пособие было апробировано в течение нескольких лет на ан­глийском отделении факультета иностранных языков РГПУ им. А. И. Герцена.

Авторы

INTRODUCTION

The grammatical system of English, like that of any other language, possesses its own peculiar features.

The English language has comparatively few grammatical inflections. They are the plural and the Genitive case endings of some nouns, the com­parative degree endings of some adjectives and adverbs; personal inflections of verbs are confined to the third person singular and the opposition of the forms was - were. What is most characteristic of these inflections in com­parison with Russian is that they are more unified. Thus the plural ending -s in nouns is used with the majority of count nouns. The few exceptions (such as tooth - teeth, goose - geese, child - children, ox - oxen ) are regarded as obsolete forms.

In the sphere of the verb, however, many complications arise, as there is no such regularity among the past tense and participle II forms. Some of them are formed with the inflection -ed (help - helped – helped ) , others by means of root vowel change (bring - brought - brought, come - came - come ). The latter are considered as irregular verbs.

Alongside synthetic forms, the verb has an elaborate system of analytical forms (most of the tense, aspect and perfect forms, the passive voice forms, most of the subjunctive mood forms). The analytical forms, include an auxiliary verb, as the bearer of the grammatical meaning, and a notional part: has gone, was sent, would like, to be posted, being done, having been done, etc.

Many words are not inflected at all: most adjectives and adverbs, modal words, statives, non-count nouns, conjunctions, prepositions, particles and interjections. Moreover, most words are devoid of any word-forming (derivational) morphemes which would show that they belong to a certain class. This lack of morphological distinctions between the classes accounts for the fact that a great number of words (both notional and functional words) may easily pass from one class to another, their status being determined mainly syntactically, by their function in the sentence. The prevailing role of syntax over morphology is also revealed in the fact that words, phrases and clauses may be used in the same functions.

The order of elements in the English sentence is fixed to a greater degree than in inflected languages (as the Russian language). The order subject - predicate - object is most characteristic of statements, and any modi­fication of it is always justified by either stylistic or communicative conside­rations. Attributes may precede or follow head-word, the first pattern be­ing more usual. The most mobile element in the sentence is the adverbial, but that can be explained by its reference to different parts of the sentence.

A most peculiar feature of English is a special set of words employed as structural substitutes for a certain part of speech: noun substitutes (one, that), the verb substitute (do), the adverbs and adjective substitute (so).

Morphology

PARTS OF SPEECH

§ 1. All the words of the English language are grouped into different types of classes. This classification is based on three main principles:

1) their grammatical meaning;

2) their form and

3) their syntactical characteristics.

By the first we understand the meaning common to all the words of the class, such as thingness for the noun or either process or state for the verb.

By the second we mean the morphological characteristics of the class meant, such as the number of the noun or the voice of the verb.

By the third - the combinability and the syntactical functions of a type of word.

We distinguish between notional and functional parts of speech: the former denoting extralinguistic phenomena such as things, actions, qualities, emotions and the latter - relations and connections between notional words or sentences. Thus there are 9 notional parts of speech and 3 functional ones.

The notional parts

of speech are:

The functional parts

of speech are:

the noun

the adjective

the stative

the pronoun

the numeral

the verb

the adverb

the modal words

the interjection

the preposition

the conjunction

the particle

THE VERB

§ 2. Most verbs denote action or state. However, there are some verbs which have other meanings. They are modal verbs, causative verbs, some impersonal verbs, relational and link-verbs . They present a system of finite and non-finite forms, except for modal verbs, which have no non-finite forms.

The verb in its finite forms possesses the morphological categories of person, number, tense, aspect, perfect, voice and mood. Its syntactical function is that of the predicate.

The non-finite forms (or verbals) are four in number, they are: the infinitive, the gerund, participle I and participle II.

Non-finite verb forms possess the verbal categories of perfect, voice and to a certain extent aspect. Owing to the richness of its morphological catego­ries, the flexibility of its syntactical functioning and wide combinability, the verb is of the greatest importance in the structure of the sentence.

The morphological categories of the verb are interrelated, that is every verb form expresses all these categories simultaneously.

Formation of verb categories

§ 3. English morphological categories are formed in two ways, synthetically and analytically.

Synthetic or simple forms are those the formal elements of which are to be found within one word from which they are inseparable. These are the present and the past indefinite affirmative (sing, sings, sang ); the non-perfect common aspect forms of the infinitive, participle I, the gerund, participle II (sing, singing, sung ); the imperative mood (sing! ).

Analytical or compound verb forms consist of at least two verbal elements, an auxiliary verb and a notional verb; the latter is presented by participle I, participle II, or the infinitive.

An auxiliary verb is devoid of its lexical meaning, its role is purely grammatical. It may be finite or non-finite, thus showing whether the whole verb form is finite or non-finite as in:

Jane is singing.

Someone seems to be singing in the next room.

The auxiliary verbs in English are not numerous, they are seven: to do, to be, to have, shall, will, should, would.

The notional verb of a compound verb form is always non-finite, it carries the lexical meaning of the whole verb form.

The analytical verb forms are the forms of the continuous aspect, the perfect forms, the passive forms, the future forms, the future in the past forms, some forms of the subjunctive mood, the interrogative, negative and emphatic forms of the present and past indefinite.

The meaning of the analytical form as a whole is the result of the complete fusion of the auxiliary and the non-finite form.

Morphological composition

§ 4. According to their morphological composition verbs can be divided into simple, derivative, compound and phrasal.

Simple verbs consist of only one root morpheme: to ask, to build, to come.

Derivative verbs are composed of one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes and suffixes). The main verbforming suffixes are -ize, -fy, -en, -ate , as in: to criticize, to justify, to blacken, to enumerate.

Compound verbs consist of at least two stems: to overgrow, to undertake .

Phrasal verbs consist of a verbal stem and an adverbial particle, which is sometimes referred to as postposition. The adverbial meaning is evident in phrasal verbs of the type to come in, to look out , whereas it is quite lost in the verbs to give up, to give in, to bring up.

Basic verb forms

§ 5. Among the synthetic verb forms there are those which are used independently and those which are used to build other verb forms. They are four in number:

the infinitive

the past indefinite

participle II

participle I

- work, rise;

- worked, rose;

- worked, risen;

- working, rising.

The infinitive stem and participles I and II are employed to build other verbal forms.

The past indefinite is the only basic form that is not used to build other forms.

Regular and irregular verbs

§ 6. Owing to the historical development of the verb system the English verbs fall into two groups: regular and irregular verbs.

The regular verbs, which go back to the Germanic weak verbs, constitute the largest group. The past indefinite and participle II of these verbs are formed by means of the dental suffix -ed added to the stem of the verb. This is the productive pattern according to which all new verbs form their past indefinite and participle II.

The irregular verbs form their past indefinite and participle II according tо some fixed traditional patterns going back partly to the Germanic strong verbs, partly to the weak verbs, which underwent some changes in the process of history.

The irregular verbs are about 250 in number. They can be arranged according to sound changes.

The list of irregular verbs arranged according to sound changes

Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Participle II

Translation

1

2

3

4

[ɪ]

[æ]

[ʌ]

begin [bɪgɪn]

began [bɪ'gæn]

begun [bɪ'gʌn]

начинать

drink [dnɪŋk]

drank [dræŋk]

drunk [drʌŋk]

пить

ring [rɪŋ]

rang [гæŋ]

rung [rʌŋ]

звонить

shrink [∫rɪnk]

shrank [sræŋk]

shrunk [∫rʌŋk]

сокращать(ся)

sing [sɪŋ]

sang [sæŋ]

sung [sʌŋ]

петь

sink [sɪŋk]

sank [sæŋk]

sunk [sʌŋk]

тонуть

spring [sprɪŋ]

sprang [spræŋ]

sprung [sprʌŋ]

прыгать

stink [stɪŋk]

stank [stæŋk]

stunk [stʌŋk]

вонять

swim [swɪm]

swam [swæm]

swum [swʌm]

плавать

[ɪ]

[ʌ]

[ʌ]

dig [dɪg]

dug [dʌg]

dug [dʌg]

копать

fling [flɪn]

flung [flʌŋ]

flung [flʌŋ]

кидать(ся)

spin [spɪn]

spun [spʌn]

spun [spʌn]

прясть

stick [stɪk]

stuck [stʌk]

stuck [stʌk]

втыкать

sting [stɪŋ]

stung [stʌŋ]

stung [stʌŋ]

жалить

swing [swɪŋ]

swung [swʌŋ]

swung [swʌŋ]

качать(ся)

win [wɪn]

won [wʌn]

won [wʌn]

побеждать

wring [rɪŋ]

wrung [гʌŋ]

wrung [rʌŋ]

скручивать

[ɪ]

[æ]

[æ]

sit [sɪt]

sat [sæt]

sat [sæt]

сидеть

spit [spɪt]

spat [spæt]

spat [spæt]

плеватъ(ся)

[i:]

[e]

[e]

bleed [bl:d]

bled [bled]

bled [bled]

кровоточить

breed [bri:d]

bred [bred]

bred [bred]

выводить, разводить

(животных )

feed [fi:d]

fed [fed]

fed [fed]

кормить

lead [li:d]

led [led]

led [led]

вести

meet [mi:t]

met [met]

met [met]

встречать(ся)

read [ri:d]

read [red]

read [red]

читать

speed [spi:d]

sped [sped]

sped [sped]

спешить

[е]

get [get]

[ɔ]

got [gɔt]

[ɔ]

got [gɔt]

получать

[æ]

hang [hæŋ]

[ʌ]

1) hung [hʌŋ]

2) hanged [hæŋd]

[ʌ]

hung [hʌŋ]

hanged [hæŋd]

вешать

вешать (казнить )

[aɪ]

bind [baɪnd] ]

find [faɪnd]

grind [graɪnd]

wind [waɪnd]

[au]

bound [baund]

found [faund]

ground [graund]

wound [waund]

[au]

bound [baund]

found [faund]

ground [graund]

wound [waund]

связывать

находить

молоть

виться

[aɪ]

light [laɪt]

slide [slaɪd]

[ɪ]

lit [lɪt]

slid [slɪd]

[ɪ]

lit [lɪt]

slid [slɪd]

светить, зажигать

скользить

[aɪ]

shine [∫aɪn]

[ɔ]

shone [∫ɔ n]

[ɔ]

shone [∫ɔn]

светить, сиять

[aɪ]

fight [faɪt]

[ɔ:]

fought [f ɔ:t]

[ɔ :]

fought [f ɔ:t]

бороться

[aɪ]

strike [straɪk]

[ʌ]

struck [strʌk]

[ʌ]

struck [strʌk]

ударять(ся)

[ou]

hold [hould]

[e]

held [held]

[e]

held [held]

держать

[u:]

shoot [∫u:t]

[ɔ]

shot[∫ɔ t]

[ɔ]

shot [∫ɔ t]

стрелять

[i:]

creep [kri:p]

keep [ki:p]

leap [li:p]

[e]

crept [krept]

kept [kept]

leapt [lept]

leaped

[e]

crept [krept]

kept [kept]

leapt [lept]

leaped

ползать

держать

прыгать

[i:]

sweep [swi:p]

sleep [sli:p]

weep [wi:p]

[e]

swept [swept]

slept [slept]

wept [wept]

[e]

swept [swept]

slept [slept]

wept [wept]

мести,

подметать

спать

плакать,

рыдать

[e]

[ou]

[ou]

sell [sel]

sold [sould]

sold [sould]

продавать

tell [tel]

told [tould]

told [tould]

говорить

[i:]

[e]

[e]

flee [fli:]

fled [fled]

fled [fled]

бежать,

спасаться

бегством

[ɪǝ]

[ǝ:]

[ǝ:]

hear [hɪǝ]

heard [hǝ:d]

heard [hǝ:d]

слышать

[eɪ]

[e]

[e]

say [seɪ]

said [sed]

said [sed]

говорить,

сказать

[i:]

[e]

[e]

deal [di:l]

dealt [delt]

dealt [delt]

раздавать,

распределять

dream [dri:m]

dreamt [dremt]

dreamed

dreamt [dremt]

dreamed

видеть сны; мечтать

feel [fi:l]

felt [felt]

felt [felt]

чувствовать

kneel [ni:l]

knelt [nelt]

knelt [nelt]

преклонять

колени

lean [li:n]

leant [lent]

leant [lent]

наклоняться

mean [mi:n]

meant [ment]

meant [ment]

значить

[aɪ]

[ɔ :]

[ɔ :]

buy [baɪ]

bought [bɔ :t]

bought [b ɔ:t]

покупать

[i:]

[e]

[e]

leave [li:v]

left [left]

left [left]

покидать

[u:]

[ɔ ]

[ɔ]

lose [lu:z]

lost [lɔst]

lost [lɔst]

терять

[aɪ]

[ou]

[I]

drive [draɪv]

drove [drouv]

driven ['drɪvn]

вести, ехать

(в экипаже,

автомобиле

и т. д.)

ride [raɪd]

rode [roud]

ridden [ 'rɪdn]

ехать верхом

rise [raɪz]

rose [rouz]

risen [ 'rɪzn]

подниматься,

вставать

write [raɪt]

4 f\

wrote [rout]

written ['rɪtn]

писать

[aɪ]

flу [flaɪ]

[u:]

flew [flu:]

[ou]

flown [floun]

летать

[i:]

freeze [fri:z]

speak [spi:k]

steal [sti:l]

weave [wi:v]

[ou]

froze [frouz]

spoke [spouk]

stole [stoul]

wove [wouv]

[ou]

frozen ['frouzn]

spoken [ spoukǝn]

stolen ['stoulǝn]

woven [ 'wouvǝn]

морозить

разговаривать

красть

ткать

[eɪ]

break [breɪk]

[ou]

broke [brouk]

[ou]

broken ['broukǝn]

ломать

[e]

forget [fǝ'get]

[ ɔ]

forgot [fǝ'gɔt]

[ ɔ]

forgotten [fǝ'gɔtǝn]

забывать

[ɛǝ]

swear [swɛǝ]

tear [t ɛə]

[ɔ :]

swore [sw ɔ:]

tore [tɔ :]

[ ɔ:]

sworn [sw ɔ:n]

torn [tɔ :n]

клясться

рвать

[aɪ]

lie [laɪ]

[eɪ]

lay [leɪ]

[eɪ]

lain [Ieɪn]

лежать

[aɪ]

bite [baɪt]

hide [haɪd]

[ɪ]

bit [bɪt]

hid [hɪd]

[ɪ]

bitten ['bɪtn]

hidden ['hɪdn]

кусать(ся)

прятать(ся)

[u:]

choose [t∫u:z]

[ou]

chose [t∫ouz]

[ou]

chosen ['t∫ouzǝn]

выбирать

[i:]

see [si:]

[ɔ:]

saw [sɔ:]

[i:]

seen [si:n]

видеть

[i:]

eat [i:t]

[e]

ate [et]

[i:]

eaten ['i:tn]

есть

[ɪ]

forbid [fe'bɪd]

forgive [fǝ'gɪv]

give [gɪv]

[eɪ]

forbade [fo'beɪd]

forgave [fǝ'geɪv]

gave [geɪv]

[ɪ]

forbidden [fǝ'bidǝn] forgiven [fǝ'gɪvn]

given ['gɪvn]

запрещать

забывать

давать

[eɪ]

shake [∫eɪk]

take [teik]

[u]

shook [∫uk]

took [tuk]

[eɪ]

shaken ['∫eɪkn]

taken ['teɪkn]

трясти

брать

[ɔ:]

fall [fɔ:l]

[e]

fell [fel]

[ɔ:]

fallen [fɔ:lǝn]

падать

[ɔ:]

draw [drɔ:]

[u:l

drew [dru:]

[ɔ:]

drawn [drɔ:n]

рисовать

[ou]

blow [blou]

grow [grou]

know [nou]

throw [θrou]

[u:]

blew [blu:]

grew [gru:]

knew [nju:]

threw [θru:]

[ou]

blown [bloun]

grown [groun]

known [noun]

thrown [θroun]

дуть

расти

знать

бросать

[e]

swell [swel]

[e]

swelled [sweld]

[ou]

swollen ['swoulǝn]

надувать(ся)

[eɪ]

make [meɪk]

[eɪ]

made [meɪd]

[eɪ]

made [meɪd]

делать

[ɪ]

bring [brɪŋ]

think [θiŋk]

[ɔ:]

brought [brɔ:t]

thought [θɔ:t]

[ɔ:]

brought [brɔ:t]

thought [θɔ:t]

нести

думать

[i:]

teach [ti:t∫]

[ɔ:]

taught [tɔ:t]

[ɔ:]

taught [tɔ:t]

учить

[æ]

catch [kæt∫]

[ɔ:]

caught [kɔ:t]

[ɔ:]

caught [kɔ:t]

хватать

[æ]

stand [stænd]

understand

[ʌnde'stænd]

[u]

stood [stud]

understood

[ʌndǝ'stud]

[u]

stood [stud]

understood

[ʌndǝ'stud]

стоять

понимать

[d]

build [bɪId]

lend [lend]

mend [mend]

spend [spend]

send [send]

[t]

built [bɪlt]

lent [lent]

ment [ment]

spent [spent]

sent [sent]

[t]

built [bɪlt]

lent [lent]

ment [ment]

spent [spent]

sent [sent]

строить

одалживать,

сдавать в аренду

чинить

тратить, расходовать посылать

bet [bet]

burst [bǝ:st]

bet [bet]

burst [bǝ:st]

bet [bet]

burst [bǝ:st]

держать пари

лопаться; взрываться (о снаряде)

cost [kɔst]

cost [kɔst]

cost [kɔst]

стоить,

обходиться

cut [kʌt]

cut [kʌt]

cut [kʌt]

резать

hit [hɪt]

hit [hɪt]

hit [hɪt]

ударять

hurt [hǝ:t]

hurt [hǝ:t]

hurt [hǝ:t]

причинять боль

let [let]

let [let]

let [let]

позволять, разрешать

put [put]

put [put]

put [put]

класть, положить

shut [∫ʌt]

shut [∫ʌt]

shut [∫ʌt]

закрывать(ся)

split [splɪt]

split [splɪt]

split [splɪt]

раскладывать(ся)

spread [spred]

spread [spred]

spread [spred]

развертываться

upset [ʌр'set]

upset [ʌp'set]

upset [ʌp'set]

опрокидывать (ся)

расстраивать,

нарушать (порядок)

Pronunciation rules of the suffix –ed

The suffix -ed is pronounced in three ways:

1) [id] when the verb stem ends in the dental consonants [d] or [t]:

skate - skated

chat - chatted

decide – decided

end - ended

2) [d] when the stem ends in any voiced sound except [d]:

live – lived

travel - travelled

stay - stayed

change – changed

3) [t] when the stem ends in any voiceless sound except [t]:

talk - talked

stop - stopped

wish – wished

place – placed

Spelling rules of the verb forms with the suffix –ed

1) The letter -d is added to stems ending in -e :

skate - skated

free – freed

2) In all the other cases the letters -ed are added:

stay - stayed

talk – talked

The final consonant letter is doubled if it is single and follows a short vowel in a stressed syllable:

nod - nodded

stop- stopped

stir - stirred

permit - permitted

refer - referred

compel- compelled

The final - l is doubled even in an unstressed syllable (British English):

travel - travelled

cancel – cancelled

In some words the final -p is doubled in the same position:

kidnap - kidnapped

handicap – handicapped

worship – worshipped

The final -y is changed to -i if it is preceded by a consonant:

cry – cried

reply – replied

Formation of participle I

§ 7. Participle I of both regular and irregular verbs is composed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb. In writing the following rules of spelling are observed:

1) if the stem ends in a mute -e , the -e is dropped before adding -ing :

skate - skating

2) if the stem ends in a single consonant letter preceded by a short vowel of a stressed syllable, the consonant letter is doubled:

stop - stopping

nod - nodding

stir – stirring

permit – permitting

refer - referring

compel – compelling

3) if the stem ends in -l after a short vowel of an unstressed syllable, the -l is doubled (in British English):

travel – travelling

cancel – cancelling

The same refers to some words ending in -p :

kidnap - kidnapping

handicap- handicapping

worship – worshipping

4) verbs ending in -ie drop the final -e and change i into у before taking the suffix -ing :

lie – lying

die – dying

Note:

The same rules apply to the formation of the gerund.

Semantic classifications of the verb

§ 8. Semantic classifications of the verb may be undertaken from different standpoints.

Grammatically important is the devision of verbs into the following classes:

Actional verbs , which denote actions proper (do, make, go, read, etc.) and statal verbs , which denote state (be, exist, lie, sit, know, etc.) or relations (fit, belong, have, match, cost, etc.). The difference in their categorical meaning affects their morphological paradigm: statal and relational verbs have no passive voice (though some have forms coinciding with the passive voice as in The curtains and the carpet were matched ). Also statal and relational verbs generally are not used in the continuous and perfect continuous tenses. Their occasional use in these tenses is always exceptional and results in the change of meaning.

From the syntactic standpoint verbs may be subdivided into transivite (переходные) and intransitive (непереходные) ones.

Without the object the meaning of the transitive verb is incomplete or entirely different. Transitive verbs may be followed:

a) by one direct object (monotransitive verbs) ;

Jane is helping her sister .

b) by a direct and an indirect objects (ditransitive verbs) ;

Jane gave her sister an apple .

c) by a prepositional object (prepositional transitive verbs) :

Jane looks after her sister .

Intransitive verbs do not require any object for the completion of their meaning:

The sun is rising.

There are many verbs in English that can function as both transitive and intransitive.

Tom is writing a letter. (transitive)

Tom writes clearly. (intransitive)

Who has broken the cup? (transitive)

Glass breaks easily. (intransitive)

Jane stood near the piano. (intransitive)

Jane stood the vase on the piano. (transitive)

The division of verbs into terminative and non-terminative depends on the aspectual characteristic in the lexical meaning of the verb which influences the use of aspect forms.

Terminative verbs (предельные глаголы) besides their specific meaning contain the idea that the action must be fulfilled and come to an end, reaching some point where it has logically to stop. These are such verbs as sit down, come, fall, stop, begin, open, close, shut, die, bring, find, etc.

Non-terminative, or durative verbs(непредельные глаголы) imply that actions or states expressed by these verbs may go on indefinitely without reaching any logically necessary final point. These are such verbs as carry, run, walk, sleep, stand, sit, live, know, suppose, talk, speak, etc.

The end, which is simply an interruption of these actions, may be shown only by means of some adverbial modifier:

He slept till nine in the morning.

The last subclass comprises verbs that can function as both termi­native and non-terminative (verbs of double aspectual meaning ). The difference is clear from the context:

Can you see well? (non-terminative)

I see nothing there. (terminative)

The finite forms of the verb

§ 9. The category of person expresses the relation of the action and its doer to the speaker, showing whether the action is performed by the speaker (the 1st person), someone addressed by the speaker (the 2nd person) or someone/something other than the speaker or the person addressed (the 3rd person).

The category of number shows whether the action is performed by one or more than one persons or non-persons.

For the present indefinite tense* of the verb to be there are three contrasting forms: the 1st person singular, the 3rd person singular and the form for all persons plural: (I) am - (he) is - (we, you, they) are.

* The other term used for indefinite tenses is "simple tenses". Accordingly there are the simple present, "the simple past", "the simple future".

In the past indefinite tense it is only the verb to be that has one of these categories - the category of number, formed by the opposition of the singular and the plural forms: (I, he) was - (we, you, they) were. All the other verbs have the same form for all the persons, both singular and plural.

In the future and future in the past tenses there are two opposing forms: the 1st person singular and plural and the other persons: (I, we) shall go - (he, you, they) will go; (I, we) should come - (he, you, they) would come.

In colloquial style, however, no person distinctions are found either in the future or in the future in the past tenses. The only marker for the future tenses is ‘ll used with all persons, both singular and plural: I'll do it; He'll do it; We'll do it, etc. The marker for the future in the past tenses is ‘d , also used with all persons and numbers: I said I’d come; He said he’d come; We said we’d come, etc. Historically ‘ll is the shortened form of will , ‘d is the shortened form of would.

The categories of person and number, with the same restrictions, as those mentioned above, are naturally found in all analytical forms contain­ing the present indefinite tense of the auxiliaries to be and to have , or the past indefinite tense of the auxiliary to be : (I) am reading - (he) is reading - (we, you, they) are reading; (I) am told - (he) is told - (we, you, they) are told; (he) has come - (I, we, you, they) have come; (he) has been told - (I, we, you, they) have been told; (he) has been reading - (I, we, you, they) have been reading.

A more regular way of expressing the categories of person and number is the use of personal pronouns. They are indispensable when the finite verb forms in the indicative as well as the subjunctive moods have no markers of person or number distinctions.

I stepped aside and they moved away.

They had been walking along, side by side, and she had been talking very earnestly.

If you were his own son, you could have all this.

If she were not a housemaid, she might not feel it so keenly.

The verb is always in the 3rd person singular if the subject of the predicate verb is expressed by a negative or indefinite pronoun, by an infinitive, a gerund or a clause:

Nothing has happened . Somebody has come .

To see him at last was a real pleasure. To shut that lid seems an easy task.

Seeing is believing. Visiting their house again seems out of the question.

What she has told me frightens me*.

* For further details see § on Agreement of the Subject and Predicate.

The category of tense

§ 10. The category of tense in English (as well as in Russian) expresses the relationship between the time of the action and the time of speaking.

The time of speaking is designated as present time and is the starting point for the whole scale of time measuring. The time that follows the time of speaking is designated as future time; the time that precedes the time of speaking is designated as past time. Accordingly there are three tenses in English - the present tense, the future tense and the past tense which refer actions to present, future or past time.

Besides these three tenses there is one more tense in English, the so-called future in the past . The peculiarity of this tense lies in the fact that the future is looked upon not from the point of view of the moment of speaking (the present) but from the point of view of some moment in the past.

Each tense is represented by four verb forms involving such categories as aspect and perfect. Thus there are four present tense forms: the present indefinite, the present continuous, the present perfect, the present perfect continuous; four past tense forms: the past indefinite, the past continuous, the past perfect and the past perfect continuous; four future tense forms: the future indefinite, the future continuous, the future perfect and the future perfect continuous; and four future in the past tense forms: the future in the past indefinite, the future in the past continuous, the future in the past perfect, the future in the past perfect continuous.

The category of aspect

§ 11. In general the category of aspect shows the way or manner in which an action is performed, that is whether the action is perfective (совершенное), imperfective (несовершенное), momentary (мгновенное, однократное), iterative (многократное, повторяющееся), inchoative (зачинательное), durative (продолженное, длительное), etc.

In English the category of aspect is constituted by the opposition of the continuous aspect and the common aspect.

The opposition the continuous aspect <——> the common aspect is actualized in the following contrasting pairs of forms:

Continuous

Common

is speaking

was speaking

will be speaking

has been speaking

speaks

spoke

will speak

has spoken

The forms in the left-hand column (whether taken in context, or treated by themselves) have a definite meaning: they describe an action as a concrete process going on continuously at a definite moment of time, or characteristic of a definite period of time (hence its name - the continuous aspect). The forms in the right-hand column, if treated by themselves, are devoid of any specific aspectual meaning. They denote the action as such, in a most general way, and can acquire a definite and more specified aspective meaning due to the lexical meaning of the verb and specific elements of the context in which they are used. Thus, for example, the verb form sang , when regarded out of context, has no specific aspectual characteristics, conveying only the idea of the action of singing with reference to the past. However when the same form is used in the context, it acquires the aspectual meaning conferred on it by that context. Compare the following sentences:

When he was young he sang beautifully (пел = умел петь).

He went over to the piano and sang two folk-songs (спел).

He went over to the piano and sang (запел).

While everybody was busy lighting a camp fire, he sang folk-songs (пел).

The fact that these forms may express different aspectual meanings according to the context, accounts for the term - the common aspect.

§ 12. Whereas all verbs can be used in the common aspect, there are certain restrictions as to the use of the continuous aspect. Some verbs do not usually have the forms of the continuous aspect. They are referred to as statal verbs . The most common of them are the following:

1. Relational verbs have, be and some link verbs:

become, remain, appear, seem, sound.

However, both to be and to have can be used in the continuous aspect forms where to be has the meaning to act and to have has a meaning other than to possess .

She is so foolish!

I have three brothers.

She is being so foolish (acting foolishly) today.

I am having dinner (am dining) now.

Other verbs having the same meaning of relation are not used in the continuous aspect forms:

to apply to

to belong to

to compare (to)

to concern

to contain

to cost

to depend on

to deserve

to differ from

to exist

to hold

to interest

to matter

to measure

to own

to possess

to remember

to stand for

to weigh

2. Verbs expressing sense perception, that is involuntary reactions of the senses:

to feel (чувствовать),

to hear (слышать),

to see (видеть),

to smell (чувствовать запах),

to taste (чувствовать вкус).

However these verbs as well as other statal verbs may be sometimes used in continuous and perfect continuous forms, especially in informal English.*

* These verbs will be considered in detail in § 22.

3. Verbs expressing emotional state:

to care, to detest, to envy, to fear, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to prefer, to want, to wish.

4. Verbs expressing mental state:

to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to expect, to find, to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to mind, to notice, to perceive, to remember, to suggest, to suppose, to think, to understand.

Note:

Care should be taken to distinguish between some of these verbs denoting a mental state proper and the same verbs used in other meanings. In the latter case continuous aspect forms also occur. Compare, for example, the following pairs of sentences:

I consider (believe) her to be a very good student.

I expected ( supposed, thought) you’d agree with me.

I feel (suppose) there is something wrong about him.

I think (suppose) you’re right.

I’ m still considering (studying) all the pros and cons.

I could not come for I was expecting (waiting for) a friend at the time.

I’m feeling quite cold.

I am thinking over (studying) your offer.

I am forgetting things more and more now (beginning to forget).

She is understanding grammar better now (beginning to understand).

Moreover, all the verbs treated in § 12 can occur in the continuous aspect when the ideas they denote are to be emphasized:

Don’t shout, I' am hearing you perfectly well!

Why are you staring into the darkness? What are you seeing there?

Are you still remaining my friend.

You see, she’s knowing too much.

They don’t know that inside I know what they’re like, and that all the time I’m hating them.

The category of perfect

§ 13. The category of perfect is as fundamental to the English verb as the categories of tense and aspect, whereas it is quite alien to the Russian verb.

The category of perfect is constituted by the opposition of the perfect to the non-perfect .

The perfect forms denote action preceding certain moments of time in the present, past or future. The non-perfect forms denote actions belonging to certain moments of time in the present, past or future.

To see the difference between the two categories compare the following pairs of sentences containing non-perfect and perfect forms:

Perfect

Non-perfect

I have seen the film, and I think it is dull.

At last you are here! I’ve been waiting for you so long!

She had left by the 2nd of September.

She had been sleeping for half an hour when the telephone woke her up.

I shall have returned before you get the supper ready.

I see you are tired.

Whom are you waiting for?

She left on the 2nd of September.

When the fire began, everybody was sleeping.

I shall return at 10.

§ 14. The perfect forms belong either to the continuous or to the common aspect and as such they have specific semantic characteristics of either one or of the other. Thus the perfect continuous forms denote continuous actions taking place during a definite period of time preceding the present moment or some moment of time in the past or future. The moment of time in question may be either excluded or included in the period of time of the action, as in the following:

Don’t wake her up, she has only been sleeping for half an hour . (She is still sleeping at the moment of speaking.)

I’ve woken her up, she has been sleeping ever since dinner . (She is not sleeping at the moment of speaking.)

She had been living in St.-Petersburg for 10 years when we met. (She was still living there at that moment of past time.)

They had been living in St.-Petersburg for 10 years when they moved to N. (They were not living in St.- Petersburg any longer at that moment of past time.)

He will have been working here for 20 years next autumn . (He will still be working here at that moment of the future.)

He will have been working there for 5 years before he returns to our institute . (He will not already be working there any longer at that moment of the future.)

The perfect forms of the common aspect are devoid of any specific aspect characteristics and acquire them only from the lexical meaning of the verb or out of the context in which they are used. Thus terminative verbs in the perfect forms of the common aspect express completeness of the action:

She had shut the window and was going to sleep.

The completed actions expressed by such forms may be momentary or iterative , as in:

He had stumbled and fallen down before I could support him.

He had stumbled and fallen down on his knees several times before he reached the bushes.

Non-terminative verbs may express both completed and incompleted actions:

She had spoken to all of them before she came to any conclusion.(поговорила)

I have known him all my life. (знаю)

They may also express iterative or durative actions:

He had lived in many little towns before he settled in St.-Petersburg.

She had lived here since the war.

Thus the difference between the perfect and the perfect continuous forms is similar to the difference between the indefinite and the continuous non-perfect forms.

Before passing on to a thorough study of all verb forms in detail it should be clearly understood that every one of them is a bearer of three grammatical categories, those of tense, perfect, and aspect, that is every form shows whether the action refers to the present, the past, the future or the future viewed from the past; whether it belongs to a certain moment of time within each of these time-divisions or precedes that moment, and whether it is treated as continuous or not.

Table I

Tense, aspect and perfect forms of the English verbs


Tense

Perfect

Aspect

Non-Perfect

Perfect

Present

Common

Takes

Has taken

Continuous

Is taking

Has been taking

Past

Common

Took

Had taken

Continuous

was taking

had been taking

Future

Common

will take

will have taken

Continuous

will be taking

will have been taking

Future in the Past

Common

would take

would have taken

Continuous

would be taking

would have been taking

Thus each tense is represented by four verb forms involving such categories as aspect and perfect. There are

four present tense forms:

the present indefinite (the simple present)

the present continuous

the present perfect

the present perfect continuous

four past tense forms:

the past indefinite (the simple past)

the past continuous

the past perfect

the past perfect continuous

four future tense forms:

the future indefinite (the simple future)

the future continuous

the future perfect

the future perfect continuous

four future in-the-past tenses:

the future in-the-past indefinite (the simple future-in-the-past)

the future in-the-past continuous

the future in-the-past perfect

the future in-the-past perfect continuous.

Present tenses

§ 15. All the present tenses (The present indefinite, the present continuous, the present perfect, the present perfect continuous) refer the actions they denote to the present, that is to, the time of speaking. The difference between them lies in the way they express the categories of aspect and perfect.

The present indefinite

(The simple present)

Meaning. The present indefinite refers the action which it denotes to the present time in a broad sense.

It bears no indication as to the manner in which the action is performed, that is whether it is perfective (complete) or imperfective (incomplete), momentary or durative (continuous), iterative or inchoative, etc. Any of these meanings can be imparted to the form by the lexical meaning of the verb or by the context. Neither does it bear any indication as to the precedence of the action it denotes to the moment of speaking.

§ 16. Formation. Some of the forms of the present indefinite are synthetic (affirmative forms), some - analytic (interrogative and negative forms).

Affirmative forms for all persons singular and plural except the 3rd person singular coincide with the infinitive stem: to speak - I speak, you speak, they speak.

The 3rd person singular form is built from the same stem by means of the inflexion -s, -es: to speak [spi:k] - he speaks [spi:ksj; to land [lænd] - he lands [lændz]; to wish [wI∫] - he wishes [´ wI∫Iz].

As can be seen from the above examples, the pronunciation and spelling of the inflection of the 3rd person singular vary:

1. Verb stems ending in vowels and voiced consonants (except voiced sibilants and affricates) take the inflection -s which is pronounced [z]:

to see [si:]

to play [pleɪ]

to stir [stǝ]

to come [kʌm]

- he sees [si:z]

- he plays [pleɪz]

- he stirs [stǝ:z]

- he comes [kʌmz].

The 3rd person singular of the verb to say (says ) is pronounced [sez].

In verb stems ending in the letter у and preceded by a consonant the letter у is replaced by the letters ie :

to try [traɪ]

to carry ['kærɪ]

- he tries [traɪz]

- he carries ['kærɪz].

The verbs to go and to do and their compounds (to forego, to overdo, etc.) take the inflexion [z] spelled as

-es :

to go [gou] - he goes [gouz],

the verb to do (and its compounds) changes its root vowel:

to do [du:]

to overdo ['ouvǝdu]

- he does [dʌz],

- he overdoes ['ouvǝdʌz].

The 3rd person singular of the verb to have is has [hæz].

2. Verb stems ending in voiceless consonants (except voiceless sibilants and affricates) take the inflexion -s pronounced [s ]:

to work [wǝ:k]

to hope [houp]

- he works [wǝ:ks]

- he hopes [houps]

3. Verb stems ending in sibilants and affricates take either the inflexion -s or -es . Both are pronounced [ ɪ z] :

a) -es if the final letters of the stem are -s, -sh, -ss, -x, -z, -zz, -ch, -tch :

to push [pu∫]

to pass [pa:s]

to box [boks]

to buzz [bʌz]

to catch [kæt∫]

- he pushes ['pu∫ɪz]

- he passes ['pa:sɪz]

- he boxes ['boksɪz]

- he buzzes ['bʌzɪz]

- he catches ['kæt∫ɪz];

b) -s if the final letters of the stem are -se, -ce, -ze, -ge, -dge

(i.e. sibilants and affricates plus the mute e ):

to please [pli:z]

to place [pleɪs]

to freeze [fri:z]

to stage [steɪdʒ]

to sledge [sledʒ]

- he pleases ['pli:zɪz]

- he places ['pleɪzɪz]

- he freezes ['fri:zɪz]

- he stages ['steɪdʒɪz]

- he sledges ['sledʒɪz].

§ 17. Interrogative and negative forms of the present indefinite are analytical and are built by means of the present indefinite of the auxiliary to do and the infinitive of the notional verb.

Besides these there is one more type of forms, namely negative-inter­rogative forms , which has two possible patterns.

The paradigm of the verb in the present indefinite

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I speak

He (she, it) speaks

We speak

You speak

They speak

Do I speak?

Does he (she, it) speak?

Do we speak?

Do you speak?

Do they speak?

I do not (don’t) speak

He (she, it) does not (doesn’t) speak

We do not (don’t) speak

You do not (don’t) speak

They do not (don’t) speak

Negative-interrogative

a)

Do I not speak?

Does he (she, it) not speak?

Do we not speak?

Do you not speak?

Do they not speak?

b)

Don’t I speak?

Doesn’t he (she, it) speak?

Don’t we speak?

Don’t you speak?

Don’t they speak?

Note:

The auxiliary to do can occur in the affirmative form as well, if special emphasis is required. In this case the auxiliary is always stressed:

Ask him again, he ‘does know what it was.

She ‘does help me so much!

§ 18. There are some verbs that form their present indefinite in a different way.

These are:

1) The verb to be, which has synthetic forms not only for affirmative, but also for interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative structures. Besides, it distinguishes the category of number and has in the singular the category of person*.

* See the table on p. 339.

2) The verb to have when meaning to possess also builds its interro­gative, negative and negative-interrogative forms synthetically.

When the verb to have has a modal meaning or when it is used as part of a phrase verb it makes its interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms in the ordinary way, that is with the auxiliary to do:

When do you have to get up in order to catch the first morning train?

She does not have any lunch at home.

3) All the modal verbs do not take the inflexion -s in the 3rd person singular. They form their interrogative and negative forms without the auxiliary to do.

§ 19. The present indefinite.

1. To state facts in the present.

I live in St.-Petersburg.

Most dogs bark.

It’s a long way to Tipperary.

2. To state general rules or laws of nature , that is to show that something was true in the past, is true in the present, and will be true in the future.

It snows in winter.

Snow melts at 0°C.

Two plus two makes four.

3. To denote habitual actions or everyday activity.

They get up at 8.

On Sundays we stay at home.

Do you often go to the dancing hall?

4. To denote actions and states continuing at the moment of speaking (with statal and relational verbs, verbs of sense and mental perception.)

Who does the car belong to?

I do not see what you are doing.

Now I hear you perfectly well.

I do not understand you at all.

5. To express declarations, announcements, etc. referring to the moment of speaking.

I declare the meeting open.

I agree to your proposal.

I offer you my help.

6. To denote a succession of action going on at the moment of speaking.

Now watch me closely: I take a match, light it, put it into the glass and ... oh, nothing happens !

7. To denote future actions.

a) Mostly with verbs of motion (to go, to come, to start, to leave, to return, to arrive, to sail and some other verbs), usually if the actions denote a settled plan and the future time is indicated:

I go to Moscow next week .

They start on Sunday .

She leaves for England in two months .

What do you do next Sunday ?

b) In adverbial clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions when, till, until, as soon as, as long as, before, after, while, if, unless, in case, on condition that, provided , etc.:

When she comes , ring me up, please.

Do it as soon as you are through with your duties.

I promise not to tell her anything if you help me to get out of here.

However in object clauses introduced by the conjunctions when and if it is the future indefinite that is used to denote future actions:

I don’t know when she will come .

I’m not sure if she will come at all.

8. To denote past actions:

a) in newspaper headlines, in the outlines of novels, plays., films, etc.:

Dog Saves Its Master.

Students Say No to New Weapon.

Then Fleur meets Little Jon. They fall in love with each other.

b) in narratives or stories to express past actions more vividly (the so-called historic present):

It was all so unexpected. You see, I came home late last night, turned on the light and - whom do you think I see ? Jack, old Jack, sleeping in the chair. I give a cry, rush to him and shake him by the shoulder.

9. To denote completed actions with the meaning of the present perfect (with the verbs to forget, to hear,

to be told ).

I forget your telephone number.

I hear you are leaving for England?

I am told she returned from France last week.

The present continuous

§ 20. Meaning. The present continuous* denotes an action which is in progress at the moment of speaking.

* Nowadays it is sometimes called "the present progressive".

§ 21. Formation. All the forms of the present continuous are ana­lytic. They are formed by means of the present indefinite of the auxiliary to be and participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the corresponding form of the auxiliary to be is placed before the subject and participle I follows it.

In the negative the negation ‘not’ is placed after the auxiliary.

The paradigm of the verb in the present continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I am speaking

He (she, it) is speaking

We are speaking

You are speaking

They are speaking

Am I speaking?

Is he (she, it) speaking?

Are we speaking?

Are you speaking?

Are they speaking?

I am not (I’m not) speaking

He (she, it) is not (isn’t) speaking

We are not (aren’t) speaking

You are not (aren’t) speaking

They are not (aren’t) speaking

Negative-interrogative

a)

Am I not speaking?

Is he (she, it) not speaking?

Are we not speaking?

Are you not speaking?

Are they not speaking?

b)

Aren’t I speaking?

Isn’t he (she, it) speaking?

Aren’t we speaking?

Aren’t you speaking?

Aren’t they speaking?

In spoken English contractions are commonly used (I’m, he’s, it’s, we’re, etc.).

A reduced negative for the first person singular is I’m not , but is replaced by aren’t in the negative - interrogative.

§ 22. The present continuous is used with all actional and some statal verbs (with the reservations destribed below):

1. To denote continuous actions going on at the moment of speaking.

Look, how happily they are playing !

Don’t bother him, he’s working .

Listen! The telephone is ringing . Go and answer it.

- Can I see Mary? - You must wait a little while, she is having breakfast.

The present indefinite, not the present continuous, is used to denote actions which though going on at the moment of speaking, are important as simple facts, rather than as actions in progress.

Why don’t you answer?

Why don’t you write? Where is your pen?

Stop talking! Why don’t you listen?

If two simultaneous actions are in progress at the moment of speaking, three variants are possible:

a) one action is expressed by the verb in the present indefinite, the other - by the present continuous:

Do you hear what I am saying !

b) both the actions are expressed by verbs in the present continuous:

Are you listening to what I am saying ?

At home he is always sleeping while I am doing chores.

c) both the actions are expressed by verbs in the present indefinite:

Several students watch carefully while he writes it on the board.

The use of the present indefinite instead of the present continuous is due to the semantic peculiarities of the verb.

The present continuous is not generally used with some verbs - the verbs of sense perception , of mental or emotional state and with relational verbs. Still exceptions may occur with these verbs too.

With the verbs of sense perception the use of the tense form is closely connected with what kind of perception is meant - voluntary (deliberate) or involuntary. In case these verbs denote a voluntary action: to listen (слушать), to look (смотреть) or if they may denote both an involuntary and a voluntary action, such as: to feel (ощупывать), to smell (нюхать), to taste (пробовать на вкус), they can occur in continuous forms.

Voluntary actions

Involuntary actions

Why are you not listening ?

Why are you looking at me like that?

The man must be blind, he is feeling his way with a stick.

Say it again, I don’t hear you.

Can you see me now?

Take care! I feel the walls shaking.

In the same way verbs of mental and emotional states can acquire a different meaning and occur in the present continuous and other continu­ous forms.

I consider (=believe) her to be a very good student.

I think (suppose) you are right.

I’m still considering (studying) all the pros and cons.

I’m thinking over (studying) your offer.

In some cases it is not so much a change of meaning as a change in the quality or intensity of the idea expressed by the verb that makes it possible to use the continuous form.

I am forgetting things more and more now.

She is understanding grammar better now.

Don’t shout, I'm hearing you perfectly well.

What are you seeling there in this complete darkness.

You see, she is knowing too mucht.

All this time I'm hating them.

I am feeling quite all right.

The relational verbs (belong, cost, etc.) are not used in the continu­ous form.

2. To denote actions characteristic of a certain period of present time, the moment of speaking

included. As a rule these actions are temporary.

They are spending their holidays at the sea-side this summer.

Your behaviour is killing your wife.

It is autumn now. The birds are flocking together.

3. To denote (for the sake of emphasis) actions in progress referring to all or any time, the moment of

speaking included . In this case the adverbials ever, for ever, constantly, always are obligatory.

Our solar system together with the Milky Way is constantly moving towards Vega.

The Volga is for ever pouring its waters into the Caspian Sea.

Mankind is always developing its mental faculties.

4. To denote actions characteristic of a certain person within more or less long periods of present time,

the moment of speaking included and provoking certain emotions in the speaker (inpatience,

irritation, disapproval, praise, etc.). Sentences with such forms are always emotionally coloured.

Oh, I have no patience with you. Why are you always losing your things?

Though she is only ten, she is very kind-hearted, she is always pitying everybody.

In such sentences the adverbials always or constantly are also obligatory.

5. To denote future actions.

a) With verbs of motion to arrive, to come, to go, to leave, to return, to sail, to start and some others, usually

the actions are only intended or planned. The future time is usually indicated by some adverbials:

She is leaving tomorrow .

The boat is sailing next week .

He is returning on Monday .

What are you doing tomorrow ?

Though the present continuous of the verb to go + infinitive is commonly used to denote an intention or plan, with some verbs the meaning is that of apprehention or presentiment.

He’s going to get ill.

The flowers are going to wither .

It is going to snow .

He’s going to be hanged.

b) In adverbial clauses of time and condition after the conjunctions when, while, as long as, if, in case,

unless , etc:

I’ll ring you up at 2, while you are having your break.

If he is working when I come, don’t bother him, I’ll wait.

As follows from the items enumerated above, the present continuous cannot occur in the context describing a succession of actions referring to the present. In such cases the present indefinite is used:

He comes up to the piano, opens the lid, and begins to play the first tune.

If several actions in a narrative have the form of the present continuous, it indicates that they are all simultaneous (and usually performed by different persons):

The boys are playing football on the lawn, Nell is reading in her room, and Father is having his rest .

In all its uses the present continuous is rendered in Russian by means of the present tense of the imperfective aspect.

The present perfect

§ 23. Meaning. The present perfect form denotes the action preceding the moment of speaking, though it is connected with it either directly or indirectly, that is: a) it continues up to the moment of speaking or b) takes place within a period of time before and including the moment of speaking, so it is relevant to the moment of speaking through its effect or virtually through its continuation at the moment of speaking. In the first case it is called the exclusive present perfect (the moment of speaking is excluded), in the second - the inclusive present perfect (the moment of speaking is included).

Formation. The present perfect is formed analytically, by means of the auxiliary to have in the present indefinite and participle II of the notional verb.*

* For the rules of the formation of participle II see § 5-6.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of to have are used, participle II follows them.

The paradigm of the verb in the present perfect

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I have spoken

He (she, it) has spoken

We have spoken

You have spoken

They have spoken

Have I spoken?

Has he (she, it) spoken?

Have we spoken?

Have you spoken?

Have they spoken?

I have not (haven’t) spoken

He (she, it) has not (hasn’t) spoken

We have not (haven’t) spoken

You have not (haven’t) spoken

They have not (haven’t) spoken

Negative-interrogative

a)

Have I not spoken?

Has he (she, it) not spoken?

Have we not spoken?

Have you not spoken?

Have they not spoken?

b)

Haven’t I spoken?

Hasn’t he (she, it) spoken?

Haven’t we spoken?

Haven’t you spoken?

Haven’t they spoken?

§ 24. In all its uses the present perfect directly or indirectly refers actions to the moment of speaking. This connection with the moment of speaking predetermines its use; the present perfect is found in conversations and communications dealing with the state of things in the present and is never found in narratives referring to the past.

The present perfect is used:

1. When the speaker means that he is interested in the mere fact that the action took place, but not in the time when it took place, nor in the circumstances. The time of the action is either not indicated at all, or is indicated only vaguely, by means of adverbs of indefinite time (yet, already, just, lately, recently, of late, ever, never, always, etc.).

I don’t know what he’s going to do, I haven’t seen him.

Has Mother returned ?

I haven’t read the letter yet.

Why are you so hard on him? What has he done ?

Let’s go, it has already stopped raining .

I’ve never seen him in this play.

2. When the speaker means that, though the action is over, the period of time within which it was performed is not yet over at the moment of speaking (with the words today, this week, this year , etc.).

I’ve seen her today.

She’s returned from England this week.

I’ve had a splitting headache this morning.

If the period of time is over or the action refers to some particular moment of time within that period the past indefinite, not the present perfect is used.

I had a bad headache this morning (said in the afternoon, in the evening, etc.).

She was at my party this month (at the time when the party was given).

In such cases (items 1 and 2) the exclusive present perfect is rendered in Russian by the past tense.

3. The present perfect is also used to denote actions still in progress, (the inclusive present perfect) which began before the moment of speaking and go on up to that moment or into it. In this case either the starting point of the action is specified (by means of the adverb since, a prepositional phrase with since , or an adverbial clause with the conjunction since ), or the period during which it continued (by various adverbs or phrases with for ). It is thus used in the following cases:

a) with statal verbs which do not normally take continuous forms:

We met by chance last year, and I haven’t seen her since.

I’ve been here since 8.

I love you. I’ve loved you ever since we met.

I’ve known you all my life.

I haven’t seen you for ages.

b) with some actional (durative) verbs in which case the present perfect continuous is also possible. The

difference between the two forms lies in the following: in the case of the present perfect the logical stress

is laid rather on the fact than on the process , whereas in the case of the present perfect continuous it is

the process that is important.

I’ve worked here since 1960.

He has played football for five years already.

In such cases the inclusive present perfect is rendered in Russian by the present tense.

4. The present perfect is also used in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition introduced by the corresponding conjunctions to denote a future action taking place before a certain moment in the future.

I’ll stay with you until you’ve finished everything.

Wait till I’ve written the notice.

Sometimes adverbials of place and objects expressed by words describ­ing situations may serve in an oblique way as past time markers, connect­ing the activities not only with places and situations, but also with the time when the actions took place, accordingly the past indefinite is used.

Did you meet him in London? (when you were in London)

Did you like his singing? (when he sang)

The same is true of special questions beginning with where :

Where did you see him?

Where did you buy this hat?

Note 1:

In spesial questions with when only the past indefinite is possible, though the answer can be either in the past indefinite or in the present perfect depending on the actual state of affairs:

- When did he come ?

- He came yesterday .

- He has just come .

Note 2:

The present perfect , not the past indefinite is used with the verb to be in the sense of to go, to visit even though the adverbials of place are used:

Have you been to London?

She says she’s been to Paris three times.

The meaning of such statements is ‘was there at a certain time, but is there no longer ’.

Although the time of the actions denoted by the present perfect is not specified, it is generally understood as more or less recent, not long past.

§ 25. The ways of translating the present perfect into Russian vary due to the peculiarities of its time orientation and the vagueness of its aspective meaning. It can therefore be translated into Russian either by the past tense (if it is exclusive present perfect) or by the present tense (if it is inclusive present perfect). The latter applies to statal verbs and some actional durative verbs.

She has gone home.

Она уже ушла домой.

(The past tense, perfective.)

The red ballon has burst.

Красный шарик лопнул.

(The past tense, perfective, momentary.)

He has hit me twice.

Он ударил меня два раза.

(The past tense, perfective, iterative.)

I’ve already seen him.

Я его уже видел.

(The past tense, imperfective.)

She has seen the film three times.

Она смотрела этот фильм три раза.

(The past tense, imperfective, iterative.)

They’ve lived here for seven years.

Они живут здесь семь лет.

I’ve known her since 1975.

Я знаю ее с 1975 года.

(The present tense, inaperfective, durative.)

The present perfect continuous

§ 26. Formation. The present perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the present perfect (have/has been) plus participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the first auxiliary (have/has) comes before the subject, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow the subject.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (have) are used, the second auxiliary (been) and participle I follow them.

The paradigm of the verb in the present perfect continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

I have been speaking

He (she, it) has been speaking

We have been speaking

You have been speaking

They have been speaking

Have I been speaking?

Has he (she, it) been speaking?

Have we been speaking?

Have you been speaking?

Have they been speaking?

Negative

Contracted negative

I have not been speaking

He (she, it) has not been speaking

We have not been speaking

You have not been speaking

They have not been speaking

I haven’t been speaking

He (she, it) hasn’t been speaking

We haven’t been speaking

You haven’t been speaking

They haven’t been speaking

Negative-interrogative

a)

Have I not been speaking?

Has he (she, it) not been speaking?

Have we not been speaking?

Have you not been speaking?

Have they not been speaking?

b)

Haven’t I been speaking?

Hasn’t he (she, it) been speaking?

Haven’t we been speaking?

Haven’t you been speaking?

Haven’t they been speaking?

The present perfect continuous is used mainly in conversation.

§ 27. The present perfect continuous is used with actional verbs to denote:

1. Actions in progress which begin at a certain moment in the past and continue into the present. In this case either the starting point of the action or the period of time during which it has been in progress is usually specified.

I’ve been writing since morning, and so I’ll soon stop.

They’ve been living here since 1970. Now they are going to move to N.

It has been raining ever since midnight, and it is still drizzling.

She’s a fourth year student, so she’s been learning English for at least 3 years already.

All these forms denoting actions continuing into the present (the so-called present perfect continuous inclusive) are translated into Russian by the present tense, imperfective (in the sentences above: пишу, живут, дождь идет, учит).

2. Actions in progress which begin in the past and continue up to the moment of speaking or till just before it. It is the present perfect continuous exclusive.

Oh, here you are at last! I’ve been waiting for you all day!

It has been snowing since morning, but now it has stopped.

You look so sad. Have you been crying ?

It has been raining for at least two hours, but now the wind has driven the clouds away.

3. Actions in progress that both begin and end at some indeterminate time before the moment of speaking, though connected with it through their importance for the present.

My brother has been using my bicycle and has got the tyre punctured.

I have been thinking over your offer, but still can’t tell you anything definite.

I hear she has been calling on you again?

The forms denoting actions that are over by the moment of speaking (the so-called present perfect continuous exclusive) are translated into Russian by means of the past tense, imperfective (in the sentences in items 2 and 3 they are: ждал, снег шел, плакала, дождь шел, катался, обдумывал, приходила).

4. Future actions in progress before a certain moment in the future (in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition).

He will get accustomed to the surroundings after he has been staying here for a week or two.

§ 28. As is seen from above, the present perfect continuous cannot be used to denote a succession of actions and therefore cannot be used to describe the development of events. If two actions denoted by the present perfect continuous happen to come together it only means that they are simultaneous and are usually performed by two different persons:

I have been living here for two months while they have been travell­ing all over Europe. Now they are coming back, and I’ll soon move back to my own place.

Past tenses

§ 29. All the past tenses (the past indefinite, the past continuous, the past perfect, the past perfect continuous) refer the actions they denote to the past. The difference between them lies in the way they represent the I categories of aspect and perfect.

Owing to their past time reference all of them are used both in the written language in narrative and description, and in conversation, especially the past indefinite.

The past indefinite

(The simple past)

§ 30. Formation. The affirmative forms of the past indefinite are synthetic, the interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms are analytic.

Affirmative (synthetic) forms are represented by the second of the basic verb forms.

Interrogative forms are built by means of the auxiliary to do in the past indefinite (did ), which is placed before the subject, and the infinitive stem of the notional verb, which follows the subject.

Negative forms are built by means of the negative form of the auxiliary, which has two varieties: a) didn’t (used in the spoken language) and b) did not (used in the written language) and the infinitive of the notional verb that follows it.

The paradigm of the verb in the past indefinite

Affirmative

Interrogative

I

He (she, it)

We

You

They

spoke (played)

Did

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

speak (play?)

Negative

I

He (she, it)

We

You

They

did not (didn’t) speak (play)

Negative-interrogative

a)

Did

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

Not speak? (play?)

b)

Didn’t

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

speak? (play?)

The auxiliary did also occurs in affirmative forms in cases when the speaker wishes to emphasize his statement, as in:

But I assure you, he did tell me of it himself.

Actually, I did see him once last week.

There are a few verbs which form their past indefinite differently from the way described above. These are:

The verb to be , which has synthetic forms not only in the affirmative, but also in the interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative. It also distinguishes the category of number. The interrogative is formed by placing the verb before the subject.

The verb to have , which also has synthetic forms for all structures.

When having meanings other than ‘possess’ or when used as part of a phrasal verb (to have a look), to have forms its interrogative and negative in the ordinary way with the auxiliary to do.

§ 31. The past indefinite refers actions to past time quite cut off from the present, that is, these actions are in no way connected with the present).* The past indefinite can therefore be used only in contexts relating to the past. The past reference of the context can be shown:

* This is very important for distinguishing the situations in which either only the past indefinite or only the present perfect are to be used.

a) by various adverbials of time pointing to the past, for example, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last (that) Saturday (Sunday) , etc., last (that) week (month, year), an hour ago (and other adverbials with ago), in 1970, on the 1st of September , and many others denoting certain moments and periods of time already past.

He left yesterday.

They married in 1975.

She returned two hours ago .

I saw them last Monday.

That night nobody slept.

b) by some other past actions (denoted by the verb in the past indefinite or past continuous).

He came when I was already at home.

They started when the sun was rising.

Thus the very fact that the past indefinite is used in a narrative or in a single sentence is generally an indication that some past time not connected with the present is referred to.

§ 32. The past indefinite is the verb form most frequently used; its range of application is immense, especially in all kinds of narratives.

The past indefinite is used:

1. To state simple facts in the past.

The house stood on the hill.

She was beautiful .

I did not know who the man was .

I did not hear your question.

I did not see you at the theatre.

What did you say ?

The past indefinite , never the present perfect, is used in questions beginning with when , even though no indication of past time is made, because when implies a certain moment in the past. The answer can be either in the past indefinite or in the present perfect, depending on the situation: When did you see him? - I saw him two days ago. - I have just seen him.

Likewise, the past indefinite , not the present perfect, is used in ques­tions beginning with where because in such questions the reference to some past moment is implied: Where did you buy that hat? The implication is: when you were at the place where the action was performed.

2. To denote habitual actions in the past.

All summer I got up at 7.

On Sunday evening he took her to the pictures.

He usually took the first morning train.

Note:

Besides the past indefinite there are other ways of expressing habitual actions in the past:

a) by means of the form used to + infinitive :

Some years ago he used to call on me, now he never does.

The negative construction of used to is formed in one of two ways: didn’t used to and didn’t use to .

She didn’t use to knit in the evenings.

The interrogative construction is: did (he) used to ? or did (he) use to...?

Did she used to write her articles at night?

Did he use to do it?

b) The other way to express habitual actions is by means of the verb would + infinitive stem . But unlike used

to , would always conveys an additional modal colouring of will, insistance, perseverance.

This used to be my mother’s room, and I would sit there for hours.

3. To denote a succession of past actions.

He got up, put on his hat, and left.

The car stopped , the door opened , and a very pretty girl got out of it.

4. To denote actions in progress at a certain moment in the past, with verbs that cannot be used in

continuous forms.

He was not listening but still heard what they were speaking about.

At that time he was on the watch.

5. To denote future actions in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition depending on

principal clauses with the predicate verb in a past tense.

She said she would come when the film was over.

She said she would do it if nothing unexpected happened.

§ 33. The ways of rendering the past indefinite in Russian are varied, owing to its aspective vagueness. Depending on the lexical meaning of the verb and on the context, it can be translated by Russian verbs in the past tense of both perfective and imperfective aspects with all possible shades of their meanings.

In the morning I wrote two letters.

Утром я написал два письма.

(A perfective (completed) action.)

I got up from my chair and bowed.

Я встал и поклонился.

(Two perfective (completed) momentary actions.)

He breathed hard and stopped every few minutes.

Он тяжело дышал и останавливался каждые несколько минут.

(Imperfective (incompleted) and iterative actions.)

She lay on the sofa reading а detective story.

Она лежала на диване, читая детектив.

(Imperfective, durative action.)

On hearing it he laughed.

Услышав это, он засмеялся.

(A perfective, inchoative action.)

The past continuous

§ 34. Formation. The past continuous is formed analytically by the auxiliary verb to be in the past indefinite and participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the auxiliary is placed before the subject and par­ticiple I follows the subject.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of to be are em­ployed, and participle I follows them.

The paradigm of the verb in the past continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

I

He (she, it)

was speaking

Was

I

he (she, it)

speaking?

We

You

They

were speaking

Were

we

you

they

speaking?

Negative

I

He (she it)

was not (wasn’t) speaking

We

You

They

were not (weren't) speaking

Negative-interrogative

a)

Was

I

He (she, it)

not speaking?

b)

Wasn’t

I

He (she, it)

speaking?


Were

we

you

they

not speaking?

Weren't

we

you

they

speaking?

§ 35. The past continuous is used mostly in narrative although it may occur in conversation as well.

The past continuous is used with all actional verbs and some statal verbs:

1. To denote a continuous action in progress at a certain moment in the past.

At 10 it was still raining.

When I called him up, he was still having breakfast.

The fire began at midnight when everybody was sleeping.

At that time she was already packing up.

In these examples the moment of time is specified directly, by means of adverbials of time or indirectly by some other past action mentioned in the same sentence. The moment of time at which the action is in progress can also be shown by the previous context, or understood from the situation:

He did not answer. His lips were trembling.

I stood motionless, as if glued to the ground. The enormous black bull was galloping towards me at full

speed.

I told him that Ralph was staying at the Three Boars.

2. To denote a continuous action in progress during a certain period of time in the past, marked by adverbials - prepositional phrases (from ... till, from ... to) or adverbs (all day long, the whole night, etc.)

We were quarrelling all day long yesterday.

She says she was washing from six till eight.

When actional durative verbs take the form of the past continuous the actions thus described do not actually differ from those in the form of the past indefinite, as both denote continuous actions in progress at some moment of time in the past:

When I saw him, he was standing by the door.

When I saw him he stood by the door.

Both examples may refer to the same situation. The difference between the two is that the past indefinite lays stress on the fact , while the past continuous emphasizes the process , thus presenting the action more vividly.

However in a complex sentence with a subordinate adverbial clause of time if the predicate verbs both in the principal and in the subordinate clauses express simultaneous continuous actions in progress it is usual (though not obligatory) to use the past indefinite in both the clauses:

While I ate and drank , I looked up the register.

She looked all the while at him as she spoke in her slow, deep voice.

But, the past continuous is rather frequent in adverbial clauses, introduced by the conjunction while, as, when, as long as, etc.:

While they were talking , the boy waited outside.

As he was climbing up , he all the while looked at the birds soaring high above him.

When I was working there, I played in the local jazz band.

She stayed in the car while I was talking to the nurse.

Sometimes the past continuous is found in the principal clause, while the past indefinite is in the subordinate:

They were talking inside while he stood watching the path.

The verbs to stand, to sit, to lie expressing actions in progress at a certain moment, or during a certain period of time in the past are commonly used in the past indefinite, if they are followed by participle I.

They stood by the door, talking loudly.

They sat beside their lorry, drinking soda water and eating sardines from a tin.

He lay in bed trying to forget what had happened.

However, the past continuous is also possible.

She was standing, staring at the open letter in her hand.

3. The past continuous is sometimes used to denote actions characteristic of certain persons in the past. In such sentences the adverbials always and constantly are generally included.

She had rather poor health and was constantly complaining of headaches.

As I remember her she was always fussing over something.

He seemed very absent-minded, he was constantly loosing things.

4. To denote future actions viewed from the past, with verbs of motion (to arrive, to come, to go, to leave, to return , etc.), usually if the action is planned or expected. In this case adverbials of future time are generally used, or the future reference of the verb is clear from the context or situation:

She said she was leaving in a week.

Then I understood that they were not returning either that year or the next.

The ship was sailing in a few hours.

If no future reference of the action is evident, it implies that though the action was planned, it was not and will not be carried out:

“Listen”, I said. “I’ve brought a little cousin of mine along. Joanna was coming up too but was prevented.”

I said quickly: “She was coming to tea yesterday afternoon.” (was due to come, but did not).

§ 36. As follows from the meaning of the past continuous and from its uses described above, it cannot denote a succession of past actions. Two or more verbs having the form of the past continuous, whether used in the same or in adjoining sentences, always denote simultaneous actions performed by different persons or non-persons:

Nash made periodic appearances in the town but what he was doing and what traps the police were setting , I had no idea.

It was a glorious day. The sun was shining high in the sky. There was no wind. The larks were singing in the blue depth. Only far away, over the horizon, soft milky clouds were moving placidly towards the east.

In all its uses the past continuous is translated into Russian by means of the past tense of the imperfective aspect.

The past perfect

§ 37. Formation. The past perfect is formed analytically by the auxil­iary to have in the past indefinite and participle II of the notional verb. The interrogative and negative forms and built in the way usual for all analytic forms.

The paradigm of the verb in the past perfect

§ 38. In all its uses the past perfect denotes actions the beginning of which (always) and the end (usually) precede a certain moment of time in the past. The prepast period of time to which the actions in the past perfect refer is unlimited, that is, they may take place either immediately before some moment in the past or in the very remote past.

This tense is used with both actional and statal verbs. Its sphere of application is mainly that of narratives, though it is also used in conversation.

The past perfect is used:

1. To denote an action of which both the beginning and the end precede some moment of time in the past. This moment can be specified by an adverbial of time, or by another action, or else by the situation.

What should be borne in mind is that the use of the past perfect form is in itself a sufficient indication of the precedence of the denoted action to some moment in the past which therefore need not be specified.

He had finished his work by then.

I knew him a little: we had met in Rome a year before.

She felt wretched. She had not slept for two nights.

I opened the window. The rain had stopped , but the sharp east wind was still blowing.

After everybody had left , she rushed to her room and began packing hurriedly.

2. To denote an action in progress which began before a certain moment of time in the past and went on up to that moment and sometimes into it. In such cases either the starting point of the action is specified (by means of the adverb since , a prepositional phrase with since or an adverbial clause introduced by the conjunction since ), or the period during which the action was in progress (by various adverbials):

a) with statal verbs, which do not normally allow of continuous forms:

He had been away for some months before his first letter came.

They had thought it over and over again since that dinner.

I could not believe the rumour. I had known him for a good many years.

b) with some actional durative verbs (in the similar way as with the past perfect continuous).

When we first met she had lived in the country for two years and was quite happy.

And thus he had sat in his chair till the clock in the hall chimed midnight.

Since her mother's death she had slept in the comer room.

In this case the past perfect continuous can also be used, though with a slight difference of meaning: while the past perfect lays the stress on the mere fact that the action took place, the past perfect continuous accentuates the duration of the action.

3. To denote a succession of past actions belonging to the time preceding the narrative as a whole, thus describing a succession of events in the prepast time.

I gave a slight shiver. In front of me was a neat square of grass and a path and the low gate. Someone had opened the gate, had walked very correctly and quietly up to the house, and had pushed a letter through the letter-box.

§ 39. The ways of rendering the past perfect in Russian are varied, owing to its aspective meaning of the verb or the context. It can be translated by Russian verbs in the past tense of both perfective and imperfective aspects with all possible shades of their meaning. These are mostly supported by lexical means:

I had admitted everything before.

Я все это признал еще раньше.

(A perfective (completed) action.)

Не had banged his fist on the table two or three times before they turned to him.

Он стукнул кулаком по столу два или три раза, прежде чем они обернулись.

(A perfective, iterative action.)

Of late years I had sometimes found him at parties.

В последние годы я иногда встречал его на вечерах.

(An imperfective, iterative action.)

He had looked scared during the prolonged examination.

Во время этого затянувшегося экзамена он казался совсем ис­пуганным.

(An imperfective, durative action.)

The past perfect continuous

§ 40. Formation. The past perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the past perfect (had been) and participle 1 of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the first auxiliary (had ) comes before the subject, and the second auxiliary (been ) and participle I follow the subject.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (had ) are used, the second auxiliary (been ) and participle I follow the negation.

In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogative forms of the first auxiliary are used first, the second auxiliary and participle I follow the subject.

The paradigm of the verb in the past perfect continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

I

He (she, it)

We

You

They

had been speaking

Had

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

been speaking?

Negative

I

He (she, it)

We

You

They

had not (hadn’t) been speaking

Negative –interrogative

a)

Had

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

not been speaking?

b)

Hadn’t

I

he (she, it)

we

you

they

been speaking?

§ 41. The past perfect continuous denotes an action which began before a given moment in the past, continued for a certain period of time up to that moment and possibly still continued at that past moment.

The moment of time in the past before which the action begins is usually indicated by other past actions in the past indefinite or, rather rarely, by the past continuous. Sometimes it is indicated directly by adverbials (by that time, by the 1st of August , etc.).

The past perfect continuous is used with actional verbs to denote:

1. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued up to that moment, but not into it. As a rule no indications of time are present: the exact time of the beginning of the action is more or less clear from the situation, while the end, closely precedes the given moment of past time (the exclusive past perfect continuous).

Dick, who had been reading aloud Pit’s letter, suddenly stopped.

I had been feeling very tired , but now I grew alert.

They had been walking rapidly and now they were approaching the spot.

Her eyes were red. I saw she had been crying .

2. Actions in progress that began before a certain moment of time in the past and continued into it. In this case either the starting point of the action or its duration is indicated (the inclusive past perfect continuous).

Ever since his return he had been losing strength and flesh.

She had been acting for a long time without a rest and she badly needed one.

Even now he could not stop, though he had been running all the way from the village.

The past perfect continuous is usually rendered in Russian by the past tense, imperfective.

Future tenses

§ 42. All the future tenses (the future indefinite (the simple future), the future continuous, the future perfect, the future perfect continuous) refer the actions they denote to the future. The difference between them is due to their different relation to the categories of aspect and perfect.

Their specific time reference limits their use in comparison with the present and the past tenses.

Among the future tenses the future indefinite is the most frequently used, while the use of the future continuous and the future perfect is rather limited, because the situations to which they are applicable seldom arise. As to the future perfect continuous, it is hardly ever used.

The future indefinite

§ 43. Formation. The future indefinite is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary verb shall for the first person singular or plural and will for the second and third person singular or plural and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to .

The modern tendency is to use will for all the persons*.

* In modern spoken English no person distinctions are found in future tenses. The only marker for any future tense is ‘ll used for all persons singular and plural (I’ll speak, He’ll speak). Historically ‘ll is the contracted form of will .

The paradigm of the verb in the future indefinite

Affirmative

Interrogative

I shall speak

He (she, it) will speak

We shall speak

You will speak

They will speak

(I’ll speak)

Shall I speak?

Will he (she, it) speak?

Shall we speak?

Will you speak?

Will they speak?

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) speak

He (she, it) will not (won’t) speak

We shall not (shan’t) speak

You will not (won’t) speak

They will not (won’t) speak

Negative-interrogative

a)

Shall I not speak?

Will he (she, it) not speak?

Shall we not speak?

Will you not speak?

Will they not speak?

b)

Shan’t I speak?

Won’t be (she, it) speak?

Shan’t we speak?

Won’t you speak?

Won’t they speak?

§ 44. The future indefinite is used to denote:

1. Simple facts in the future.

He will return tomorrow.

I shan’t stay with them.

It will be cold in the evening.

2. A succession of actions in the future.

He’ll ring you up and tell you everything.

I’ll take her up to town, we’ll do some shopping , and have lunch , so we shall be back in late afternoon.

3. Habitual actions in the future.

So I’ll see you often in winter?

He will stay with us as often as possible.

I hope you will write regularly.

The future indefinite is not used in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition introduced by the connectives when, while, till, until, before, after, as soon as, if, unless, in case (that), on condition that, provided , etc. In such clauses the present indefinite tense is used instead:

They will wait till it grows dark.

When she comes , ask her to type this letter.

Unless you’re careful , you'll get into trouble.

Care should be taken to distinguish between the adverbial clauses of time or condition and object clauses introduced by the conjunctions when and if , in the case of object clauses any tense required by the sense can be used:

I don’t know when I’ll come again.

Ask him if he’ll do it at all.

§ 45. The Future indefinite can express various shades of aspective meaning, depending on the lexical meaning of the verb and the context. Therefore the ways of rendering it in Russian may be different. It can be translated by the future tense of both perfective and imperfective aspects with all possible shades of their meanings. Here are some examples:

I’ll write this letter on Sunday.

Я напишу это письмо в воскресенье.

(A perfective action.)

She will stay with them for а whole week.

Она будет гостить у них целую неделю.

(An imperfective, durative action.)

I shall write to you every day.

Я буду писать тебе каждый день

(An imperfective, iterative action.)

Don’t be afraid, I shan’t hit him.

He бойся, я его не ударю.

(A perfective, momentary action.)

The future continuous

§ 46. Formation. All the forms of the future continuous are analytic. They are formed with the future indefinite of the auxiliary to be (shall be, will be ) and participle I of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the corresponding form of the first auxiliary (shall/will ) is placed in front of the subject, the second auxiliary (be ) and participle I follow the subject.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of the first auxiliary (shall/will ) are used, the second auxiliary (be ) and participle I follow them.

In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogativte forms of the first auxiliary (shall/will ) are used, the second auxiliary (be ) and participle I follow the subject.

The paradigm of the verb in the future continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

I shall be speaking

He (she, it) will be speaking

We shall be speaking

You will be speaking

They will be speaking

Shall I be speaking?

Will he (she, it) be speaking?

Shall we be speaking?

Will you be speaking?

Will they be speaking?

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) be speaking

He (she, it) will not (won’t) be speaking

We shall not (shan’t) be speaking

You will not (won’t) be speaking

They will not (won’t) be speaking

Negative-interrogative

a)

Shall I not be speaking?

Will he (she, it) not be speaking?

Shall we not be speaking?

Will you not be speaking?

Will they not be speaking?

b)

Shan’t I be speaking?

Won’t he (she, it) be speaking?

Shan’t we be speaking?

Won’t you be speaking?

Won’t they be speaking?

§ 47. The future continuous is used to denote:

1. An action in progress at a certain moment of time or during a certain period of time in the future (compare the corresponding use of the past continuous).

At that time she will be having her early morning cup of coffee.

In an hour I'll be flying over the sea.

When she comes, I think I’ll be packing already.

It will be too late. He will be sleeping .

From ten till twelve he will be writing in his study.

As can be seen from the above examples, the moment (or period) of time at which the action is taking place is either indicated by special adverbials of time, or is implied by another future action, or else by the context or situation.

2. An action the occurrence of which is expected by the speaker.

By the way, Megan will be coming to lunch.

She says she’ll be seeing you tomorrow.

In all its uses the future continuous is rendered in Russian by means of the future tense of the imperfective aspect (будет пить, буду лететь, буду упаковываться, etc.).

The future perfect

§ 48. Formation. The future perfect is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to have in the future indefinite (shall/will have ) and participle II of the notional verb.

In the interrogative the corresponding form of the first auxiliary (shall/will ) is used in the front position and the second auxiliary (have ) and participle II follow the subject.

In the negative the corresponding negative forms of shall/will are used and the second auxiliary (have ) and participle II follow them.

In the negative-interrogative the corresponding negative-interrogative forms of shall/will are used in the front position and the second auxiliary and participle II follow the subject.

The paradigm of the verb in the future perfect

Affirmative

Interrogative

I shall have spoken

He (she, it) will have spoken

We shall have spoken

You will have spoken

They will have spoken

Shall I have spoken?

Will he (she, it) have spoken?

Shall we have spoken?

Will you have spoken?

Will they have spoken?

Negative

I shall not (shan’t) have spoken

He (she, it) will not (won’t) have spoken

We shall not (shan’t) have spoken

You will not (won’t) have spoken

They will not (won’t) have spoken

§ 49. The future perfect is very rarely used either in conversation or in writing.

It is used to denote:

1. An action that both begins and ends before, a definite moment of time in the future (the exclusive future perfect).

"I have no doubt," I said, "that I shall have seen anybody who is anybody by then."

You will have got my cable and I shall have received your answer long before this letter reaches you.

The moment in the future before which the action is to begin and end may be indicated by appropriate adverbials or other verbs denoting future actions, or by the whole context or situation.

2. An action that begins before a certain moment of time in the future and goes up to it or into it. This is the case when the action in question is expressed by statal verbs, which do not admit of continuous forms, or else by certain actional durative verbs, such as to live, to study, to work , etc., which denote a process (the inclusive future perfect).

She will have been in your service fifteen years next year.

The future perfect continuous

§ 50. Formation. The future perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the future perfect (shall/will have been ) and participle I of the notional verb.

Their interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms are built similar to other future forms.

The paradigm of the verb in the future perfect continuous

Affirmative

Interrogative

I

We

shall have been speaking

Shall

I

we

have been speaking

He (she, it) You

They

will have been speaking

Will

he (she, it)

you

they

have been speaking?

Negative


I

We

shall not (shan't) have been speaking

He (she, it)

You

They

will not (won't) have been speaking

§ 51. The future perfect continuous is very rarely used, because situations which require it very seldom arise. It denotes actions which begin before a certain moment of time in the future and go on up to that moment or into it:

I shall have been living there for five years next February.

Future in the past tenses

§ 52. There are four more future tense verb forms in English: the future in the past indefinite, the future in the past continuous, the future in the past perfect, the future in the past perfect continuous, which differ from the previously discussed forms. They refer the actions not to the actual future, but to the future viewed as such from the standpoint of past time.

The future in the past forms are dependent, as they are used mainly in object clauses in reported speech after verbs in the past tense forms.

The most frequently used is the future in the past indefinite (the past simple).

§ 53. Formation. All the future in the past forms are analytical. They are formed by means of the auxiliaries should and would and the corresponding form of the notional verb (should speak, should be speaking, should have spoken, should have been speaking )*.

* The contracted form for both ‘would’ and ‘should’ is ‘d: I’d speak...

The paradigms of the verb in the future in the past

The future in the past indefinite

Affirmative

Interrogative*

I

We

should speak

Should

I

we

speak?

He (she, it)

You

They

would speak

Would

he (she, it)

you

they

speak?

Negative


I

We

should not speak

He (she, it)

You

They

would not speak

* The interrogative future in the past occurs only in sentences reproducing inner speech (conventional direct speech).

§ 54. The future in the past forms are mostly used in object clauses dependent on verbs in the past tense in the principal clause. None of them can be used in subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition introduced by the conjunctions when, while, before, after, till, until, as soon as, as long as, if, unless, in case, on condition that, provided , etc. In all these clauses the corresponding forms of the past tense are used.

However the conjunctions when and if may be used to open object clauses, then the future in the past forms can be used if required by the sense:

She didn’t know when I should return.

I doubted if we should see him at all.

§ 55. The future in the past indefinite is used to denote simple facts, habitual actions and successions of actions in the future viewed from the past:

He said he would soon fake up French.

I knew she would still see him as often as she could.

He said they would start at dawn, reach the river in the afternoon and in an hour or two would proceed up

the road towards the cliffs.

The sun was setting. In an hour it would be quite dark.

§ 56. The future in the past continuous is used to denote an action in progress at a certain moment of time, or an action that is expected by the speaker as a result of a naturally developing situation , both referring to the future considered as such at a certain moment of time in the past:

And she thought, poor soul, that at this time next Sunday she would be approaching her beloved Paris.

Then she mentioned in a rather matter-of-fact way, that Jack would be calling the very next day.

§ 57. The future in the past perfect is used to denote an action com­pleted before a certain moment of time in the future treated as such at some moment in the past:

He realized that he would have accomplished his task long before midnight.

In subordinate adverbial clauses of time and condition described above (§ 54) the past perfect is used to denote the same kind of action:

He said he would do it after he had seen me.

§ 58. The future in the past perfect continuous denotes an action in progress that begins before a certain moment of time in the future viewed from the past and goes on up to that moment and into it. It is an exceptionally rare form, which is hardly ever found in any text.

He said lie would have been living here for ten years next year.

§ 59. Though the future in the past form refer the actions they denote to the future (viewed from the past), their actual time reference is broader than that of the future, for the actions thus expressed may refer not only to the actual future but also to the actual present or the past:

He said he would call tomorrow , and I’m going to stay in till he comes. (actual future)

I said I should come today , and so I’m here! (actual present)

I’m so upset. He said he would come the day before yesterday, but he didn’t. (actual past)

The sequence of tenses

§ 60. The rules of the sequence of tenses are one of the peculiarities of English. The sequence of tenses is a dependence of the tense form of the predicate in a subordinate clause on the tense form of the predicate in its principal clause. The rules mainly concern object clauses depending on principal clauses with the predicate verb in one of the past tenses, though it holds true also for some other subordinate clauses (such as subject, predicative and appositive ones).

The rules are as follows:

1) a present (or future) tense in the principal clause may be followed by any tense in the subordinate object clause:

1.

I know

I say

I am just saying

I have always known

I’ve just been telling her

I shall tell her

(that)

he plays tennis well.

he is playing tennis in the park.

he has played two games today.

he has been playing tennis since morning.

he played tennis yesterday.

he was playing tennis when the storm began.

he had played two games before the storm began.

he had been playing tennis for some time when the storm began.

he will play tennis in summer.

he will be playing tennis all day long.

he will have played some games before you return.

he will have been playing tennis for some time before you come.

2) a past tense in the principal clause is followed by a past tense in the subordinate object clause.

I knew

I said

I was just saying

I had never known

She had been telling

(that)

he played tennis well.

he was playing tennis in the park.

he had played two games that day.

he had been playing tennis since morning.

he had played tennis the day before.

he had been playing when the storm began.

he had played two games before the storm.

he had been playing tennis for some time before the storm.

he would play tennis in summer.

he would be playing tennis all day long.

he would have played some games by the time you returned.

he would have been playing tennis for more than an hour before you came.

Thus the past indefinite or the past continuous tense in the subordinate clause denotes an action, simultaneous with that of the pripcipal clause. They are translated into Russian by the present tense.

For a moment she did not know where she was.

Joanna noticed suddenly that I was not listening.

Had she not hinted what was troubling her?

He had thought it was his own son.

People had been saying he was a madman.

My first thought was where they were now.

The past perfect or the past perfect continuous in the subordinate clause denotes an action prior to that of the principal clause. Both of these forms are translated into Russian by the past tense.

I perceived that something had happened.

I wasn’t going to tell her that Megan had rung me up.

I knew well enough what she had been doing.

Up to that moment I had not realized what they had been trying to prove.

The fact was that his sister Rose had married beneath her.

She had a feeling that she had been deceived.

The future in the past tenses in the subordinate clause denote an action following that of the principal clause.

I hoped she would soon be better.

I told Caroline that I should be dining at Fernley.

What she would say or do did not bother him.

The fact remained that none of us would see them till late at night.

The sudden thought that Nell would not come at all flashed through his head.

The fact that the action of the subordinate clause follows that of the action in the principal clause may be also indicated by other means.

She said she was going to see him the same night.

§ 61. The rules of the sequence of tenses concern subordinate clauses dependent not only on the predicate of the principal clause but also on any part expressed by a verb or verbal:

I received from her a letter saying that she was passing through Paris and would like to have a chat with

me.

She smiled again, sure that I should come up.

She turned her head slightly, well aware that he was watching her.

In complex sentences containing more than two subordinate clauses the choice of the tense form for each of them depends on the tense form of the clause to which it is subordinated:

I guess you told him where they had come from and why they were hiding .

As far as I can see he did not realize that very soon all would be over .

Besides the complex sentences described above the rules of the se­quence of tenses are also found in all types of clauses and simple sentences reproducing inner speech (conventional direct speech).

§ 62. As already stated the rules of the sequence of tenses concern object, subject and predicative clauses. In all the other clauses (attributive and adverbial ones) the use of tenses depends wholly on the sense to be conveyed:

Clyde thought of all the young and thoughtless company of which he had been a part.

He lifted the heavy latch which held the large iron gate in place.

She only liked men who are good-looking.

I was thinking of the day which will come only too soon.

He was standing where the creek turns sharply to the east.

At the moment he was standing where he always had stood, on the rug before the living-room fire.

She felt gay as he had promised to take her to the pictures.

You see, I could not follow them as I’m rather shy.

Mr. Direck’s broken wrist healed sooner than he desired.

He knew the job better than I do.

She had been a wife for even less time than you have.

In my youth life was not the same as it is now.

§ 63. The rules of the sequence of tenses are not observed in the following cases:

1) when the subordinate clause describes the so-called general truth, or something which the speaker thinks to be one.

Up to then Roy never realized that our Solar system is but a tiny speck in the infinite Universe.

The other day I read in a book that everything alive consists mostly of water.

She was very young and - and ignorant of what life really is .

2) when the subordinate clause describes actions referring to the actual present, future, or past time, which usually occurs in dialogues or in newspaper, radio, or TV reports.

Margaret, I was saying to you - and I beg you to listen to me – that as far as I have known Mrs. Erlynne,

she has conducted herself well.

“Before the flier crashed,” the operator said ten minutes later, “he gave me information. He told me there

are still a few men alive in these mountains.”

I did not know he will be here tomorrow.

3) when the predicate verb of the subordinate clause is one of the modal verbs having no past tense forms.

She said I must come at once.

I thought you should come too.

The category of voice

§ 64. Voice is the grammatical category of the verb denoting the relationship between the action expressed by the verb and the person or non-person denoted by the subject of the sentence. There are two main voices in English: the active voice and the passive voice . There are also other voices which embrace a very limited number of verbs: reflexive (wash oneself), reciprocal (embrace one another), medial (the book reads well).

The active voice indicates that the action is directed from the subject or issues from the subject, thus the subject denotes the doer (agent) of the action:


We help our friends. - Мы помогаем нашим друзьям.

The passive voice indicates that the action is directed towards the subject. Here the subject expresses a person or non-person who or which is the receiver of the action. It does not act, but is acted upon and there­fore affected by the action of the verb.


We were helped by our friends in our work.

В работе нам помогли наши друзья.

The contrast between the two voices can be seen from the following examples:

I had asked no questions, of course; but then, on the other hand, I had been asked none.

They saw but were not seen.

Я не задавал вопросов, но, с другой стороны, и мне не задавали вопросов.

Они видели, но их не видели.

The difference in the meaning of the forms helped - were helped , had asked - had been asked , saw - was seen illustrates the morphological contrast between the active and the passive voice.

Of all the verb categories voice is most closely related to the syntax of the sentence. The interrelation of the active and the passive voice on the syntactical level can be presented in the following way:

Subject

Predicate Verb

Object

John

helped

Pete

Pete

was helped

by John

A sentence containing a verb in the passive voice is called a passive construction, and a sentence containing a verb in the active voice is called an active construction, especially when opposed to the passive construction.

The subject of an active construction denotes the agent (doer ) of the action , which may be a living being, or any source of the action (a thing, a natural phenomenon, an abstract notion).

The subject of a passive construction has the meaning of the receiver of the action , that is a person or non-person affected by the action.

The object of an active construction denotes the receiver of the action, whereas the object of the passive construction is the agent of the action. The latter is introduced by the preposition by . If it is not the agent but the instrument, it is introduced by the preposition with .

The cup was broken by Jim.

It was broken with a hammer.

Formation and the system of forms in the passive voice

§ 65. The active voice has no special means of formation. It is recognized by contrast with the passive voice, which is composed of the auxiliary verb to be and participle II . Thus the passive verb forms are analytical, the tense of the auxiliary verb to be varies according to the sense. The notional verb (participle II) remains unchanged and provides the whole analytical form with its passive meaning.

The category of voice applies to the whole system of English verb forms, both finite and non-finite.

Table II

The voice forms of the verb

Perfect

Tense

The active voice

The Passive Voice

Aspect

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

Non-perfect

Common

takes

took

will take

is taken

was taken

will be taken

Continuous

is taking

was taking

will be taking

is being taken

was being taken

-----------

Perfect

Common

has taken

had taken

will have taken

has been taken

had been taken

will have been taken

Continuous

has been taking

had been taking

will have been taking

-------------

-----------

-----------

Note:

The verb to get occurs as a passive voice auxiliary, emphasizing the result of the action denoted by participle II.

They got married last year.

I got hurt in an accident.

The active voice

§ 66. The active voice is widely used with all kinds of verbs, both transitive and intransitive. The meaning of the active voice depends on the type of verb and the syntactical pattern of the sentence.

1. The active voice of transitive verbs presents an action as directed from the subject and passing over to the object, that is from the doer (agent) of the action to its receiver.

John made a boat for his brother.

They are building a new railway.

We are talking about the new film.

One of the characteristic features of English is that verbs which were originally intransitive may function as transitive verbs without changing their morphological structure, with or without changing their lexical meaning.

They ran the distance in five minutes.

Frank will run your house.

James stood the lamp on the table.

2. The active voice of intransitive verbs shows that the action, directed from the subject, does not pass over to any object, and thus the verb only characterizes the subject as the doer of the action.

He came here yesterday.

The boy can run very fast.

You acted wisely.

He slept eight hours.

3. The form of the active voice of some transitive verbs, often accompanied by an adverbial modifier, does not indicate that the subject denotes the doer of the action. This specific use of the transitive verb is easily recognized from the meaning of the subject, which is a noun denoting a non-person, and by the absence of a direct object after a monotransitive, non-preposi­tional verb. In such cases the verb is used in the medial voice.

The bell rang.

The door opened.

The newspaper sells well.

The novel reads easily.

Glass breaks easily.

The place was filling up.

It said on the radio (in the article) that the weather forecast is favourable.

The passive voice

The use of tense, aspect and perfect forms in the passive voice

§ 67. As seen from table II, verbs in the passive voice may acquire almost all the aspect, tense and perfect forms that occur in the active voice, except for the future continuous and perfect continuous forms.

The examples below illustrate the use of the passive voice in different aspect, tense and perfect forms.

Common aspect, non-perfect

Students are examined twice a year.

They were examined in June.

They will be examined next Friday.

Continuous aspect, non-perfect

Don’t be noisy! Students are being examined.

The students were being examined when the Professor came.

Common aspect, perfect

Our students have already been examined .

They had been examined by 2 o’clock.

Everybody will have been examined by 3 o’clock.

The passive voice of different verbs

§ 68. The passive voice in English may be found with different types of verbs (mostly transitive) in various verb phrases; monotransitive (non-prepositional and prepositional) and ditransitive. The subject of the passive construction may correspond to a direct, an indirect object, or to a preposi­tional object in the active construction. Accordingly we discriminate a direct passive construction, an indirect passive construction, and a preposi­tional passive construction.

Monotransitive verbs are numerous and almost all of them can form a direct passive construction. These are the verbs: to take, to do, to make, to build, to discuss, to translate, to hate, to love, to meet and a lot of others.

A new railway is being built near our town.

“A Farewell to Arms” was published in 1929.

You will be met at the station.

Phrasal transitive verbs, that is, such verbs as to blow up, to bring in, to bring up, to carry out, to put on, to see off, to turn down , etc. are also often used in the passive voice.

The plan was successfully carried out.

The boats are being brought in .

Originally intransitive verbs may form a direct passive construction, as in these examples:

This distance has never been run in five minutes before.

He thought of the lives, that had been lived here for nearly two centuries.

In the vast majority of cases, English transitive verb + object corresponds to the same type in Russian. There are a number of transitive verbs in English, however, which correspond to Russian verbs followed by an indirect or a prepositional object, or sometimes an adverbial modifier. These verbs are:

To answer

To approach

To assist

To address

To admire

To affect

To attend

To believe

To contradict

To enjoy

To enter

to follow

to help

to influence

to join

to need

to obey

to speak

to succeed

to threaten

to trust

to watch

Sentences with these verbs are rendered in Russian by means of the indefinite personal constructions with the verb in the active voice, or if the doer of the action is mentioned of a personal construction with the verb in the active voice.

We are not trusted, David, but who cares if we are not innocent.

The British bicycle was much admired.

In the spring of 1925 Hemingway was approached by two Americans.

Нам не доверяют...

Этим английским велосипедом восхищались.

Весной 1925 года к Хемингуэю подошли два американца.

A direct passive construction is used in the sentences of the type:

1. J. F. Kennedy was elected president in 1960.

The woman was called Brome .

We were kept busy most of the time.

The walls were painted blue .*

* For details see in Syntax, § 55.

2. He is said (believed, known, reported) to be in town.

He was seen to enter the museum.

He was seen leaving the museum.*

* For details see in Syntax, § 53.

3. The direct passive of verbs of speech, mental activity, and perception is used in complex sentences with the formal subject it.


It was suggested

It was reported

that he was still in town.

It was said

It was believed

It was known

It was settled

that we should meet once more.

Restrictions to the use of the passive voice

1. Though in many cases there is an evident correspondence of the active and the passive voice construction it is by no means a one-to-one correspondence. There is a certain group of monotransitive verbs which are never used in the passive voice at all, or in some of their meanings; they are: to have, to lack, to become, to fit, to suit, to resemble.

There are semantic reasons for this constraint, as these verbs denote not an action or process, but a state or relation.

John resembles his father. (John looks like his father.)

He lacks confidence. (There is no confidence in him.)

Will this suit you? (Will it be suitable for you?)

The verb to hold can be used in the passive voice only with reference to human activity; for example: The conference was held in April . However, in a sentence like The auditorium holds 5000 people the verb does not denote human activity. The sentence means There can be 5000 people in this auditorium .

2. No passive construction is possible, if the object is a that-clause, an infinitive or a gerund.

John said that everything was all right.

John enjoyed seeing his native town.

Passive constructions with ditransitive verbs

§ 69. Ditransitive verbs take two objects, usually one indirect and one direct. Accordingly they admit of two passive constructions.


The referee gave Mary the first prize .

Mary was given the first prize by the referee.

The first prize was given to Mary by the referee.

The subject of the first passive construction (Mary ) corresponds to the indirect object of the active construction, and the construction is therefore called the indirect passive construction . The direct object (the first prize ) is retained unchanged after the passive verb and therefore, is called the retained object .

The subject of the second passive construction corresponds to the direct object of the active construction. In this case the indirect object becomes a prepositional one. The preposition to may be omitted.

The agentive by-object corresponding to the subject of the active construction is very rarely used in either type of construction. Of the two passive constructions the indirect passive is by far the most common. As there is no indirect passive construction in Russian, sentences with this construction are translated into Russian by means of the indefinite personal construction with the indirect object in the front position.

You will be given another ticket.

I was allowed an hour’s rest.

Вам дадут другой билет.

Мне разрешили отдохнуть один час.

The indirect passive construction gives greater prominence to the direct object, whereas the direct passive construction emphasizes the indirect object: The first prize was given to Mary implies that it was not given to anybody else. The construction may be translated in two ways, by an indefinite personal active construction or by a passive construction: Первую премию дали Мэри or Первая премия была дана (присуждена) Мэри .

The presence of the by-object makes it of great communicative value.


I was given this watch by my father .

The watch was given (to) me by m у father .

Часы эти мне подарил мои отец.

Ditransitive verbs used in the passive construction

I

II

to allow

to give

to grant

to lend

to offer

to pay

to promise

to teach

to tell

to ask

to answer

to envy

to forgive

to refuse

Verbs in group I follow the usage explained in the previous part of this section. The same refers to group II with the difference that all the verbs of this group are followed by two direct objects, though in the passive the difference is not so distinct.

I was asked a lot of questions.

Restrictions on the use of the passive of ditransitive verbs

1. The indirect passive is impossible with verbs of benefaction, when the action is performed for the benefit of somebody.

They bought me a dictionary.

The corresponding direct passive is:

They bought a dictionary for me.

A dictionary was bought for me.

2. The same applies to the verbs with the obligatory to of the type to explain something to somebody (to describe, to dictate, to suggest , etc.). With these only the direct passive is possible:

The rule was explained to them once more .

3. In verb-phrases containing a non-prepositional and a preposi­tional object only the non-prepositional passive is possible.

I was told about their victory.

Oliver was accused of theft.

4. The infinitive cannot be used as the subject of the passive construc­tion with a ditransitive verb.

§ 70. Passive constructions with prepositional monotransitive verbs

Active:

Passive:

The man referred to this book.

This book was referred to by the man.

In the passive construction the subject of the prepositional passive construction corresponds to the object of the active construction and denotes the receiver of the action. The peculiarity of the construction is that the preposition sticks to the verb.

Most verbs of this type denote the process of speaking, mental and physical perception.

The prepositional passive construction has no equivalent in Russian and is translated by an indefinite personal active construction.

Caroline was also still being talked about .

Не had never been spoken to that way in his life.

He’s well spoken of as a man of science.

О Кэролайн тоже все еще продолжали говорить.

С ним так никогда в жизни не разговаривали.

О нем хорошо отзываются как об ученом.

When the prepositional passive construction contains a modal verb, an impersonal active construction is used in Russian.

These pictures must be looked at again and again with sustained attention before they completely reveal their beauty.

На эти картины надо смотреть снова и снова с неослабевающим вниманием, прежде чем полностью раскроется их красота.

Here are some of the most important prepositional monotransitive verbs:

I

II

III

to account for

to agree upon

to appeal to

to call on

to comment on (upon)

to deal with

to decide on

to depend (up)on

to dispose of

to dwell upon

to hear of

to insist on

to interfere with

to laugh at

to listen to

to look at

to look for

to look into

to object to

to pay for

to provide for

to put up with

to read to

to refer to

to rely on

to send for

to speak about (of)

to speak to

to talk about (of)

to think about (of)

to touch upon

to wait for

to wonder at

to catch sight of

to lose sight of

to find fault with

to make fun of

to make a fuss of

to make use of

to pay attention to

to put an end (a stop) to

to put up with

to set fire to

to take notice of

to take advantage of

to take care of

to arrive at

to come to

to live in

to sleep in

to sit in (on)

Group I in the list contains the majority (but not all) of prepositional transitive verbs. The list could be continued, for a number of verbs of the kind are used occasionally, but the pattern itself is very productive.

Some prepositional monotransitive verbs have non-prepositional equivalents, e.g. to account for is a synonym for to explain, to look on - to regard, to speak (talk) about - to discuss.

Your absence must be accounted for. = Your absence must be explained.

Group II contains phraseological units based on the fusion of a monotransitive verb and a noun as direct object. These units express one notion and function as prepositional verbs. Many of them have synonyms among monotransitive verbs, prepositional and non-prepositional:

to take care of

to find fault with

to put an end to

to put up with

to make fun of

- to look after, to tend;

- to grumble at, about, to criticize;

- to stop;

- to reconcile oneself to;

- to laugh at, to mock.

Like single prepositional verbs the phraseological units with the verb in the passive voice are usually rendered in Russian by means of indefinite personal or impersonal constructions.

In hospital patients are taken great care of.

The boy was the only child and was made a

lot of fuss of.

I’m not prepared to think that I’m being made

a fool of.

В госпитале за больными хорошо ухаживают.

Мальчик был единственным ребенком в семье, и с ним много возились.

Мне не хочется думать, что меня дурачат.

Sometimes a phraseological unit is split and the original direct object becomes the subject of the passive construction (the direct passive).

No notice was taken of the boy at first. - Сначала мальчика не замечали.

Group III contains a short list of intransitive verbs used with preposi­tional nominal groups functioning as prepositional objects or adverbial modifiers. These may form passive constructions by analogy with other verbs used with prepositions:

No conclusion was arrived at.

His bed hasn’t been slept in.

Such a dress can’t be sat down in.

He пришли ни к какому заключению.

В его постели не спали. (Она не смята)

В таком платье нельзя садиться.

The use of the passive voice

§ 71. The passive voice is widely used in English. It is used alongside the active voice in written and spoken English. Passive constructions are often used instead of active constructions in sentences beginning with an indefinite pronoun, a noun or a pronoun of indefinite reference.

Somebody left the dog in the garden.

Has anybody answered your questions?

People will laugh at you for your trouble.

They told me to go away.

= The dog was left in the garden.

= Have your questions been answered?

= You will be laughed at for your trouble.

= I was told to go away.

It is evident that in the process of speech passive constructions arise naturally, not as a result of conversion from the active into the passive.

A passive construction is preferable in case when the speaker is interested in what happens to the person or thing denoted by the subject. The verb or the whole verb phrase is thus made more prominent. The agent or the source of the action is not mentioned at all, either because it is unknown or because it is of no particular importance in the utterance, or else it is evident from the context or the situation. The predicate verb with its modifiers contains a new and most important item of information and is of great communicative value.

We were brought up together.

I am always being contradicted.

Thank you for your help, but it is no longer required.

You will be met as you leave the airport, and you will be given another ticket.

In silence the soup was finished - excellent, if a little thick; and fish was brought. In silence it was

handed.

There are a number of conventional expressions where the passive voice is constantly used.

The novel was published in 1929.

Shakespeare was born in 1564.

The use of the agentive by-object

§ 72. The use of the agentive by-object is highly restricted, it occurs in one case out of five, and even less frequently in colloquial speech and imaginative prose. However, when it does occur, the by-object is of great communicative value, and its elimination would often make the meaning of the verb incomplete and the sentence devoid of meaning.

The agent may be a living being, or any thing or notion that can be the source of the action.

The whole scene was being enacted by puppets.

In some areas the picture has been barely touched by the brush.

I was wounded by a landmine.

The distant mountain had been formed by fire and water.

How much was she influenced by that fake idea?

Besides a noun and very rarely a pronoun, a by-object may be a gerundial phrase or complex, or a subordinate clause.

I was then awakened only by knocking on the window and Annie telling the person responsible to go off.

She didn’t really know anything about people, she was always being taken in by what they told her.

Owing to its communicative value and the final position in the sentence, the by-object may be expanded, if necessary, to an extent that is hardly possible in the subject group, as in this commentary on Cezanne's painting:

“The Card Players.” The subject of this painting of two peasants playing cards was probably inspired by a similar composition by one of the brothers de Pack, French painters of the seventeenth century whose work Cezanne admired.

The category of mood

§ 73. The meaning of this category is the attitude of the speaker or writer towards the content of the sentence, whether the speaker considers the action real, unreal, desirable, necessary, etc. It is expressed in the form of the verb.

There are three moods in English - the indicative mood, the impera­tive mood and the subjunctive mood.

The indicative mood

§ 74. The indicative mood form shows that what is said must be regarded as a fact, as something which has occurred or is occurring at the moment of speaking or will occur in the future. It may denote actions with different time-reference and different aspective characteristics. Therefore the indicative mood has a wide variety of tense and aspect forms in the active and passive voice.

The imperative mood

§ 75. The imperative mood expresses a command or a request to perform an action addressed to somebody, but not the action itself. As it does not actually denote an action as a real act, it has no tense category; the unfulfilled action always refers to the future. Aspect distinctions and voice distinctions are not characteristic of the imperative mood, although forms such as, be writing, be warned sometimes occur.

The imperative mood form coincides with the plain stem of the verb, for example: Come here! Sit down. The negative form is built by means of the auxiliary do + the negative particle not (the contracted form is don’t ). This form is always addressed to the second person.

Do not take it away.

Don’t worry about the child.

Don’t be a fool .

Note:

Do is also used in commands or requests to make them more emphatic: Do come and stay with us. Do be quiet.

In commands and requests addressed to a first or third person (or persons) the analytical form let + infinitive without the particle to is used. The verb let functions as an auxiliary, and it partly loses its lexical mean­ing. The person addressed is expressed by the personal pronoun in the objective case.

Let us go together.

Let him finish his dinner first.

Let Andrew do it himself.

In negative sentences the analytical forms take the particle not without an auxiliary.

Let us not argue on the matter.

Let him not overestimate his chances.

Let her not go any further.

Note:

In sentences like Don’t let him go the negation refers to the verb let , which in this case fully retains its original meaning of permission.

The analytical forms differ in meaning from the synthetic forms, because their meaning is closely connected with the meaning of the pronoun included in the form. Thus let us do smth denotes an invitation to a joint action, not an order or a request. Let him do it retains to some extent the meaning of permission. In the form let me (let me do it) the first person singular does not convey any imperative meaning and should not therefore be regarded as the imperative. It conveys the meaning of I am eager to do it, allow me to do it.

The imperative mood form can’t be used in questions.

The subjunctive mood

§ 76. The subjunctive mood is the category of the verb which is used to express non-facts: unreal or hypothetical actions or states. A hypothetical action or state may be viewed upon as desired, necessary, possible, supposed, imaginary, or contradicting reality.

Different forms of the verb are employed for this purpose.

The synthetic forms

§ 77. In Old English the subjunctive mood was expressed by a special system of forms with a special set of inflections, different from those of the indicative. In the course of time, however, most of the inflections were lost, and the difference between the forms of the subjunctive and those of the indicative has almost disappeared. In Modern English there remain only two synthetic forms of the old regular system of the subjunctive, which differ from the forms of the indicative. Although their meaning and use have changed considerably, they are often called by their old names: the present subjunctive and the past subjunctive.

I. The present subjunctive coincides with the plain verb stem (be, go, see ) for all persons in both the singular and the plural. It denotes a hypothetical action referring to the present or future. Of these surviving forms only be is always distinct from the indicative forms and is therefore rather current.


I

he

she

it

we

you

they

be, take, resent, etc.

He required that all be kept secret.

Other verbs are rarely used in the subjunctive in informal style, because their subjunctive forms coincide with the indicative except in the 3rd person singular. They are confined mainly to formal style and formulaic expressions - prayers, wishes, which should be memorized as wholes.

It is natural enough the enemy resent it.

Heaven forbid! The devil take him!

Long live freedom! God save the king!

II. The past subjunctive is even more restricted in its usage; it exists in Modern English only in the form were , which is used for all persons both in the singular and plural. It refers the hypothetical action to the present or future and shows that it contradicts reality.

If I were you!

If you were there!

If it were true!

The modem tendency, however, is to use was and were in accordance with the rules of agreement (he was, they were).

The non-factual forms of the tenses

§ 78. Owing to the same process of the obliteration of distinctions between the old subjunctive and the indicative the same forms have come to be used for both purposes in Modern English. To differentiate those used to express hypothetical actions or states (non-facts) from tenses in the indicative they will be called non-factual forms of the tenses.

The non-factual past indefinite and past continuous are used to denote hypothetical actions in the present or future; the non-factual past perfect and past perfect continuous denote hypothetical actions in the past. These two pairs of forms differ not only in their time-reference but also in their degree of improbability: If I had only known expresses greater improbability than If I only knew because it refers to a time which has already passed. In Russian this difference is not reflected in the form of the verb.

The wide use of the non-factual past indefinite (If I knew, if he came... ) probably accounts for the strong tendency in Modern English to substitute was for the past subjunctive form were , at least in less formal style. This tendency makes the system of subjunctive mood forms more similar and comparable to the system of indicative mood forms: if I knew..., if I was (instead of were ), I wish I knew..., I wish I was (instead of were ).

On the other hand, were is often used instead of was in the non-factual past continuous.

He smiled as if he were enjoying the situation.

The analytical forms

§ 79. Most of the later formations are analytical, built by means of the auxiliaries which developed from the modal verbs should and would , plus any form of the infinitive . The auxiliaries, generally called mood auxiliaries , have lost their lexical meaning and are used in accordance with strict rules in certain patterns of sentences or clauses. In cases where should and would retain their original modal meaning or their use is not determined by any strict rules, they should be regarded as modal verbs, forming a compound verbal (or nominal) modal predicate. You should be more palient with the child.

Still, some modal verbs are regularly used to denote hypothetical actions in certain syntactic patterns - may/might + infinitive, can/could + infinitive, but to a certain degree retain their original meaning. These will be regarded as quasi-subjunctive forms.

However much you may argue , he will do as he pleases (expresses possibility).

I wish I could help you (expresses ability).

If you would agree to visit my uncle, ... (expresses wish).

Analytic forms may be divided into three groups, according to their use and function.

I. The forms should + infinitive (for the first person singular and plural) and would + infinitive (for the other persons). This system coincides in form with the future in the past. These forms may be used either in a simple sentence or in the main clause.

There is a strong tendency in Modern English to use would for all persons, in the same way as will is used instead of shall in the indicative mood. Another tendency is to use the contracted form of would –‘d for all person in informal style. (Compare this usage with that of the contracted form ‘ll in the indicative.)

These forms denote hypothetical actions, either imagined as resulting from hypothetical conditions, or else presented as a real possibility.

I would not praise the boy so much.

Would you help me if I need your help?

He would smoke too much if I didn’t stop him now and again.

II. The form would + infinitive for all persons, both singular and plural. This form is highly specialised in meaning; it expresses a desirable action in the future. It may be used both in simple and complex sentences.

Let us invite him. He would gladly accept the invitation.

I wish you would go there too.

III. The form should + infinitive for all persons. This form stands apart in the system of the verb, as contrary to the general tendency to use either two forms - should and would , or else to use one form - would for all persons. The meaning of the form is rather broad - it depends on the context.

It is important that all the students should be informed about it.

It is strange that we should have met in the same place.

It can easily be seen that most of the forms used to express hypothetical actions are homonymous with the indicative mood forms, either with tense forms or with free combinations of modal verbs with the infinitive. Hence most forms are recognizable as subjunctive only under certain conditions:

1) when they are used in certain sentence or clause patterns. We shall regard such cases as structurally determined use of the subjunctive mood;

2) when their use is determined by the lexical meaning of the verb or conjunction (see below examples with the verb wish and the conjunction lest ).

3) in some set expressions (formulaic utterances) which have to be learned as wholes and in which no element of the structure can be omitted or replaced. We shall regard these cases as the traditional use of the forms.

The first two conditions very often overlap.

The subjunctive mood and the tense category

§ 80. The category of tense in the subjunctive mood is different from that in the indicative mood: unlike the indicative mood system in which there are three distinct time-spheres (past, present, future), time-reference in the subjunctive mood is closely connected with the idea of unreality and is based on the following opposition in meaning:

Imagined, but still possible

(referring to the present or future indiscriminately)

imagined, no longer possible

(referring to the past)

The difference in meaning is expressed by means of the following contrasting forms:

1) The common or continuous non-perfect infinitive as contrasted with the perfect common or continuous infinitive in the analytical forms with should, would , and quasi-subjunctive forms with may (might).

Referring to the Present or Future

I fear lest he should escape.

He would phone you.

I suppose he should be working in the library.

Referring to the Past

I fear lest he should have escaped.

He would have phoned you.

I suppose he should have been working in the library.

2) The forms of the non-factual past indefinite and past continuous contrast with the forms of the non-factual past perfect and past perfect continuous in time reference:

Referring to the Present or Future

If I knew.

I wish I were warned when the time-table is changed.

Referring to the Past

If I had known .

I wish I had been warned.

In case these forms are used in subordinate clauses (as is usually the case) their time-reference is always relative. The non-factual past indefinite and past continuous indicate that the hypothetical action is regarded as simultaneous with the action expressed in the principal clause; the non-factual past perfect and past perfect continuous indicate actions prior to the action expressed in the principal clause.

We did things and talked to the people as if we were walking in our sleep.

His face was haggard as if he had been working the whole night.

The opposition of the non-perfect continuous infinitive and the perfect continuous infinitive is less distinct, as these forms are not so common: an imaginary action is usually presented as devoid of any aspective characteristics.

The old synthetic forms (he be, he come, he were ) have no correspond­ing oppositions in time-reference.

Structurally determined use of subjunctive mood forms

§ 81. In Modern English the choice of the subjunctive mood form is determined by the structure of the sentence or clause even more than by the attitude of the speaker or writer to what is said or written. There exist strict rules of the use of the forms in different patterns of sentences and clauses.

The subjunctive mood in subject clauses

§ 82. 1. The use of the subjunctive mood forms in subject clauses in complex sentences of the type It is necessary that you should come.

Subject clauses follow the principal clause, which is either formal or has no subject (exclamatory). The predicate of the principal clause expresses some kind of modality, estimate, or some motive for performing the action denoted by the predicate in the subordinate clause. This close connection between the two predicates accounts for the nature of the subordinate clause, which completes, or rather gives meaning to general situation described in the principal clause.

Should + infinitive or present subjunctive is generally used in this pattern in the subject clause.

It is (was) necessary

It is (was) important

It is (was) only right

It is (was) curious

It is (was) funny

It is (was) good (better, best)

It is (was) cruel

It is (was) shameful

It is (was) a happy coincidence

It is (was) considered strange

It is (was) recomended

It becomes (became) a custom

It seems (seemed) to me prophetic

How wonderful

What a shame

How strange

etc.

that he should say so.

(that he say so).

It is sad that you should have heard of it on the day of your wedding.

It is a happy coincidence that we should meet here.

It shocked him that he should have been so blind.

It was suggested that somebody should inform the police.

It was more important that he should care for her enough.

In American English the present subjunctive is predominant in this sentence pattern:

It is sad that you be here.

In exclamatory complex sentences:

How wonderful that she should have such a feeling for you!

What a scandal that Palmer and Antonia should go to the opera together!

If the principal clause expresses possibility (it is probable, possible, likely) may (might) + non-perfect infinitive is used, because the action is referred to the future (Возможно, что...; похоже, что...; видимо... )

It is likely the weather may change.

It is possible the key may be lost .

In negative and interrogative sentences, however, should + infinitive is used:

It is not possible that he should have guessed it.

Is it possible that he should refuse to come?

Невероятно, чтобы...

Возможно ли, чтобы...

Note:

If in sentences introduced by it the reference is made to an existing fact or state of things, the indicative mood may be used in the subordinate clause.

It is strange that he behaves like that.

Is it possible that he has taken the key?

2. After the principal clause expressing time - it is time, it is high time -the past subjunctive or non-factual forms are used.

It is time you went to bed.

It is high time he were more serious .

It was hight time he had come to a decision .

The subjunctive mood in object clauses

§ 83. The choice of the subjunctive mood form in object clauses depends on the meaning of the verb standing before the object clause.

1. In object clauses after verbs expressing order (to order, to command, to give orders, to give instructions, to demand, to urge, to insist, to require ), request (to request, to appeal, to beg ), suggestion (to suggest, to recommend, to propose, to move, to advise ) either should + infinitive or the present subjunctive is used, the first form being more common than the second.

We urged that in future these relations should be more friendly.

Mr. Nupkins commanded that the lady should be shown in.

In American English the present subjunctive in this sentence pattern is predominant.

People don’t demand that a thing be reasonable if their emotions are touched.

I suggested that she give up driving, but she looked too miserable.

The same form is used after the predicative adjectives sorry, glad, pleased, vexed, eager, anxious, determined , etc., if the action is regarded as an imagined one.

I am sorry she should take such needless trouble.

His brother’s suggestion was absurd. He was vexed his relatives should interfere into his private matters.

2. In object clauses after the verb wish and phrases expressing the same idea I had better , I would rather , or the contracted form I’d rather -different forms may be used, depending on the time-reference of the action in the object clause. If the action refers to the present or future, or is simultaneous with the action expressed in the principal clause, the non-factual past indefinite, past continuous, or past subjunctive is used. After I’d rather the present subjunctive is also possible.

I wish I knew something of veterinary medicine. There’s a feeling of helplessness with a sick animal.

I wish you came here more often. I hardly ever see you.

I would rather you went now.

I’d rather you didn’t help me, actually.

Note:

To express a realizable wish an infinitive, not a clause is generally used:

I want him to come.

I should like to discuss things in detail.

He wished it to be true.

If the action refers to the past or is prior to the moment it is desired the non-factual past perfect or past perfect continuous is used, no matter in what tense the verb in the principal clause is. Thus in both the sentences I wish I hadn’t come and I wished I hadn’t come the non-factual past perfect denotes a prior imaginary action, contradicting reality.

We wished we hadn’t left everything to the last minute.

I wish I had been taught music in my childhood.

If the desired action refers to the future the following subjunctive forms may be used:

would + infinitive (only when the subject of the subordinate clause and that of the principal clause do not denote the same thing or person). It denotes a kind of request.

could + infinitive

may (might) + infinitive

The form would + infinitive is used when the fulfilment of the wish depends on the will of the person denoted by the subject of the subordinate clause. If the fulfilment of the wish depends more on the circumstances, the quasi-subjunctive form may (might) + infinitive is preferable, to show that the realization of the action is very unlikely.

I wish you would treat me better.

I wish I could help you.

I wish he might have helped me.

When rendering wish-clauses into Russian it is possible to use a clause with the opposite meaning, introduced by the impersonal «жаль», «как жаль», «какая жалость» or by the finite form of the verb «сожалеть».

I wish I knew it.

I wish I didn’t know it!

I wish I had known about it!

- Жаль, что я этого не знаю.

- Какая жалость, что я это знаю!

- Жаль, что я не знал об этом!

3. In object clauses after verbs expressing fear, apprehension, worry (to fear, to be afraid, to be terrified, to be anxious, to worry, to be fearful, to be troubled, to be in terror, to tremble, to dread , etc.) two forms are used, depending on the conjunction introducing the clause:

a) after the conjunction that or if the clause is joined asyndetically, the quasi-subjunctive may/might + infinitive is used. The choice of either may or might depends on the tense of the verb in the main clause.

They trembled (that) they might be discovered .

I fear (that) he may forget about it.

Они дрожали, что их могут обнаружить.

Боюсь, как бы он не забыл об этом.

b) after the conjunction lest the form should + infinitive is used.

The passengers were terrified lest the ship

should catch fire .

Пассажиров охватил ужас, как бы корабль не загорелся.

The indicative forms are also possible in clauses of this type if the action is regarded as a real one:

She was afraid that he had changed his mind.

4. In object clauses after verbs and phrases expressing doubt (to doubt, to disbelieve, to have doubts, to greet with scepticism , etc.) and after some other verbs in the negative form the past subjunctive may be used. The subordinate clause is introduced by if or whether .

We had doubts if it were possible to cross the river at this time of the year.

I doubted she had even been there.

5. In object clauses referring to the formal it + objective predicative , expressing opinion of some situation, the choice of the form depends on the general meaning of the principal clause:

We found it strange that he should speak so calmly after the events (the principal clause expresses the

idea of disbelief, hence the form should speak is used).

We regard it as highly probable that he may return soon (the principal clause expresses the idea of

probability, hence the form may return is used).

The subjunctive mood in appositive and predicative clauses

§ 84. The choice of the form in these clauses is determined by the lexical meaning of the words these clauses follow or refer to.

The order that we should come surprised me. (appositive clause)

The order was that we should come . (predicative clause)

His suggestion that we stop and have a look round the castle was rather sudden. (appositive clause)

His suggestion was that we stop and have a look round the castle. (predicative clause)

1. The forms should + infinitive or the present subjunctive are used after nouns expressing wish, advice, desire, proposal, doubt, hesitation, fear, apprehension , etc. After the last two nouns the conjunction lest is used.

Mary’s wish was that we should stay at her place as long as possible. (predicative clause)

Your advice that he wait till next week is reasonable. (appositive clause)

Our fear lest he should give away our secret was great. (appositive clause)

Our fear was lest we should get lost in the forest. (predicative clause)

2. In predicative clauses joined by the link verbs to be, to seem, to look, to feel, to taste, to smell , etc. the past subjunctive or non-factual tense forms are used. In this case the clause has a comparative meaning and is accordingly introduced by the comparative conjunctions as if , as though . If the action in the subordinate clause is simultaneous with the action in the principal clause the past subjunctive or non-factual past in­definite is used. If the action is prior to that in the principal clause, the non-factual past perfect is used.

He looked as if he were ill (his being ill is simultaneous with the time when his looks are commented upon).

He looked as if he had been ill (his being ill was prior to the time his looks are commented upon).

The house looked as if it had been deserted for years.

I felt as though I were talking to a child.

It was as if I were being attacked by an invisible enemy.

Note:

There is a tendency in informal style to use the indicative forms instead of the subjunctive ones, especially if one is confident of the exactitude of the comparison.

Ingrid looks as if she has a bath every morning.

You sound as if you’ve got the whole world on your shoulders.

The subjunctive mood in complex sentences with adverbial clauses of condition

§ 85. Complex sentences may include conditional clauses expressing real condition and unreal condition. In the first case the indicative mood is used, in the second the subjunctive. Both conditions may refer to the past, present or future.

In sentences with real condition any form of the indicative may be used.

If she heard it, she gave no sign.

Why did he send us matches, If he knew there was no gas?

If I have offended you , I am very sorry .

You may go away if it bothers you.

Now it was serious. If I had laughed about it before , I wasn’t laughing now.

If he was lying , he was a good actor.

Since the majority of conditional clauses are introduced by if they are often called if-clauses . Other conjunctions used to introduce conditional clauses are unless, in case, supposing (that), suppose (that), providing (that), provided (that), on condition (that). Each of them expresses a conditional relation with a certain shade of meaning, and their use is restricted either for semantic or stylistic reasons. Thus unless has a negative meaning, although it is not identical with if not . Clauses introduced by unless indicate the only condition which may prevent the realization of the action in the main clause. Unless can be rendered in Russian by 'если только не'.

He is ruined unless he can get a million to pay off his debts.

The Russian conjunction with negation «если не» cannot be rendered by unless if the negation refers only to the part of the compound predicate. In this case if not should be used.

Оденься теплее, если не хочешь заболеть.

Put on a warm coat, if you don’t want to catch cold .

The conjunction in case has a specific shade of meaning, combining condition and purpose and may be translated into Russian as ‘на тот случай если'.

Take an umbrella in case if rains.

The conjunctions suppose (that) and supposing (that) retain their original meaning of supposition. The conjunctions provided (that) and providing (that) imply that the supposed condition is favourable or desirable.

Suppose you get lost in the city , what will you do?

Providing (that) there is no opposition we will hold the meeting here.

These conjunctions may also introduce clauses of unreal condition.

In complex sentences containing an unreal condition the subjunctive mood is used in both the conditional clause and in the principal clause, because the action expressed in the principal clause depends on the unreal condition and cannot be realized either. The choice of forms depends on the time-reference of the actions.

1. If the unreal actions in both the if-clause and the main clause refer to the present or future the non-factual past indefinite , or past continuous , or the past subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause and should/would + non-perfect common or continuous infinitive in the main clause.

If I were a young man now, you wouldn’t be looking for a porter.

You wouldn’t be talking that way unless you were hurt .

I shouldn’t speak to you unless I were determined.

2. If both actions refer to the past and contradict reality the non-factual past perfect or past perfect continuous is used in the if-clause and should/would + perfect or perfect continuous infinitive in the main clause.

If he had not insisted upon her going there, nothing would ever have happened.

Unless he had been grinning happily at us, I should have sworn he was mortally wounded .

Clauses of unreal condition with the verb in the non-factual past perfect, past perfect continuous, past subjunctive (also should + infinitive and could + infinitive, see below) may be introduced asyndetically. In this case inversion serves as a means of subordination.

Had the world been watching, it would have been startled.

Were you in my place you would behave in the same way.

§ 86. The actions in the main and subordinate clauses may have different time-reference , if the sense of the clauses requires it. Sentences of this kind are said to have split condition . The unreal condition may refer to the past and the consequence - to the present or future.

If we hadn’t been such fools we should all still be together .

How much better I should write now if in my youth I had had the advantage of sensible advice!

I shouldn’t be bothering you like this if they hadn’t told me downtown that he was coming up this way.

Split condition is possible for sentences with real condition as well:

If you saw him yesterday you know all the news.

If you live in this part of the city you knew of the accident yesterday.

The condition may refer to no particular time, and the consequence may refer to the past.

She wouldn’t have told me her story if she disliked me.

John wouldn’t have lost the key unless he were so absent-minded.

§ 87. There are three more types of conditional clauses with reference to the future.

1. In the first type should + infinitive for all the persons is used in the conditional clause and the future indefinite indicative or the imperative mood in the principal clause.

If you should meet him, give him my best regards.

If you should find another way out, will you inform me?

Conditional clauses of this type are sometimes joined to the main clause asyndetically, by means of inversion.

Should he ask for references, tell him to apply to me.

Should anything change, you will return home.

In these sentences the action in the conditional clause is presented as possible, but very unlikely. Such clauses are called clauses of problematic condition . They may be rendered in Russian as «случись так, что... », «если случайно...», «если так случится, что...», «вдруг что-нибудь», etc.

2. In the second type would + infinitive for all the persons in the singular and plural is used in the conditional clause and should/would + infinitive or the indicative mood in the main clause. Would retains its original meaning of willingness or consent (если бы вы согласились, изъявили желание, захотели бы).

If you would only come to our place, we’ll be very glad (we should be very glad).

3. In the third type the past subjunctive of the modal verb to be + (to) infinitive is used in the conditional clause and should/would + infinitive or the imperative mood in the principal clause. Both actions have future or present time-reference.

If you were to undertake it, everything would be different (if by chance you undertook it).

If I were to tell you everything, you would be amazed . - Если бы мне пришлось рассказать вам все, вы

бы удивились.

The form were + to implies greater remoteness and improbability of the action, but does not imply a rejection of it.

Sentences and clauses of implied condition

§ 88. An implied condition is not openly stated in a clause, but is suggested either by an adverbial part of the sentence, or else by the context -from the preceding or following sentence, or coordinated clause.

1. The form should/would + infinitive is used in simple sentences with an adverbial modifier of condition introduced by but for, except for (если бы не...) which imply an unreal condition with an opposite meaning:

But for luck he would be still living alone. - Если бы не удача, он бы все еще жил в одиночестве.

The implication is: if it had not been for luck, he would be still living alone. (In fact he was lucky and he is not living alone.)

These people would long ago have been forgotten, but for the artist’s genius.

That’s all I can remember. I wouldn’t have remembered anything at all but for you.

Except for the sound of his breathing, I wouldn’t have known he was there.

2. As stated above a condition may be implied by the preceding or following sentence or coordinated clause:

- What would you do if you had money?

- Oh, I should do many things!

This was the sort of thing he would have liked to explain to someone, only no one wanted to hear.

(If anyone had wanted to hear, he would have explained this sort of thing to them.)

They had no desire to spread scandal. Otherwise they would have demanded their due .

(Had they had the desire to spread scandal, they would have demanded their due.)

I would have gone too, but I was tied up to Joseph.

(If I had not been tied up to Joseph, I would have gone too.)

On the whole the non-factual use of tenses is rather rare in simple sentences, although they do occasionally occur.

As a child I’d given anything for that - В детстве я бы все отдал за это.

Modal verbs or phrases in conditional clauses

§ 89. The modal verbs can, will, may/might are freely used in the non-factual past indefinite to express unreality in conditional and principal clauses. Like the mood auxiliaries should, would they may be combined with different infinitives:

a)

in main clauses

If I had time

I could go there

I would go there

I might go there

I should go there

b)

in subordinate clauses

If I could translate this article

If he might translate this article

If I would translate this article

(if I consented to do it)

If I translated this article

it would be nice.

There may be a modal phrase in both clauses of the sentence, or in one clause only.

If you would be frank with me I might perhaps be of more help .

... and had he so desired he might have been persona grata with the diplomatic set.

If she could have been compressed to about three quarters of her actual width, she would have been very

attractive.

Anselmo grinned in the darkness. An hour ago he could not have imagined that he would ever smile

again.

I would have kept on going , if I hadn’t had to leave Paris.

The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of comparison

§ 90. Several forms of subjunctive are used in clauses of comparison depending on the time-reference.

1. If the action in the comparative clause is simultaneous with that in the main clause, the non-factual past indefinite or past subjunctive is used.

2. If the action in the comparative clause is prior to that in the main clause, the non-factual past perfect is used.

The usual conjunctions introducing comparative clauses are as if and as though .

His eyes wandered as if he were at a loss.

He paid no attention to us, as though we did not exist .

Miss Handforth was holding a tea-pot as if it were a hand grenade .

And so we faced each other after three years of letter-writing as if we had been having a beer every

afternoon for years.

3. If the action in the subordinate clause is presented as following the action in the main clause would + infinitive is used.

He was whistling gaily as if his heart would break for joy.

The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of purpose

§ 91. In clauses of purpose the form used depends on the conjunction introducing the clause.

1. After the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, so the quasi-subjunctive forms may (might) + infinitive or can (could) + infinitive are used. Only might and could are used if the action in the subordinate clause, though following the action in the main clause, refers to the past. But when the action refers to the present or future, both forms of each verb are possible (may or might, can or could ).

I tell you this so that you may understand the situation.

She left the lamp on the window-sill, so that he might see it from afar.

She gave him the book that he might have something to read on the journey.

2. After the negative conjunction lest (чтобы не) should + infinitive is generally used.

The girl whispered these words lest somebody should overhear her.

He was afraid to look behind lest he should see something there which ought not to be there.

The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of concession

§ 92. Concessive clauses may either be joined to the main clause asyndetically, or else be introduced by a connective (however, whoever, whatever, whenever ), a conjunction (though, although, even if, even though) ; also by a phrase, such as no matter how, no matter when .

If the action refers to the present or future the quasi-subjunctive form may + infinitive or present subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. If the action refers to the past may + perfect infinitive or perfect continuous infinitive , or might + infinitive is used. Forms with should + infinitive , would + infinitive , and non-factual tense forms are also possible, though less typical.

He can be right, no matter whether his arguments be convincing or not.

Tired as he may be he will always help me.

Though he might have been suspicious he gave no sign.

No matter how he might try he couldn’t do it.

Much as I would like to help , I didn’t dare to interfere.

When a concessive clause is joined asyndetically, there is usually inversion. The front position is occupied by the part, that states the circumstance despite which the action in the main clause is carried out. Thus it lends a concessive meaning to the clause. In the following sentences the concessive meaning is focused on the part of the predicate:

Come what may , we shall remain here.

Cost what it may , I’ll give you the sum you ask.

Tired as he might be , he continued his way.

- Чтобы ни случилось ...

- Сколько бы это ни стоило...

- Как бы он ни устал ...

The focus of the concessive meaning may fall on the nominal or adverbial part of the clause.

Whoever he may be , he has no right to be rude.

Whatever you may say , our decision remains unchanged.

Whichever of the two roads we may take , the distance is great.

Wherever we might go , we found the same gloomy sight.

Whenever I may ask him a question , he always has a ready answer. Не will not convince us however hard he should try .

- Кто бы он ни был ...

- Чтобы ты ни говорил ...

- По какой бы из двух дорог мы ни пошли ...

- Куда бы мы ни пошли ...

- Когда бы я ни задал ему вопрос ...

- ... как бы сильно он ни пытался.

Concessive clauses introduced by even if, even though are built up on the same pattern as conditional clauses and the same subjunctive mood forms are used in the subordinate clause.

Even if it were true , he couldn’t say so.

Even though he had proposed , nothing has changed since that day.

Concessive meaning may be rendered by the indicative mood in the same patterns of clauses, if the fact despite which the action is carried out is a real one.

Cold as it is , we shall go out. (it is really cold)

Tired as he was , he continued his work.

Though he was 36 , he looked very old.

It was not meant to offend you, no matter how ironic it sounded .

The subjunctive mood in simple sentences

§ 93. Besides cases when the subjunctive mood forms are used in simple sentences to express an unreal action as a consequence of an implied condition (see § 88), these forms are also used in simple sentences of the following kind:

1. In exclamatory sentences beginning with if only to express a wish. They follow the same pattern as conditional clauses, and would + infinitive, past subjunctive , non-factual tense forms are used.

If only it were true!

If only I knew what to do!

If only I had listened to my parents!

If only it would stop raining!

If only we could have stopped him!

2. In exclamatory sentences to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts (surprise and disbelief). Here should + infinitive is used.

And this should happen just on this day!

That it should be you of all people!

3. In questions expressing astonishment or indignation the analytical form should + infinitive is used:

Why should you and I talk about it?

How should I know?

Why should you suspect me?

Why should you not do it?

The traditional use of the subjunctive mood in formulaic expressions

§ 94. These forms remained as survivals of old usage and they are used as wholes, in which no element of structure can be omitted or replaced.

Most of them have a religious origin and express a wish or a prayer: God bless you! (Bless you!) God save the king! Heaven forbid! The Devil take him!

In many cases, however, formulaic expressions may be expanded by variable elements (parts of the sentence or clauses), thus making productive patterns in Modern English. They vary in their meaning, although mostly express a wish. Among them are:

1. Forms used in slogans: Long live the Army! Long live patriotism! Long live the fighters for peace! Long live heroes!;

2. Forms used in oaths, curses, and imprecations: Manners be hanged! Confound your ideas! Confound the politics!

Far be it from me to spoil the fan!

Far be it from me to conceal the truth!

Far be it from me to argue with you!

Far be it from me to talk back!

- Чтобы я хотел испортить вам настроение!

- Чтобы я скрывал правду!

- Чтобы я стал спорить!

- Чтобы я грубил!

Forms with may + infinitive , unlike modern forms with the same verb, retain the old word order:

May success attend you! May you be happy! May he win!

The subjunctive mood forms with had better, had best, would rather, would sooner are used in sentences denoting wish, admonition, preference, advice. Very often they are used in a contracted form: You’d better go at once. You had best take note of my direction if you wish to make sure of it.

Formulaic expressions with concessive meaning are used in complex sentences as concessive clauses:


Happen what may,

Come what will,

Come what may,

Cost what it may,

we shall not yield.

The formulaic expression as it were (так сказать) is used as parenthesis, emphasizing that the content of the sentence is highly figurative or non-real:

... there is, as it were , a transparent barrier between myself and strong emotion.

He is my best friend, my second self, as it were.

Table III

The subjunctive mood forms

Types of Sentences

Synthetic Forms

Analytical Forms

Non-Factual

Tense Forms

Simple sentence

Ideas be hanged!

If only that were true!

May it come true!

I should like to see this film.

If I only knew!

Complex sentence with a subject clause

It is required that all be present.

It is important that all should come.

It is likely he may come.

It is time the boy came.

Complex sentence with a predicative clause

He looks as if he were surprised.

It looks as if the weather may change.

The order is that we should move.

It seems as if every­body knew.

It looks as if he had known it long ago.

Complex sentence with an appositive clause

The order that we should move surprised us.

Complex sentence with an object clause

I wish he were here.

He ordered that we should come.

We feared lest he should find it out.

I wish he would come.

I wish I knew it.

I wish I had never met him.

Complex sentence

The stranger looked

He glanced at me as if he

with an adverbial

at me as if he were

knew.

clause of comparison

surprised.

The girl spoke as if she

had learned it all by

heart.

Complex sentence with

It is true whether it be

Tired as he might be, he

an adverbial concessive

convincing or not.

continued his way.

clause

Though he might be tired, he continued

his way.

He will not manage it

however hard he should try.

Whatever faults the book may

have, it is interesting enough.

He would not have come

even if we had warned

him.

Complex sentence with

I tell you this so that you may

an adverbial clause of

understand the situation.

purpose

We put the matches away lest

the baby should find the box.

Complex sentence with

If I were you ...

I should not object to it.

an adverbial conditional

I should come ...

if I knew the address

clause

I should have called on you

yesterday ...

if I had known the address

Should I meet him, I shall tell

him about it.

NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB (VERBALS)

§ 95. There are four non-finite forms of the verb in English: the infinitive (to take), the gerund (taking), participle I (taking), participle II (taken). These forms possess some verbal and some non-verbal features. The main verbal feature of the infinitive and participles I and II is that it can be used as part of analytical verbal forms (is standing, is built, have come, will do , etc.)

Lexically non-finites do not differ from finite forms. Grammatically the difference between the two types of forms lies in the fact that non-finites may denote a secondary action or a process related to that expressed by the finite verb.

Non-finites possess the verb categories of voice, perfect, and aspect. They lack the categories of person, number, mood, and tense.

None of the forms have morphological features of non-verbal parts of speech, neither nominal, adjectival or adverbial. In the sphere of syntax, however, non-finites possess both verbal and non-verbal features. Their non-verbal character reveals itself in their syntactical functions. Thus, the infinitive and the gerund perform the main syntactical functions of the noun, which are those of subject, object and predicative. Participle I functions as attribute, predicative and adverbial modifier; participle II as attribute and predicative. They cannot form a predicate by themselves, although unlike non-verbal parts of speech they can function as part of a compound verbal predicate.

Syntactically the verbal character of non-finites is manifested mainly in their combinability. Similarly to finite forms they may combine with nouns functioning as direct, indirect, or prepositional objects, with adverbs and prepositional phrases used as adverbial modifiers, and with subordinate clauses.

Non-finites may also work as link verbs, combining with nouns, adjectives or statives as predicatives, as in: to be/being a doctor (young, afraid). They may also act as modal verb semantic equivalents when combined with an infinitive: to have/having to wait, to be able/being able to stay. So the structure of a non-finite verb group resembles the structure of any verb phrase.

All non-finite verb forms may participate in the so-called predicative constructions , that is, two-component syntactical units where a noun or a pronoun and a non-finite verb form are in predicative relations similar to those of the subiect and the predicate: I heard Jane singing ; We waited for the train to pass ; I saw him run , etc.

The Infinitive

§ 96. The infinitive is a non-finite form of the verb which names a process in a most general way. As such, it is naturally treated as the initial form of the verb, which represents the verb in dictionaries (much in the same way as the common case singular represents the noun).

In all its forms and functions the infinitive has a special marker, the particle to . The particle to is generally used with the infinitive stem and is so closely connected with it that does not commonly allow any words to be put between itself and the stem. Occasionally, however, an adverb or particle may be inserted between them:

She doesn’t want to even see me once more.

The infinitive thus used is called the split infinitive , and is acceptable only to give special emphasis to the verb.

Although the particle to is very closely connected with the infinitive, sometimes the bare infinitive stem is used. The cases where the infinitive loses its marker are very few in number.

The use of the Infinitive without the Particle to

(Bare Infinitive)

Words and phrases

The rest of the

followed by a bare

Bare infinitive

sentence

infinitive

1

2

3

4

Auxiliary verbs:

I

Don’t

like

Jogging.

They

Will

see

you to-morrow.

Modal verbs:

(except ought to,

have to, be to)

You

can’t

play

football in the street.

I

must

go

there to-morrow.

You

needn’t

worry.

Modal expression:

You

had better

I

would rather

would sooner

She

‘d sooner

die

than come back

You

had better

come

at once.

Verbs of sense

I

He

perception:

(see, watch, observe,

notice, hear, listen to,

feel , etc.)

felt somebody

heard the door

touch

close.

me.

Verbs of inducement:

(let, make, have, bid )

What

Let me

makes you

help

think

you.

so?

Phrases with but:

cannot but,

do anything but

do nothing but

couldn’t but

Did you

do anything but

ask

questions?

Why-not sentences:

Why not

begin

at once?

Like other non-finite forms of the verb the infinitive has a double nature: it combines verbal features with those of the noun.

The verbal features of the infinitive are of two kinds: morphological and syntactical.

1) Morphological: the infinitive has the verb categories of voice, perfect and aspect:

The evening is the time to praise the day. (active)

To be praised for what one has not done was bad enough. (passive)

She did not intend to keep me long, she said. (non-perfect)

I am so distressed to have kept you waiting, (perfect)

She promised to bring the picture down in the course of ten minutes. (common)

At that time I happened to be bringing him some of the books borrowed from him two days before,

(continuous)

2) Syntactical: the infinitive possesses the verb combinability:

a) it takes an object in the same way as the corresponding finite verbs do;

b)it takes a predicative if it happens to be a link verb;

c) it is modified by adverbials in the same way as finite verbs:

Infinitive

Finite verb

a) To tell him about it the same ­night was out of the question.

She did not mean to depend on her father .

b) She wanted to be a teacher.

I don’t want to look pale tonight.

c) To draw his attention I had to speak very loudly.

She told me about it only yesterday.

You see, I depend on his word only.

He was a teacher of French.

She looked pale and haggard.

He spoke loudly , turning his head from side to side.

The nominal features of the infinitive are revealed only in its function:

To understand is to forgive . (subject, predicative)

That’s what I wanted to know . (object)

I saw the chance to escape into the garden. (attribute)

I merely came back to water the roses, (adverbial modifier of purpose)

The Grammatical Categories of the Infinitive

§ 97. As has already been stated the infinitive has three grammatical categories, those of perfect, voice, and aspect.

The system of grammatical categories of the infinitive is shown in the table below.

Table IV


Perfect

Voice

Active

Passive

Aspect

Non-Perfect

Common

to go

to take

-

to be taken

Continuous

to be going

to be taking

-

(to be being taken)

Perfect

Common

to have gone

to have taken

-

to have been taken

Continuous

to have been going

to have been taking

-

-

It is seen from the table, that the passive voice is found only with transitive verbs and there are no perfect continuous forms in the passive voice. As for the non-perfect continuous passive, forms similar to the one in brackets, do sometimes occur, although they are exceptionally rare.

The category of perfect

§ 98. The category of perfect finds its expression, as with other verb forms, in the opposition of non-perfect and perfect forms.

The non-perfect infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that of the finite verb (I am glad to take part in it, I am glad to be invited there),

The perfect infinitive always denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb - the predicate of the sentences. The meaning of priority is invariable with the perfect and perfect continuous infinitive.


I am glad

I was glad

I shall be glad

to have seen you again.

The non-perfect infinitive is vaguer and more flexible in meaning and its meaning may easily be modified by the context. Thus, it may denote an action preceding or following the action denoted by the finite verb. It expresses succession, that is indicates that the action follows the action denoted by the finite verb, as in the following cases:

1) When used as an adverbial modifier of purpose:

She bit her lip to keep back a smile.

I came here to help you, not to quarrel with you.

2) When used as part of a compound verbal predicate:

You must do it at once.

You know, she is beginning to learn eagerly.

3) When used as an object of a verb of inducement:

He ordered the man to come at three.

She always asks me to help her when she is busy.

He will make you obey .

The category of aspect

§ 99. The category of aspect finds its expression in contrasting forms of the common aspect and the continuous aspect. The difference between the category of aspect in finite verb forms and in the infinitive is that in the infinitive it is consistently expressed only in the active voice:

to speak

to have spoken

- to be speaking

- to have been speaking

The passive voice has practically no aspect oppositions. (See Table IV). The semantics of the category of aspect in the infinitive is the same as in the finite verb: the continuous aspect forms denote an action in progress at some moment of time in the present, past, or future; the meaning of the common aspect forms is flexible and is easily modified by the context.

The two aspects differ in their frequency and functioning; the continuous aspect forms are very seldom used and cannot perform all the functions in which the common aspect forms are used. They can function only as:

1) subject (To be staying with them was a real pleasure.);

2) object (I was glad to be waking .)

3) part of a compound verbal predicate (Now they must be getting back ; The leaves begin to be growing yellowish .)

The continuous aspect forms do not occur in the function of adverbial - modifiers and attributes.

The category of voice

§ 100. The infinitive of transitive verbs has the category of voice, similar to all other verb forms:

to say

to have said

- to be said

- to have been said

The active infinitive points out that the action is directed from the subject (either expressed or implied), the passive infinitive indicates that the action is directed to the subject:

Active

Passive

He expected to find them very soon.

They expected to be found by night fall.

She was born to love .

She born to be loved.

I know I ought to have told you everything long ago.

She ought to have been told of what had actually happened.

However, there are cases where the active form of the non-perfect infinitive denotes an action directed towards the subject, that is although active in form it is passive in meaning:


His to blame.


The house is to let.


The question is difficult to answer.


There was only one thing to do.

The active infinitive thus used is called retroactive.

The retroactive infinitive is rather productive although in nearly all cases it can be replaced by the corresponding passive form:

He is to blame —> He is to be blamed.

There was only one thing to do ——> There was only one thing to be done.

Syntactical functions of the infinitive

§ 101. The infinitive performs almost all syntactical functions characteristic of the noun, although in each of them it has certain peculiarities of its own. In all syntactical functions the infinitive may be used:

1) alone, that is, without any words depending on it:

She would like to dance.

2) as the headword of an infinitive phrase, that is, with one or more words depending on it:

She would like to dance with him tonight.

3) as part of an infinitive predicative construction, that is, as a logical predicate to some nominal element denoting the logical subject of the infinitive:

She would like him to dance with her .

She waited for him to dance first.

As to the functioning of single infinitives and infinitive phrases, they are identical in this respect and therefore will be used without distinction in illustrations. However it should be noted that in fact the infinitive phrase is much more common than the single infinitive.

The infinitive as subject

§ 102. The infinitive functioning as subject may either precede the predicate or follow it. In the latter case it is introduced by the so-called introductory it , which is placed at the beginning of the sentence:

To be good is to be in harmony with oneself.

It’s so silly to be fussy and jealous.

The second of these structural patterns is more common than the first, and the subject in this pattern is more accentuated (compare for example: It’s impossible to do it and To do it is impossible ). The other difference is that in the second case the sentence can be both declarative and interrogative, while in the first one the sentence can only be declarative:

Declarative sentences

It’s nice to see you again.

It was not a good idea to bring her here

To find him still at home was a relief.

To see her again did not give him the usual pleasure.

Interrogative sentences

Is it bad to love one so dearly ?

Wasn’t it a waste of time to sit there ?

The infinitive subject in both structural patterns is a “to” - infinitive. If there are two or more homogeneous infinitive subjects in a sentence, all of them keep the particle to :

To be alone, to be free from the daily interests and cruelty would be happiness to Asako.

It was awfully difficult to do or even to say nothing at all.

The function of the subject can be performed by the infinitive of any voice, aspect and perfect form, although the common aspect non-perfect active forms are naturally far more frequent.

To expect too much is a dangerous thing.

To be walking through the fields all alone seemed an almost impossible pleasure.

To have seen her was even a more painful experience.

To be recognized, to be greeted by some local personage afforded her a joy which was very great.

To have been interrogated in such a way was a real shock to him.

§ 103. The predicate of the subject expressed by an infinitive always takes the form of the 3rd person singular . As to its type, it is usually a compound nominal predicate with the link verb to be, although other link verbs may also occur, as well as a verbal predicate.

To acquire knowledge and to acquire it unceasingly is the first duty of the artist.

To understand is to forgive.

To talk to him bored me.

To see the struggle frightened him terribly.

To write a really good book requires more time than I have.

The infinitive as part of the predicate

The infinitive is used in predicates of several types, both nominal and verbal.

The infinitive as predicative

§ 104. In the function of a predicative the “to”-infinitive is used in compound nominal predicates after the link verb to be :

His dearest wish was to have a son.

With homogeneous predicatives the use of the particle to varies. If the infinitives are not linked by conjunctions, the particle is generally used with all of them:

My intention was to see her as soon as possible, to talk to her, to calm her.

If they are linked by the conjunctions and or or the particle to is generally used with the first infinitive only:

Your duty will be to teach him French and play with him.

His plan was to ring her up at once, or even call on her.

The use of the infinitive as a predicative has some peculiarities.

1) In sentences with an infinitive subject the predicative infinitive denotes an action that follows, or results from, the action of the subject infinitive.

To see her was to admire her.

To come there at this hour was to risk one’s life.

Sentences in which both the infinitives are used without any modifiers are usually of aphoristic meaning:

To hear is to obey.

To see is to believe.

To define is to limit.

The predicative function is generally performed by the common non-perfect active forms of the infinitive. Still passive forms sometimes occur:

To be born in poverty was to be doomed to humiliation.

2) The set of nouns that can function as the subject of a compound nominal predicate with an infinitive predicative is very limited. It includes about 50 nouns describing situations:

action

advice

aim

ambition

attempt

business

consequence

custom

desire

difficulty

duty

experience

function

habit

happiness

hope

idea

ideal

instruction

intention

job

method

need

object

order

plan

principle

problem

purpose

reason

risk

role

rule

task

thing

wish, etc.

A predicative infinitive phrase may be introduced by the conjunctive, adverbs and pronouns how, when, where, what, whom, the choice depending on the lexical meaning of the noun:

Now the question was what to tell him.

The problem was how to begin.

3) The function of the subject may be also performed by the pronoun all or the substantivized superlatives the most and the least with an attributive clause attached to them:

All he wanted was to be left alone.

The least I can expect is to have this day all to myself.

In such cases the predicative infinitive can lose its marker to:

All I can do is get you out of here.

4) Occasionally the function of the subject can be performed by a gerund or a what-clause:

Living with hemophilia was to live off balance all the time.

“What we want to do,“ said Brady, “is to fight a world.”

The infinitive as simple nominal predicate

§ 105. The infinitive as simple nominal predicate may be used in exclamatory sentences expressing the speaker’s rejection of the idea that the person to whom the action of the infinitive is ascribed is likely to perform this action, or belong to such sort of people*, as in:

* For details see Syntax § 41.

You - of all men - to say such a thing!

Me - to be your lover!

As a rule the infinitive in exclamatory sentences is used with the particle to, although it occasionally occurs without it:

Me - marry him ! Never!

The infinitive may be also used as predicate in interrogative infinitive why-sentences, both affirmative and negative, where it expresses a suggestion:

Why let him sleep so long?

Why not go away ?

In such sentences the infinitive is always used without the particle to.

The infinitive as part of a compound verbal predicate

§ 106. The infinitive is used in compound verbal predicates of three types.

I. In a compound verbal modal predicate after the modal verbs can, may, might, ought, must, shall, should, will, would, need, dare, to be, to have , and expressions with modal meaning had better, would rather.

I can tell you nothing at all about him.

She ought to have told me before.

II. In a compound verbal phasal predicate after verbs denoting various stages of the action, such as its beginning, continuation, or end. These verbs (to begin, to come, to start, to continue, to go on, to cease , etc.) followed by a “to”-infinitive form a compound verbal phasal predicate.

Now I begin to understand you.

Then she came to realize what it all meant.

They continued to whisper.

The verbs to begin, to continue and to start can also be followed by a gerund, although with a certain difference in meaning. Thus the verb to stop followed by a gerund means to put an end to an action, to interrupt , whereas followed by an infinitive means to pause in order to do something . So the infinitive after the verb to stop is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose.

He stopped to see what it was.

Он остановился, чтобы посмотреть, что это такое.

He stopped seeing her.

Он перестал с ней встречаться.

III. The compound verbal predicate of double orientation * has no analogy in Russian. The three subtypes of this predicate can be distinguished according to the expression of the first part:

* For details see Syntax § 53.

1. The first part is expressed by one of the following intransitive verbs in the active voice: to seem - казаться; to appear - оказаться, казаться; to prove, to turn out - оказаться; to happen, to chance - случаться. After the verbs to prove and to turn out the infinitive is mostly nominal, that is presented by to be + noun or adjective . After the verbs to seem, to appear, to happen all types and forms of the infinitive are possible.

Simple sentences with this type of predicate are synonymous with complex sentences of a certain pattern:

He seems to be smiling.

She appeared to have said all.

It seems that he is smiling.

It appeared that she had said all.

Sentences with compound verbal predicates of double orientation are translated into Russian in different ways depending on the meaning of the first verbal element:

The strange little man seemed to read my thoughts. The man seemed to have come from far off.

Nothing appeared to be happening there.

Не appeared to have been running all the way.

Не proved to be a healthy child .

The night turned out to be cold.

Don’t you happen to know her ?

Странный человечек, казалось, читал мои мысли.

Казалось, этот человек приехал откуда-то издалека.

Казалось, что здесь ничего не происходит.

Казалось, что он пробежал всю дорогу бегом.

Он оказался здоровым ребенком.

Ночь оказалась холодной.

Ты ее случайно не знаешь?

2. The first part of the predicate is expressed by the passive voice forms of certain transitive verbs. They are:

a) verbs of saying: to announce, to declare, to report, to say, to state , etc.

She was announced to be the winner.

Не is said to have returned at last.

Было объявлено, что победила она.

Говорят, что он наконец вернулся.

b) verbs of mental activity: to believe, to consider, to expect, to find, to known, to mean, to presume,

to regard, to suppose, to think, to understand , etc.

He’s supposed to be leaving tonight.

She is believed to be a clever girl.

Her father was thought to have died long ago.

Предполагают (предполагается), что он уезжает сегодня вечером.

Ее считают умной девушкой. (Считается, что она умная де­вушка.)

Считалось (считали, думали, полагали), что ее отец давным-давно умер.

c) verbs of sense perception: to feel, to hear, to see, to watch .

Soon he was heard to open the front door.

She was often seen to walk all alone.

Вскоре услышали, как он открыл парадную дверь.

Часто видели, как она гуляет сов­сем одна.

d) the verb to make.

He was made to keep silent .

Его заставили молчать.

3. The first part is expressed by the phrases: to be likely, to be unlikely, to be sure, to be certain . In this case only the non-perfect forms of the infinitive are used, with future reference.

She is likely to be late.

He is sure to become your friend.

They are sure to be wanted as evidence.

In all these three subtypes the “to” - infinitive is always used.

The infinitive as object

§ 107. The infinitive can have the function of object after verbs, adjectives, adjectivized participles and statives.

After verbs the infinitive may be either the only object of a verb or one of two objects.

1. Verbs that take only one object are: to agree, to arrange, to attempt, to care (to like), to choose, to claim, to consent, to decide, to deserve, to determine, to expect, to fail, to fear, to forget, to hesitate, to hope, to intend, to learn, to like, to long, to love, to manage, to mean, to neglect, to omit, to plan, to prefer, to pretend, to refuse, to regret, to remember, to swear, to tend , etc.

She agreed to come at ten .

He planned to spend the day in town.

You’ll soon learn to read , sonny.

Among these verbs two groups can be distinguished:

a) the verbs to claim, to fail, to forget, to hate, to like, to omit, to regret, to remember, to swear , with which the perfect infinitive denotes actions prior to those of the finite verbs. It can be accounted for by the fact that semantically these verbs denote an action or state following or resulting from that of the infinitive (you can regret only what was or has been done).

I regret to have said it to her .

I remembered to have met him once.

She claims to have seen him before .

b) The verbs to attempt, to expect, to hope, to intend, to mean, to plan, to try , when followed by the perfect infinitive imply that the action of the infinitive was not fulfilled.

I hoped to have found him at home.

He intended to have reached the coast long before.

In this case the finite verb can be used only in the past tense.

Note:

As most of these verbs (item la) and b)) denote an attitude to the action expressed by the infinitive, the verb + infinitive may be treated syntactically as one whole. Thus the succes­sion of two verbs (... like to help ..., ... expect to arrive ..., ... plan to do ...) allow of two modes of analysis, as a verb + its object or as a compound verbal predicate with the first element expressing attitude.

Besides the above-mentioned verbs there are also some rather common phrases used with the infinitive-object. They are the phrases can afford, can bear in the negative or interrogative and such phrases as to make sure, to make up one’s mind, to take care, to take the trouble.

Can you afford to buy it yourself ?

I can’t bear to hear of it again.

At last he made up his mind to answer Sibyl’s letter.

2. Verbs that take two objects, the first of which is a noun or a pronoun and the second an infinitive. These are the verbs of inducement; they all have the general meaning to persuade, to cause to do something .

to advise

to allow

to ask

to beg

to cause

to command

to compel

to direct

to encourage

to forbid

to force

to have

to impel

to implore

to induce

to instruct

to invite

to leave

to let

to make

to order

to permit

to persuade

to recommend

to request

to require

to tell

to urge

Tell him to hurry.

He asked her to keep an eye on the clock .

What would you recommend me to do ?

With all these verbs, except to have, to let and to make , a “to”- infinitive is used. After the verbs to have, to let and to make it loses the particle “to”.

She’ll have you do it at once.

Don’t let it bother you.

Soon she made me see where I was wrong.

The object, which is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case, denotes a person (or, very seldom, a non-person) who is to perform the required action expressed by the infinitive.

The verb to help can be used either with one or with two objects:

She helped to pack.

She helped me to make up my mind.

In either case a “to”- infinitive or a bare infinitive can be used.

And she actually helped find it.

I’ll help you do it.

With some verbs the function of object may be performed by a conjunctive infinitive phrase. These verbs are very few in number and fall into two groups:

a) Verbs that can take either an infinitive or a conjunctive infinitive phrase as their object. These are: to advise, to decide, to forget, to learn, to remember.

They advised me to go on.

He decided to begin at once.

I forgot to tell you about the last incident.

He advised me at last how to settle the matter.

He could not decide whether to come at all.

I forgot how to do it.

b) Verbs that can take only a conjunctive infinitive phrase as their object: to know, to show, to wonder.

She did not know what to say.

I know well enough where to stop.

Will you show me how to do it?

The infinitive can have the function of object after certain adjectives (adjectivized participles), mostly used as predicatives. Semantically and structurally these fall into two groups.

1. The most frequent adjectives of the first group are: anxious, apt, bound, careful, curious, determined, difficult, eager, easy, entitled, fit, free, hard, impatient, inclined, interested, keen, liable, powerless, prepared, quick, ready, reluctant, resolved, set, slow, worthy.

She’s determined to go on .

I am powerless to do anything.

He’s fully prepared to meet them any time they choose.

I was so impatient to start.

When used with these adjectives, the infinitive denotes actions either simultaneous with, or posterior to, the states expressed by the predicates, and cannot therefore be used in perfect forms.

2. The most frequent adjectives (adjectivized participles) of the second group are: amused, annoyed, astonished, delighted, distressed, frightened, furious, glad, grateful, happy, horrified, pleased, proud, puzzled, relieved, scared, sorry, surprised, thankful, touched.

He was amused to hear it.

I’m delighted to see you again , darling.

She is proud to have grown such a son.

Mother was furious to see them together again.

These adjectives and participles express certain psychological states which are the result of the action expressed by the infinitive object, so the latter therefore always denotes an action slightly preceding the state expressed by the predicate, and can have both non-perfect and perfect forms. The non-perfect forms are used to express immediate priority, that is, an action immediately preceding the state:

I’m glad to see you (I see you and that is why I am glad).

The perfect forms are used to show that there is a gap between the action and the resulting state.

I am glad to have seen you (I saw/have seen you and that is why I am glad).

3. After certain statives denoting psychological states, such as afraid, agog, ashamed:

He was ashamed to tell us this.

I’d be afraid to step inside a house that Rupert had designed all by himself.

In such cases the infinitive points out the source of the state expressed by the stative.

The infinitive as attribute

§ 108. The English infinitive functioning as an attribute is far more frequent than the Russian infinitive. This is because in Russian the infinitive attribute can combine with abstract nouns only, while in English it is used with a much wider range of words. In this function the infinitive always denotes a not yet fulfilled action, which is regarded as desirable, possible, advisable, necessary , etc. The modal meaning of the infinitive attribute is generally rendered in Russian by modal verbs or expressions, as is shown by the translations below.

The infinitive attribute can modify:

1. nouns, both abstract and concrete:

Because of his quarrel with his family he was in no position to get the news. (... не мог получить

известий)

The best thing to do would be to go back. (самое лучшее, что можно было сделать ...)

Не is just the man to do it. (он как раз тот человек, который может/должен это сделать)

I suppose there was nothing to he done, but depart. (ничего нельзя было сделать, оставалось только

удалиться)

2. indefinite, negative and universal pronouns in -body, -thing, -

one (one):

Have you anything to offer me ? (Вы можете мне что-нибудь предложить?)

Не was someone to admire . (... тот, кем можно восхищаться)

Не had everything to make his life a happy one. (...что могло сделать его счастливым)

Occasionally the infinitive can have the function of an attribute to personal negative and reflexive pronouns or pronominal adverbs:

I’ve only you to look to.

Oh, but you have only yourself to praise.

Now I had nobody to see, nowhere to go.

3. substantivized ordinal numerals (especially first ),

substantivized adjectives (next and last ).

Jack was the first to come.

She was the last to reach the hall.

4. substantivized quantitative adjectives much, little, (no) more,

(no) less, little more, enough:

A man in your position has so much to lose .

I’ve no more to add.

5. the noun-substitute one :

I am not the one to run about and discuss my affairs with other people . (... кто может ...)

§ 109. The most common form of the infinitive functioning as an attribute is the non-perfect common aspect active voice form and non-perfect common aspect passive form.

When performing the function of an attribute a “to”- infinitive is always used. If there are two or more homogeneous attributes the second (and the following) retain to if joined asyndetically, but drop it if joined by conjunctions.

There was, however, my little Jean to look after, to take care of.

Did he give you any small parcel to bring back and deliver to anyone in England?

§ 110. The infinitive as an attribute may be introduced by conjunctive pronouns or adverbs:

He had sought in vain for inspiration how to awaken love.

I had now an idea what to do.

The conjunctive infinitive phrase may be preceded by a preposition:

They had no knowledge of how to live on.

He’s got no information about when to start.

The infinitive as adverbial modifier

§ 111. The infinitive can be used as an adverbial modifier of: purpose, subsequent events, consequence, attendant circumstances, comparison, condition, exception, time, cause, or motivation. In all these functions but that of the adverbial modifier of exception, a “to”- infinitive is used.

1. The adverbial modifier of purpose. In this function the action denoted by the infinitive is always a hypothetical one following the action denoted by the predicate. As such it can be expressed only by non-perfect common aspect forms of the infinitive (both active and passive):

I think I will go to England to improve my English.

We stood in the rain and were taken out one at a time to be questioned and shot.

In this function a “to”- infinitive is used, but if there are two or more homogeneous adverbials of purpose joined by and , usually, though not necessarily, only the first of them has the particle to. Compare the following sentences:

Mary, looking pale and worried, left him to go down to the kitchen and start breakfast.

Then I went upstairs to say how-do-you-do to Emily, and into the kitchen to shake hands with Mary-Ann,

and out into the garden to see the gardener.

The position of the infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of purpose varies. It usually stands after the predicate, though the position at the beginning of the sentence is also possible:

To occupy her mind , however, she took the job given her.

In both positions the infinitive may be preceded by the conjunction in order, so as or by limiting particle (just, only):

I keep a diary in order to enter the wonderful secrets of my life.

In order to see her better he had to turn his head.

I’m here just to see you off.

He came down only to say good-night to you.

2. The adverbial modifier of subsequent events. In this function the infinitive denotes an action that follows the one denoted by the predicate. The position of this adverbial in the sentence is fixed - it always follows the predicate. The only forms of the infinitive occurring in this function are those of the non-perfect common aspect, usually active.

He arrived at three o’clock to hear that Fleur had gone out with the car at ten . (He arrived and heard ...)

I came down one morning to find Papa excited to the point of apoplexy . (I came down and found ...)

He hurried to the house only to find it empty . (He hurried and found ...)

In this function the infinitive may be preceded by the particles only, merely, simply, which change the meaning of the whole sentence: the action denoted by the infinitive preceded by these particles makes the action de­noted by the predicate pointless or irrelevant.

She returned to London in a few days, only to learn that Bess had gone to the continent. (She returned ...,

and learnt...)

3. As an adverbial modifier of consequence the infinitive depends on a) adjectives and adverbs modified by too ; b) adjectives, adverbs and nouns modified by enough ; c) adjectives modified by so , and nouns modified by such. In the last two cases the infinitive is introduced by as:

a) Не was too tired to argue . (= He was so fired, that is why he couldn’t arque)

The story was too interesting to be passed over lightly.

He had gone too far to draw back.

b) He’s old enough to learn this. (= He is old enough, so he can learn this)

I thought I liked Letty well enough to marry her . (=1 liked Letty, so I wanted to marry her)

He was fool enough to enjoy the game.

He had seen enough blasted, burned out tanks to have no illusions.

c) She was so kind as to accept my proposal. (= She was so kind, therefore she accepted my proposal)

Do you think I am such a fool as to let it out of my hands ?

In all these cases the infinitive denotes an action, which would become or became possible (enough, so, such) or impossible (too) due to the degree of quality or quantity expressed in the words it refers to.

The position of the infinitive is fixed, it always follows the words it modifies. The form of the infinitive is non-perfect, common aspect, usu­ally active. .

4. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances shows what other actions take place at the same time as the action of the predicate.

He left the house never to come back.

I am sorry to have raised your expectations only to disappoint you.

The infinitive thus used always follows the predicate verb it modifies. As to its form, it is a non-perfect, common aspect, active voice form.

5. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of comparison refers to predicate groups including adjectives or adverbs in the comparative degree. The infinitive itself is introduced by than :

To give is more blessed than to receive.

Soon she realized, that it was much more pleasant to give than to be given.

He knew better than to rely on her.

Although the infinitive of comparison is generally used with to , it may also occur without it:

I was more inclined to see her safely married than go on watching over her.

6. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of condition denotes an action which pre-conditions the action expressed by the predicate.

To look at Montmorency you would imagine that he was an angel sent upon earth ... (If you looked ...,

you would imagine ...)

To touch it one would believe that it was the best of furs. (If one touched it, one would believe ...)

I’ll thank you to take your hands off me . (I’ll thank you, if you take ...)

The position of this infinitive as can be seen from the examples above varies; it may either precede or follow the predicate verb it modifies. The only possible form of the infinitive is the non-perfect, common aspect, active voice form.

7. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of exception denotes the action which is the only possible one in the situation. The infinitive is generally used without to and is introduced by the prepositions but and except. It is found in negative and interrogative sentences:

I had nothing to do but wait.

What could I do but submit?

There is nothing to do except turn back.

8. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of time denotes an action which marks out the moment of time up to which or at which the action of the predicate is performed. Very often it has a secondary meaning of condition.

His father lived to be ninety. (lived till he was ...)

I may not live to reach the airstrip this afternoon. (may not live till I reach ...)

Go away! I shudder to see you here . (I shudder when I see ..., if I see ...)

The position of the infinitive is fixed, it always follows the predicate it modifies. Its form is non-perfect, common aspect, active.

9. The infinitive used as an adverbial modifier of cause or motivation refers to a compound nominal predicate with the predicative expressed by an adjective, a noun, or a prepositional phrase denoting someone's qualities (intellectual qualities, morals, etc.)

The infinitive denotes an action which serves as a cause or a motiva­tion on which this or that charaterisation is based.

What an idiot I was not to have thought of it before! (I had not thought of it before, therefore I can justly

be called an idiot.)

She was silly to come here. (She came here, and it was silly of her.)

They’re out of their mind to have sent you here! (They have sent you here, so one can think them out of

their minds.)

The infinitive in this function follows the predicate. All the forms of the infinitive are possible.

The infinitive as parenthesis

§ 112. The infinitive used as parenthesis is usually part of a collocation, as in: to begin with, to be (quite) frank, to be sure, to make matters worse, to put it mildly, to say the least, to tell the truth, needless to say, strange to say, so to speak, to make a long story short, to crown all, to be more precise, to say nothing of ... , etc.

To begin with, you have been lying to me all the time.

To be quite frank , I don’t like him at all.

He was, strange to say, just an ordinary little chap.

Predicative constructions with the infinitive

§ 113. The infinitive is used in predicative constructions of three types: the objective with the infinitive construction, and the so-called for-to-infinitive construction *. Traditionally they are called the complex subject, the complex object, and the for-to-infinitive complex.

* It is possible, however, to distinguish one more infinitive construction generally called the subjective infinitive construction or the nominative infinitive construction. (See § 123 on the Subjective predicative construction).

In all these constructions the infinitive denotes an action ascribed to the person or non-person, though grammatically this relationship is not expressed in form: the doer of the action may be represented by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case (I saw him cross the street, it is for him to decide this) and the verbal element which is not in a finite form. Still, due to their semantics and because of the attached posi­tion the nominal and the verbal elements are understood as forming a complex with subject-predicate relationship.

The for-to-infinitive construction

§ 114. In the for-to-infinitive construction the infinitive (usually an infinitive phrase) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case introduced by the preposition for. The construction is used where the doer of the action (or the bearer of the state), expressed by the infinitive, is different from that of the finite verb (the predicate):

The doer of the action of the finite verb and of the infinitive is the same:

The doer of the action of the finite verb and of the infinitive is not the same:

He longed to see the truth. -

Он очень хотел узнать правду.

All I want is to get out of here for good. - Единственное, чего я хочу, - это навсегда уехать отсюда.

He longed for me to see the truth.-

Он очень хотел, чтобы я узнал правду.

All I want is for Jack to get out of here for good. - Единственное, чего я хочу, - это чтобы Джек навсегда уехал отсюда.

The for-to-infinitive construction has the same functions as a single infinitive, though with some restrictions.

1. Subject. The for-to-infinitive construction in the function of the subject usually occurs in sentences with the introductory it , though it is occasionally placed at the head of the sentence:

It was difficult for him to do anything else.

For me to hear him was disturbing.

2. Predicative. In this function the construction is mostly used with the link verb to be :

The best thing is for you to do it now.

3. Object. The construction functions as object of both verbs and adjectives:

a) She watched for the door to open.

I don’t think I should care for it to be known.

b) His family were anxious for him to do something.

I’m so glad for you to have come at last.

4. Attribute:

There was no need for him to be economical.

5. Adverbial modifier of purpose and consequence:

She paused for him to continue.

The wall was too high for anything to be visible.

He had said enough for me to get alarmed.

In all its uses this construction is generally rendered in Russian by a subordinate clause.

The objective with the infinitive construction

§ 115. In the objective with the infinitive construction the infinitive (usually an infinitive phrase) is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case (hence the name of the construction). The whole construction forms a complex object of some verbs. It is rendered in Russian by an object clause.

The objective with the infinitive construction is used in the following cases:

1. After verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice and some others). In this case the only possible form of the infinitive is the non-perfect common aspect active voice form, used without the particle to :

No one has ever heard her cry.

I paused a moment and watched the tram-car stop.

The verb to listen to, though not a verb of sense perception, is used in the same way, with a bare infinitive:

He was listening attentively to the chairman speak .

If the verb to see or to notice is used with the meaning to realize, or the verb to hear with the meaning to learn, the objective with the infinitive construction cannot be used. Here only subordinate object clause is possible:

I saw that he did not know anything.

I hear you have dropped the idea of leaving him.

Не only had time to notice that the girl was unusually pretty.

Я видел (понимал) , что он ничего не знает.

Я слышала (узнала) , что ты отказалась от мысли уйти от него.

Он только успел заметить (осознать), что девушка была необычайно хорошенькой.

2. After verbs of mental activity (to think, to believe, to consider, to expect, to understand, to suppose, to find and some others). Here the infinitive is used in any form, though the non-perfect forms are the most frequent (always with the particle to ).

I know him to be an honest man.

She believed him to have left for San Francisco.

I believed her to be knitting in the next room.

I should expect my devoted friend to be devoted to me.

3. After verbs of emotion (to like, to love, to hate, to dislike and some others). Here non-perfect, common aspect forms of the “to”- infinitive are the most usual.

I always liked him to sing.

She hated her son to be separated from her.

I’d love you to come with me too.

I hated him to have been sent away.

4. After verbs of wish and intention (to want, to wish, to desire, to intend, to mean and some others). After these verbs only non-perfect common aspect forms of the infinitive with the particle to are used:

He only wished you to be near him.

I don’t want him to be punished.

5. After verbs of declaring (to declare, to pronounce ):

I declare you to be out of your mind.

He reported the boat to have been seen not far away.

6. After verbs of inducement (to have, to make, to get, to order, to tell, to ask , etc.) of which the first two take a bare infinitive. In the construction some of them acquire a different meaning: make - заставить, get - добить­ся, have - заставить (сказать, чтобы ...)

I can’t get him to do it properly.

She made me obey her.

7. The objective with the infinitive construction also occurs after certain verbs requiring a prepositional object, for example to count (up)on, to rely (up) on, to look for, to listen to, to wait for:

I rely on you to come in time.

Can’t I count upon you to help me ?

The gerund

§ 116. The gerund is a non-finite form of the verb with some noun features. It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.

The grammatical meaning of the gerund is that of a process. Thus to some extent it competes with nouns of verbal origin, e.g. translating -translation, describing - description, arriving - arrival, perceiving - perception, helping - help. Nouns, however, tend to convey the fact or the result of an action, which in certain circumstances may be something material, whereas gerunds convey the idea of action or process itself.

Show me your translation : it is neatly done, and there, are no mistakes in it.

You will enrich your vocabulary by translating from English into Russian and vice versa.

If the meaning of the gerund is nearly the same as that of the noun, the former emphasizes the process, and the latter - the fact:

Thank you for helping me.

Thank you for your help.

It is natural that the verbal character of the gerund is more prominent in transitive verbs, owing to their combinability and their passive forms.

Morphologically the verbal character of the gerund is manifested in the categories of voice and perfect (see table V) and syntactically in its combinability. Thus the gerund may combine: a) with a noun or pronoun as direct, indirect or prepositional object, depending on the verb it is formed from; b) with an adjective or a noun as a predicative; c) with an infinitive.

Gerunds can be modified by adverbs and prepositional phrases function­ing as adverbial modifiers.

Gerund

Finite verb

I remember your telling me the story five years ago.

It’s no use arguing about trifles.

John dreams of becoming a sailor.

There is some chance of his being able to join us.

We enjoyed walking slowly along the silent streets.

You told me the story five years ago.

I never argue about trifles.

John became a sailor.

We hope he will be able to join us.

We walked slowly along the silent streets.

The nominal character of the gerund reveals itself syntactically, mainly in its syntactical function, partly in its combinability.

Like a noun, it can function as subject, object, or predicative.

Seeing you is always a pleasure. (subject)

I remember seeing you somewhere . (object)

I am thinking of seeing the film again. (prepositional object)

Peter’s hobby is seeing all new films . (predicative)

When it is an attribute or an adverbial modifier, a gerund, like a noun is preceded by a preposition.

There is a chance of catching the train.

Don’t forget to call me up before leaving London.

I reached my goal in spite of there being every reason against it.

The fact that the gerund can associate with a preposition is a sure sign of noun features.

Like a noun, but unlike the other non-finites, it can combine with a possessive pronoun and a noun in the genitive case denoting the doer of the action expressed by the gerund.

Excuse my interrupting you.

I insist on John’s staying with us.

It combines with the negative pronoun no in the idiomatic construction of the type: There is no getting out of it.

The grammatical categories of the gerund

§ 117. As already stated the gerund has only two grammatical categories, those of voice and perfect.

Table V

The Grammatical Categories of the Gerund

Voice

Perfect

Active

Passive

Non-Perfect

running

taking

-

being taken

Perfect

having ran

having taken

-

having been taken

The category of perfect

§ 118. The category of perfect finds its expression, as with other verb forms, in the contrast of non-perfect (indefinite) and perfect forms.

The non-perfect gerund denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb.

Students improve their pronunciation

John improved his pronunciation

You will improve your pronunciation

by listening to tape recordings.

The perfect gerund denotes an action prior to the action denoted by the finite verb.

I regret

I regretted

I will always regret

having uttered these words.

The perfect gerund is invariable in indicating priority, whereas the meaning of the non-perfect gerund is vaguer and more flexible and may easily be modified by the context. Thus according to the context the action denoted by the non-perfect gerund may precede or follow the action denoted by the finite verb. The non-perfect gerund may denote a prior action thanks to the lexical meaning of the verb or the preposition suggesting priority, so the non-perfect gerund is generally used after verbs of recollection, gratitude, blame, reproach, punishment and reward.

I shall never forget taking this exam.

I remember talking to him once.

Thank you for helping me.

The non-perfect gerund is to be found in gerundial phrases introduced by the prepositions on and after. The preposition on suggests immediate priority and an instantaneous action.

On reaching the end of the street we turned towards the river.

Tom, after reflecting a little , gave a long sigh.

The lexical meaning of the above-mentioned verbs and prepositions makes the use of the perfect form redundant. It is used, however, when the priority is emphasized, as in following examples:

And all of a sudden David remembered having heard the name before.

He came back after having been away for about ten years.

The non-perfect gerund expresses a succeeding action after verbs, adjectives and prepositions implying reference to a future event (such as to intend, to insist, to object, to suggest, to look forward to ) and after the preposition before:

I insist on your staying with us.

We are looking forward to visiting new places.

Ann suggested going to the cinema.

I’m not keen on getting myself into trouble.

We met once more before parting.

The same form occurs after nouns suggesting futurity such as plan, intention, hope, prospect:

There is some hope of catching the last train.

The category of voice

§ 119. The gerund of transitive verbs possesses voice distinctions. Like other verb forms, the active gerund points out that the action is directed from the subject (whether expressed or implied), whereas the passive gerund indicates that the action is directed towards the subject.

Active gerund

Passive gerund

I hate interrupting people.

I am not used to talking in that way.

On telling me the time, he turned away.

He entered without having knocked at the door.

- I hate being interrupted.

- I am not used to being talked to in that way.

- On being told some impossible hour, he turned away.

- The door opened without having been knocked on.

The perfect passive gerund is very rarely used.

There are some verbs (to need, to want, to require, to deserve) and the adjective worth which are followed by an active gerund with passive meaning.

Your hair needs cutting.

This house wants painting.

Your suggestion is worth talking over.

Syntactical Functions of the Gerund

§ 120. The gerund can perform any syntactical function typical of a noun, although in each case it has peculiarities of its own. It may function (a) alone, without modifiers, or (b) as the headword of a gerundial phrase, or (c) as part of a gerundial predicative construction. Since the functions of gerundial constructions are identical with those of single gerunds or gerundial phrases, we shall treat them together. The gerundial constructions are usually translated by clauses.

a) I like driving.

b) I like playing the piano.

c) I like John’s (his) playing the piano.

A gerundial phrase consists of a gerund as headword and one or more words depending on it.

A gerundial construction contains some nominal element denoting the doer of the action expressed by the gerund and the gerund itself with or without some other words depending on it. The nominal element can be a noun in the genitive case or a possessive pronoun (if it denotes a living being), or a noun in the common case (if it does not denote a living being).

I remember John’s telling me that story once.

I remember the weather being extremely fine that summer.

We are absolutely against grown-up children being treated as babies.

There is a growing tendency, especially in informal speech, to use the pronoun in the objective case and a noun in the common case to denote the doer of the action expressed by the gerund with reference to living beings too.

They were all in favour of Tommy playing the main part.

The gerund as subject

§ 121. As a rule the gerund as subject stands in front position.

John(‘s) coming tomorrow will make all the difference.

Growing roses, collecting postage stamps or old swords are hobbies.

The subject stands in postposition in sentences opening with an introductory it , which happens when the meaning of the subject is accentuated and the predicate is a phrase such as to be (of) no use (no good, useless), to make all the (no) difference.

If you want me to help, it’s no good beating about the bush.

It will make no difference your being quiet.

In American English the pattern There is no use in doing it is preferable to It is no use doing it. In sentences with the introductory there the gerund is preceded by the negative pronoun no . Such sentences are usually emphatic.

Well, there’s no avoiding him now.

There is no accounting for his strange behaviour.

The gerund as part of the predicate

The gerund is used in compound predicates of both types - verbal and nominal.

The gerund as part of the compound nominal predicate (predicative)

§ 122. As predicative the gerund expresses either characterization or identity. In the latter case the predicate reveals the meaning of the subject.

John’s hobby is collecting all sorts of bugs and butterflies.

The gerund as part of the compound verbal predicate

§ 123. In combination with phasal verbs the gerund forms a compound verbal phasal predicate. The finite phasal verb denotes a phase of the action expressed by the gerund. The most common phasal verbs followed by the gerund are: to begin*,* to burst out, to start*, to cease, to continue*, to give up, to go on, to finish, to keep on, to leave off, to stop.

* The verbs marked by an asterisk may also be followed by the infinitive.

Again you start arguing.

On hearing the joke everybody burst out laughing.

They kept on arguing.

Your health will improve as soon as you give up smoking.

This is the only function of the gerund that is not characteristic of the noun, for it is caused by the verbal character of the gerund.

A gerundial predicative construction cannot form part of a compound verbal predicate.

The gerund as object

§ 124. The gerund can be used as a direct or a prepositional object. As a direct object it follows a number of monotransitive verbs, some of which take only the gerund, while others may be followed either by the gerund or by the infinitive. The gerund is also used after the adjective worth.

The following verbs are followed only by the gerund:

to admit

to appreciate

to avoid

to deny

to detest

to enjoy

to excuse

to fancy

to imagine

to mention

to mind

to miss

to postpone

to practise

to put off

to recollect

to resent

to resist

to risk

to suggest

to understand

can’t help

can’t stand

We all appreciate your helping us.

Avoid using very long sentences.

Fancy us (our) having to walk a mile in a wind like this!

I’m sorry that I missed seeing you!

Do you mind Ann’s joining us?

Practise listening to tape recordings . It’s good practice!

I find the book worth reading.

Verbs followed by either the gerund or the infinitive.

to have

to forget

to intend

to like (dislike)

to plan

to prefer

to remember

to regret

can’t bear

can’t afford*

* On the difference between the use of the gerund and the infinitive with some verbs see § 127.

I can’t bear your (you) being so sad.

We can’t afford going to the cinema too often now, we are revising for our exams.

I prefer walking home (to taking a bus).

After verbs taking an object and an objective predicative the gerund, or rather a gerundial phrase or construction, is preceded by an introductory object it.

I find it strange our going without you.

I think it no use your (you) arguing about trifles.

As a prepositional object the gerund may follow (a) monotransitive prepositional verbs, (b) ditransitive verbs taking a direct and a prepositional object, (c) adjectives and statives and (d) participle II, generally when used as a predicative.


a)

to agree

to object

to look forward

to

to count

to depend

to rely

on

to hear

to learn

to think

of

to persist

to consist

to succeed

in

We all agree to your opening the discussion.

Happiness consists largely in having true friends.

All depends on the doctor being sent for in time.

They are thinking of doing something for him.


b)

to accuse

to suspect

of

to thank

to blame to praise to punish

to sentence

for

to prevent

to stop

from

to assist

to help in

to have no difficulty

in

to congratulate smb. on

Roy accused me of disliking him.

What prevented you from becoming a professional actor?

Who will help me in hanging these pictures?

You should blame yourself for getting such a low mark.

I had no difficulty in getting the tickets for the concert.

Note:

As is seen from above a prepositional for-object has a shade of causal meaning.

c)

to be afraid

to be aware

to be conscious

to be capable

to be fond

of

to be ignorant

to be proud

to be sure

of

to be responsible for

to be sorry about

to be keen on

I don’t have the TV too loud, because I’m afraid of disturbing the neighbours.

We are all proud of our citizen’s getting the first prize.

Ned will be responsible for arranging the farewell party.

Don’t be sorry about missing the first scene , it was rather dull.

d)

to be accustomed

to be used

to

to be (dis)pleased with (at)

to be surprised at

to be tired of

to be absorbed

to be engrossed

in

I’m not used to being talked to in that rude way.

The teacher was displeased with the boys being noisy.

We were surprised at your leaving the party.

A teacher shouldn’t get tired of explaining things to his pupils.

The gerund as attribute

§ 125. When used as an attribute, the gerund modifies nouns, mainly abstract nouns. It is always preceded by a preposition, in the vast majority of cases by of , as in the following combinations: the art of teaching, the habit of speaking, a certain way of walking, a chance of seeing somebody, a hope of getting a ticket, an idea of going to the cinema, an intention of learning another foreign language, etc.

There is a chance of catching the train.

Professor N spoke about new methods of teaching English to foreign students.

The idea of him being in Paris was not a pleasant one.

Lucy had the impression of being carried upstairs.

Isn’t there any hope of your being able to go with us at all ?

In some cases the choice of the preposition depends on the requirements of the modified noun, as in surprise at, experience in, skill in, apology (excuse) for, objection to.

The boy showed his skill in building model boats.

Imagine his surprise at seeing me.

When a gerund modifies a concrete noun it is preceded by the preposi­tion for and the whole gerundial phrase as attribute expresses the purpose or destination of the thing mentioned.

The barometer is an instrument for measuring the pressure of the air.

A gerund as attribute may precede the noun it modifies in phrases bordering on a compound noun. A premodifying attribute is used without a preposition, as in a dancing master, a diving suit, a reading lamp, a spending habit, a working method, a writing career, a swimming pool, a walking stick , etc.*

* See §132.

The gerund as adverbial modifier

§ 126. Owing to the variety of prepositions which may precede the gerund in the function of an adverbial modifier, a gerund may have different meanings.

1) As an adverbial modifier of time it may characterize the main verb from the viewpoint of priority, simultaneity, or posteriority. It may also indicate the starting point of the action. The prepositions used are on, after, in, before, since.

One day, on returning to his hotel , he found a note in his room.

At first he couldn’t understand. After thinking it over he hit upon the explanation.

And I’ll wash the dishes and clean up before coming to bed .

I had had a lot of thoughts since leaving the office.

2) As an adverbial modifier of reason it is introduced by the prepositions because of, for, from, for fear of, on account of, through.

So you see I couldn’t sleep for worrying.

We lost ourselves through not knowing the way.

He (Jolyon) took care not to face the future for fear of breaking up his untroubled manner.

3) As an adverbial modifier of manner the gerund generally occurs with the prepositions by or without.

You will achieve a lot by felling the truth.

She dressed without making a sound.

4) As an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances it requires the preposition without.

They danced without speaking . (= They danced and didn’t speak)

The door opened without having been knocked on.

5) As an adverbial modifier of concession it is preceded by the preposition in spite of :

I don’t ask any questions in spite of there being a lot of questions to ask.

6) As an adverbial modifier of condition it takes the prepositions without, but for, in case of.

You won’t enrich your vocabulary without making use of an English dictionary . (= if you don’t make use

of...)

But for meeting John , I shouldn’t have become an English teacher.

7) As an adverbial modifier of purpose it is introduced by the preposi­tion for , though this pattern is rather rare.

They took her to the station for questioning.

The gerund and the infinitive compared

§ 127. The gerund and the infinitive have much in common since they both have some nominal and some verbal features. However, in the infinitive the verbal nature is more prominent, whereas in the gerund the nominal one.

The basic difference in their meaning is that the gerund is more general, whereas the infinitive is more specific and more bound to some particular occasion. When they combine with the same verb the difference in their meaning and use should be fully realized.

1. With the verbs to like, to hate, to prefer the gerund expresses a more general or a habitual action, the infinitive a specific single action:

I like swimming (I am fond of swimming).

I hate interrupting people.

They prefer staying indoors when the weather is cold.

I shouldn’t like to swim in this lake.

I hate to interrupt you, but I have to.

I’d prefer to stay at home in this cold weather.

2. With the verbs to begin and to start either form may generally be used, but again the gerund is preferable when the action is more general.

She began singing when a child.

She went over to the piano and began to sing.

No gerund is used:

a) when the finite verb is in the continuous form.

He is beginning to study French.

It’s beginning to rain.

b) with the verbs to understand and to see (meaning to understand ).

He began to understand how it was done.

c) when the subject denotes a thing, not a living being.

The doors began to creak .

The clock began to strike .

3. The verb to remember is followed by a gerund when it means a prior action (to recall, to keep in one’s memory some past event ), and by an infinitive when it means a simultaneous action (the working of one’s memory).

I remembered posting the letters.

(Я помнил, что опустил письмо).

I remembered to post the letters. =

I remembered and posted.

(Я не забыл опустить письмо).

The same refers to the verb to forget.

I shall never forget hearing him sing

(Я никогда не забуду как он пел).

Don’t forget to post the letters!

(Не забудь опустить письма).

I didn’t forget to post the letters.

(Я не забыл опустить письма).

4. The verb to regret is followed by the gerund to suggest priority, whereas the infinitive suggests a simultaneous action.

I regret not having worked harder at the language as a boy.

(Я сожалею, что не учил как следует языка в детстве).

I regret following his advice.

(Я сожалею, что последовал его совету).

I regret to inform you.

(С сожалением сообщаю вам это).

I regret to have to inform you.

(Сожалею, что вынужден сообщить вам это).

5. a) after to stop the gerund is used when it suggests the end of the action denoted by the gerund, whereas the infinitive is used as an adverbial of purpose.

Stop arguing!

(Перестань спорить!)

I stopped talking.

(Я замолчал).

I stopped to talk to a friend of mine

(Я остановилась, чтобы поговорить с другом).

b) The phrasal verb to go on with a gerund suggests the continuation of the action, denoted by the gerund and forms part of a compound verbal predicate; an infinitive points out a new stage in the sequence of actions.

The teacher went on explaining the use of verbals (continued).

(... продолжал объяснять ...)

The teacher went on to explain he use of the gerund after some verbs.

(... объяснял одно правило за дру­гим .... т. е. употребление герун­дия после разных глаголов).

6. The verb to allow is used with a gerund when it is not followed by an indirect object.

They don’t allow smoking here.

(Здесь курить запрещено).

They allowed us to smoke.

(Они разрешили нам курить).

The gerund and the verbal noun compared

§ 128. Although formed in the same way as the gerund, the verbal noun is another part of speech and has no verbal features at all. The following table shows the main differences between the gerund and the verbal noun.

Table VI

The characteristics of the gerund and the verbal noun

Forms

Grammatical

characteristics

The gerund

The verbal noun

M

o

r

Voice and perfect

being done, having done

-

f

o

l

o

g

y

The plural form

-

sufferings, comings and goings

S

y

n

t

a

x

Direct object

I like doing morning exercises.

-

Of-phrase and

adjectival attributes

-

The doing of morning

Exercises was very good for me.

The regular doing of morning exercises

Adverbs as a modifier

Doing morning exercises regularly

will improve your health.

-

Articles

-

The doing of morning exercises.

The acting was perfect.

From the table we can see that the distinctive features of the gerund are its verbal categories in the sphere of morphology and its verbal combinability. The distinctive features of the verbal noun are its nominal category of number and its noun combinability. It must be taken into consideration that a verbal noun is an abstract noun, and the use of the article and the plural form is determined by the requirements of the meaning and context.

It is more difficult to discriminate between a gerund and a verbal noun in cases where the verbal characteristics of the gerund are not apparent. This happens mainly when an -ing form is used as a single word without any modifiers or with such modifiers as occur with both the gerund and the verbal noun (His coming was unexpected. Her acting was perfect ). In such cases the meaning of the form should be taken into account. Thus a gerund suggests a process, an activity, whereas a verbal noun denotes kinds of occupation (skating as compared to hockey), an art form (acting, painting ), a branch of knowledge (engineering, spelling as opposed to pronunciation and as a synonym for orthography).

It goes without saying that an -ing form is a pure noun when it denotes an object, often the result of activity (a building - a house; a drawing , a painting - a picture). In such cases a noun unlike a gerund, may also combine with numerals, as in two drawings, four buildings , etc.

The participle

The participle is a non-finite form of the verb. There are two forms of the participle - participle I and participle II.

Participle I

§ 129. Participle I is a non-finite form of the verb with some adjectival and adverbial features. It is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.*

* For rules of spelling and pronunciation see § 7. 138

The verbal character of participle I is manifested morphologically in the categories of voice and perfect (see table VII) and syntactically in its combinability. Thus, like the other non-finites, it may combine: a) with a noun or a pronoun as direct, indirect or prepositional object; b) with an adverb or a prepositional phrase as an adverbial modifier; c) with a noun or adjective as a predicative.

a) Seeing Jane , I rushed to greet her.

We didn’t utter a word while listening to the story.

b) Rising early , you’ll make your days longer.

Do you know the man sitting in the middle of the first row ?

c) Being absent-minded , he went into the wrong room.

Participle I is used as a pure verb form in the formation of the continuous aspect forms.

The adjectival and adverbial features of participle I are manitested in its syntactical functions as an attribute and an adverbial modifier.

Arriving at the station , she saw him at once, leaning agains the railing.

(adverbial modifier of time, detached attribute).

Non-perfect participle I active has synonymous adjectives formed from the same verb stem, such as resulting - resultant, convulsing - convulsive, abounding - abundant, deceiving - deceptive . Some participles border on adjectives when used as attributes or predicatives, and have qualitative adjectives as synonyms; for example amusing - funny, boring - dull, deafening - (very) loud. There are even some deverbal adjectives that have completely lost their verbal meaning, for example interesting, charming.

When they lose their verbal character, participles may be modified by adverbs of degree used with adjectives, such as very, so, too, as in very (greatly, exceedingly , etc.) amusing, too boring, most exciting .

My job is with one of the ministers - too boring and distasteful to discuss.

All this was extremely gratifying.

Like an adjective, participle I forms adverbs with the suffix -ly: laughingly, jokingly, surprisingly, admiringly, appealingly, feelingly.

You surprise me, she said feelingly.

The grammatical categories of participle I

Table VII

The category of perfect

The category of perfect in participle I finds its expression in the contrast of the non-perfect and perfect forms.

The non-perfect form suggests that the action denoted by participle I is simultaneous with that of the finite verb. Thus the time-reference of the action expressed by participle I can be understood only from the context, that is it is not absolute, but relative.


Learning foreign languages

you know your native tongue better.

I used to begin my day with repeating new words.

you will learn a lot about your native tongue.

The perfect form of participle I indicates that the action denoted by the participle is prior to that denoted by the finite verb.


Having learnt the elements

of English

I shall start upon French.

our students start upon French or German.

we started upon French.

The meaning of priority may be accompanied by the notion of completion or duration, depending on whether the meaning of the verb is terminative or durative.

Dinny took the little packet, and having brought no bag, slipped it down her dress.

Having waited several hours in the snow to see me, he was not likely to show much patience when the

house was thrown into darkness.

Like that of the other non-finites, the perfect form of participle I invariably expresses priority, whereas non-perfect participle I varies in its meaning according to the context, expressing either a prior or a simultaneous or a posterior action.

Non-perfect participle I regularly expresses immediate priority and denotes an instantaneous action if it is formed from terminative verbs, such as verbs of motion (to come, to enter, to arrive, to turn, to leave ), of sense perception (to see, to hear, to find ) and verbs of certain specific actions associated with motion (to put, to put on, to take, to take off, to seize, to grasp, to open ).

Arriving at the station, he found his train gone.

Leaving the house, Andrew continued his round.

Turning the comer, you’ll see the house you are looking for.

Hearing a noise in the garden, I looked out of the window.

Taking off our shoes, we tiptoed into the nursery.

The perfect participle of the same verbs is used when there is a lapse of time between the two actions, or when the action denoted by the participle is durative. Compare the following examples:

Seeing Jane, I rushed to greet her. But: Having seen tine girl only once, I didn’t recognize her.

Not having seen her for a long time, I didn’t recognize her.

Sometimes the perfect participle is used to emphasize priority. Compare these examples:

Her husband, finding the right key , fits it into the lock of the bureau.

Having found the place he sought , Bateman sent in his card to the manager.

Non-perfect participle I may denote a posterior action, immediately following the first action, forming its part or being its result, as in:

Lizzy left the room, banging the door shut.

John fell, hurting his knee.

There may be a lapse of time between the first and the second (posterior) action. This is evident from the context.

I then hired a car and went home, arriving just before twelve о' clock.

We left at dawn, returning late.

As seen from the above examples non-perfect participle I denoting a prior action usually precedes the predicate verb. When it denotes a posterior action, it stands always after the predicate verb. In both cases it corresponds to the Russian perfective adverbial participle (деепричастие) (приехав, повернув, услышав, сняв, поднявшись, найдя, хлопнув, вернувшись).

The category of voice

§ 130. Participle I of transitive verbs, both non-perfect and perfect, has voice distinctions, which are realized in the contrast of active and passive forms:

Translating from English into Russian, she should know well both languages.

Having translated the text into Russian, we handed it to the teacher.

Being translated into many languages, the novel is known all over the world.

Having been translated long ago, the novel is likely to be re-translated.

Participle I active denotes an action directed from the doer of the action, while participle I passive denotes an action directed towards it.

The carrier of the action may coincide with the subject of the sentence, as in the above examples. It may also be a noun modified by participle I used attributively, in whatever function the noun is used:

Do you know the students translating the text?

Have you read the text being translated by the students?

The doer of the action may be expressed by the nominal element of a predicative construction:

I heard someone mentioning your name.

I heard your name being mentioned at the conference.

Non-perfect participle I active of transitive verbs can be contrasted not only with participle I passive, but also with participle II:

taking

mentioning

teaching

holding

- being taken

- being mentioned

- being taught

- being held

- taken

- mentioned

- taught

- held

According to the syntactical function of participle I and the aspectual character of the verb, non-perfect participle I passive may denote process, as in:

Have you heard anything of the conference being held at the University? (of the conference which is

being held at the University)

The phrase The conference held at the University is ambiguous, because it might be understood as The conference that has been held or -was held or is being held.

Syntactical functions of participle I

§ 131. Participle I performs the syntactical functions characteristic of the adjective and the adverb, and can therefore be used as attribute, predicative, or as adverbial modifier.

It may be used (a) alone or (b) as headword of a participial phrase, or else (c) as part of a predicative construction:

a) Let sleeping dogs lie.

He drank his coffee standing.

b) There are some other people waiting for you.

The youth looked at him curiously, never having seen a Forsyte with a beard.

c) We found him working in the garden.

Participle I as attribute

§ 132. This function is peculiar to non-perfect participle I in its main sense, that of a process simultaneous with the action denoted by the main verb or with the moment of speech. It corresponds to the Russian imperfective participle, usually active: leading - ведущий, asking - спрашивающий, sleeping - спящий. The passive participle I corresponds to the Russian imperfective passive participle: being asked - спрашиваемый, being translated -переводимый, being built - строящийся.

When a participial phrase is used as attribute it follows the modified noun. Its verbal character is evident from its verbal combinability and sometimes from the passive form itself. A participial phrase may be (a) non-detached or (b) detached:

a) We went along the street leading to the seashore.

Emma sat in the armchair facing the door.

Another factor concerns the formality of the language being taught.

b) Once a month Tommy, arriving separately , came in for a brief drink.

A detached participial phrase is set off from the modified noun by a comma (or commas) in writing and by a pause (or pauses) in speech.

When a single participle is used as attribute, it generally functions as a premodifier. Here we usually find only participle I active of intransitive verbs. Its verbal character is clear from the processual meaning of the verb itself: living people, a sleeping dog.

Participle I as a premodifying attribute differs from the gerund in the same function. The noun serves as the subject of the action expressed by the participle, as in a living man = a man who lives, a burning house = a house that is burning, a dancing girl == a girl who is dancing (or dances). The gerund suggests the destination of the object or a person’s occupation, as in writing paper =paper for writing, dancing hall = a hall for dancing, a singing teacher = a teacher of singing. Note also the difference in stress patterns. There are two stresses in the pattern with the participle (a 'burning 'house ), the second being the main stress, while in the pattern with the gerund only the first (gerundial) element is stressed (a ' dancing hall ); if there are two stresses, the first component has the main stress, as in a 'speaking 'habit, a 'writing 'career.

When a prior action is meant no participle I can be used as attribute, only an attributive clause is used. Thus when we translate sentences with the Russian perfective participle active with the suffix-вш into English we must use an attributive clause: спросивш ий - who has asked , переводивш ий (ранее) - who has translated or who has (had) been translating , уехавш ий -who has gone , вернувш ийся - who has (had) returned or who returned , depending on the context or situation:

Я разговаривал со студентами, вернувш имися с практики. – I’ve just talked to the students who have come back from their teaching practice.

Я разговаривал со студентами, вернувш имися с практики на прошлой неделе. – I’ve talked to the students who came back from their school practice last week. .

Женщина, стоявш ая на крыльце, вошла в дом. - The woman who had been standing on the porch went into the house, (the action expressed by the participle is prior to that of the finite verb) But: Я обратился к женщине, стоявш ей на крыльце. - I addressed the woman standing on the porch (simultaneous actions).

Participle I as adverbial modifier

§ 133. All the four forms of participle I can function as adverbial modifiers of different semantic types (time, reason, manner, attendant circumstances, and sometimes condition, concession, comparison).

The semantic type of the adverbial modifier is clear from the context and the predicate group, as in:

Being a newcomer , he felt ill at case. (adverbial modifier of reason)

In some cases, however, the functional meaning is not so obvious. For example, there may be a combination of causal and temporal meaning as in:

Seeing her , he stopped (he stopped because he saw her, or when he saw her).

or of causal and conditional meaning:

Living alone, one becomes self-centred (as one lives alone, or if one lives alone).

Very often to make the semantical relationship clearer, certain conjunctions are employed, such as: when, while, though, as if, as though, if.

1) Participle I as adverbial modifier of time may denote a simultaneous or a prior action. Here it corresponds to the Russian adverbial participle (деепричастие).

Non-perfect participle I active, when used as an adverbial modifier of time, usually conveys the meaning of the motion or state. Most often it is a participle of the verbs of motion (come, walk, go ), or position in space (sit, lie, stand ).

Walking along the track , Bowen burst into song.

Returning to London , Arthur had thrown himself into the work.

Standing there now on the corner of the stage , he went on as before.

Lying in the hospital with his rotting wound , he dictated his farewell letter to his brother.

The notion of simultaneity may be expressed more explicitly by the conjunctions when and while.

He felt horrible while saying this.

Don’t forget articles when speaking English.

Participle I passive in this function usually denotes priority.

He enquired hurriedly whether Mrs. Forsyte was at home and being informed that she was not , heaved a

sigh of relief.

Being left alone , Paulina and I kept silence for some time.

Perfect participle I as adverbial modifier of time, always denotes a prior action.

They wrote because they had to, and having written, thought only of what they were going to write next.

2) Participle I as adverbial modifier of reason can be expressed by all the four forms. The most frequently used non-perfect participles I are those of verbs denoting mental perception and emotions, for example, knowing, realizing, remembering, expecting, hoping, fearing ; also the participles being and having.

Hoping to catch the train , we took a taxi.

She knew that we were guilty. And knowing it , the child in her was outraged.

Being there , I could see all.

He’s very conceited, you know, having parades and things all the time.

Having decided on this course of action some time ago , I was unable to stay at home.

Another characteristic feature of participles functioning as adverbials of reason consists in their combinability with negation (no matter what it is expressed by).

I turned back, not knowing where to go.

Even then he hadn’t been able to watch her, not having eyes in the back of his head.

3) The adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances is one of the most characteristic of participle I - it is considered to be the main grammatical meaning of non-perfect participle I. In this case participle I denotes some action or event parallel to the action or state denoted by the finite verb.

Deb was silent, fidgeting with the spoon in her saucer.

I laughed, and still laughing turned away eastward.

4) Participle I as an adverbial modifier of manner is akin to an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. The difference consists in the fact that an adverbial modifier of manner characterizes the action of the finite verb, whereas that of attendant circumstances denotes a parallel action or event.

He came in carrying a big parcel.

5) Occasionally participle I occurs as an adverbial modifier of comparison, concession or condition.

As an adverbial of comparison the participle is always preceded by the conjunction as if, as though:

As if obeying him , I turned and stared into his face.

When participle I is used as an adverbial modifier of concession the conjunction is not obligatory and then the idea of concession may be understood from the context. However the conjunction though will make the semantic relationship clearer.

Somebody was waiting: a man who, though moving irregularly , was making quite a speed in my direction.

In the same way participle I as an adverbial modifier of condition is recognized by its syntactical surroundings. It is either the subjunctive mood or the future tense form which allows a participial phrase to function as an adverbial modifier of condition:

She ought to be there and her absence might be resented, but being there she wouldn’t know what to say (но, если бы она была там ... , ... но будучи там ...).

Well, we’ll be in Scotland afore we know where we are, going at this speed (... если будем двигаться с такой скоростью).

Participle I as part of the compound verbal predicate

§ 134. Non-perfect participle I can be part of a compound verbal predicate of double orientation. Within this type of predicate participle I follows verbs of sense perception, such as to see, to hear, to feel, to find, to catch, also some causative verbs, such as to keep, to leave in the passive voice.

Jane was heard playing the piano.

Paul was found working in the garden.

The boy was caught teasing the cat.

I was kept waiting an hour or so.

I was left standing on the stage.

In this type of predicate participle I active is generally used, though occasionally non-perfect participle I passive is to be found.

He flicks the switch and “Roll Out the Barrel” is heard being whistled.

The predicate of double orientation consists of two parts: the first is oriented on somebody implied, and the second refers semantically to the doer of the action expressed by the subject. Thus the first example means that somebody heard that Jane was playing the piano.* Therefore sentences with this type of predicate are translated into Russian by indefinite personal or impersonal sentences, complex or simple, depending on the verb in the passive voice.

* See p. II Syntax, § 53 The compound verbal predicate of double orientation; also § 123 Predicative complexes (the subjective predicative construction).

Слышали (слышно было), как Джейн играет на рояле.

Меня заставили ждать почти целый час.

Participle I as predicative

§ 135. In the position of predicative only non-perfect participle I active occurs, its adjectival character being predominant. Although keeping the form of the participle, it is treated as an adjective, or a deverbal adjective.

The participle in this position gives the qualitative characterization to the person or thing used as subject (or object, in the case of the objective predicative).

The story is amusing.

Your answer is surprising.

We found him dying

- I find the story amusing.

- I consider your answer surprising.

- We found that he was dying.

Participle I as predicative may be used with other linkverbs, in which case it may keep its verbal character, as in:

Isadora remained standing.

Participle I as independent element (parenthesis)

§ 136. Participle I as parenthesis forms the headword of a participial phrase, the meaning of which is a comment upon the contents of the whole sentence or sometimes part of it. The comment may take the form of a logical restriction or personal attitude. Here we find such participial phrases as generally (properly, roughly, legally, strictly) speaking, putting it mildly, judging by (from), allowing for, taking everything into consideration , etc.

Judging from what you say , he ought to succeed.

Strictly speaking , this is illegal.

Predicative constructions with participle I

§ 137. Participle I may function as part of a predicative construction, entering into a predicative relationship with some nominal element and forming a syntactical unit with it.

The objective participial construction

The objective participial construction consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and participle I forming a syntactical complex, the two main components of which are in predicative relationship. Since the construction always follows transitive verbs, its syntactical function is that of a complex object.* Thus in its meaning it corresponds to a subordinate clause and is usually translated into Russian by a subordinate object clause:

* For details see p. II Syntax. The Predicative Constructions (The Complex Object).

I saw John playing tennis

I saw him playing tennis

We heard them singing

- Я видел, как Джон играет в теннис.

- Я видел, как он играет в теннис.

- Мы слышали, как они поют.

In many cases, however, the translation depends on the verb it reters to and on the requirements of the Russian usage.

The nominal element usually refers to a person or a thing different from that denoted by the subject of the sentence. If it refers to the same person as the subject, a reflexive pronoun is to be used, as in:

He heard himself uttering the words.

The construction is generally used with non-perfect participle I active, and occasionally it occurs with participle I passive:

I could see the books being taken away.

Some of the verbs followed by the objective participial construction occur also with the objective infinitive construction (such as to see, to watch, to hear, to feel ). The difference between these two constructions concerns the meaning suggested by an infinitive or participle I; the former emphasizes the fact of an action being completed, the latter its processual character, as in:

I saw the car stop at the gate.

I saw the car stopping.

- Я видел, что машина, остановилась у ворот.

- Я видел, как машина остановилась (останавливалась) у ворот.

If the homogeneous infinitives are used, they denote two actions in succession. If two participles I are homogeneous, they suggest two simultaneous actions.

I heard him leave the room and lock the door.

Soames saw Bosinney watching her and smiling to himself.

- Я слышал, как он вышел из комнаты и запер ее.

- Соме увидел, что Босинни наблюдал за ней и улыбался сам себе.

The objective participial construction is used:

a) with verbs of sense perception,

b)with various verbs of causative meaning , or inducement.

c) occasionally with verbs expressing wish.

a)

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to notice

to observe

to perceive

to smell

to find

to catch

to discover

to look (at)

to listen (to)

We saw (watched, heard, listened to) the train approaching the station.

Do you smell something burning?

I could feel the dog leaning against my feet.

We found him working in the garden.

b)

to have

to get

to keep

to leave

to start

to set

I won’t have you smoking at your age!

They soon got (started) things going.

Don’t keep me waiting. I’m in a hurry.

Your words set me thinking.

Can you start (set) that engine going?

Note:

The verbs to have, to get may be used in the construction without their causative meaning, as in:

I have some students waiting for me.

I’ve got my grandson staying for a week.

Sentences with the verbs of this group are usually translated into Russian by simple sentences.

c) to want, to like

I don’t want you talking back to me.

They didn’t like me leaving so early.

§ 138. The nominative absolute participial construction.

This construction consists of two interdependent elements, nominal and verbal, which are in a predicative relation. The nominal element is a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The verbal element is participle I in any of its forms. The nominal and the verbal elements make a syntactical complex functioning as a detached adverbial modifier. Unlike the objective participial construction it does not depend on a verb:

John having left the room to ring for a taxi as arranged , Mary sat down again to wait for him.

The difference between a participial phrase and a nominative abso­lute participial construction may be illustrated as follows:

Having read the novel Jane (she) put it aside.


The novel having been read, Jane (she) put it aside.


In a participial phrase the subject of the sentence is as a rule related both to the predicate verb and to the participle. In a sentence with a nominative absolute participial construction the subject of the sentence is related only to the predicate verb, and the nominal element is related to the participle.

The nominative absolute participial construction functions syntactically as an adverbial modifier: an adverbial modifier of a) attendant circumstances , b) reason , c) occasionally time.

a) Llewellyn looked through the window, his glance travelling towards the bridge.

Mabel hurried out of the car and walked away, tears streaming down her face.

We were both standing leaning against the mantelpiece, she admirng her fan of blotting paper, I staring

at her.

A nominative absolute participial construction as an adverbial of attendant circumstances usually stands in postposition, and is widely used in literature.

It is translated into Russian by a coordinate clause: Мы оба стояли у камина; она любовалась веером из промокательной бумаги, а я глядел на нее.

b) But I was a little on edge, there being something to report.

The ship’s band did not play in the morning, it being Sunday.

c) The work being finished , the two girls went into the shop.

Sentences with a nominative absolute participial construction as an adverbial of reason or time are translated by complex sentences with the corresponding subordinate clauses: Я нервничал, так как было о чем сообщить... Когда работа была закончена, девушки вошли в мастерскую.

As well as in sentences with participial phrases causal and temporal meanings may be combined, as in:

Ice having thus been broken , the two former rivals grew still more affectionate.

Prepositional absolute participial construction with participle I

A prepositional absolute construction differs from a non-prepositional participial construction in that it is introduced by the preposition with. Its nominal part is usually a noun in the common case, or very rarely a personal pronoun in the objective case. It is not necessarily set off by a comma:

Andrew went into the house with his heart beating fast.

The main syntactical function of the construction is an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances , as in:

The officer sat with his long fine hands lying on the table perfectly still.

The meaning of attendant circumstances may be combined with temporal or causal ones:

I won’t speak with him staring at me like that.

Just now, with the harvest coming on , everything looks its richest.

It (St. John’s Wood) is ever so pretty with all the trees coming out.

The construction is usually translated into Russian by a coordinate or a subordinate clause, and sometimes by means of a prepositional phrase, or an adverbial participle (деепричастие).

(Когда) Эндрю вошел в дом , сердце его сильно билось (с бьющимся сердцем ).

Теперь, когда приближается время жатвы , все так красиво.

Participle I and the gerund compared

§ 139. Participle I and the gerund are alike in their verbal characteristics, both morphological (the categories of voice and perfect) and syntactical (verbal combinability).

The difference between the two lies in their non-verbal characteristics, that is in their syntactical functions and non-verbal combinability. Participle I, unless substantivized, cannot be used as subject or object, whereas such use is typical of the noun and therefore of the gerund. When used as adverbial modifier or attribute, participle I like an adjective or an adverb is never preceded by a preposition. On the other hand when the gerund is used as attribute or adverbial modifier it is preceded by a preposition like a noun in these functions.

The difference between the two is also to be found in the nominal tendencies of the gerund and the adjectival tendencies of participle I. This is most evident in their function of a predicative and an attribute.

As predicative participle I gives qualitative characteristics to the subject, thus tending towards an adjective, as in:

The sound of the thunder was deafening.

The gerund does not qualify the subject, it rather identifies the sub­ject by revealing its meaning, as in:

His favourite occupation is collecting stamps (or playing football or just football ).

When a gerund or a participle is used as an attribute, the difference between them does not lie only in the absence, or presence of the preposition, but also in their relationship to the modified noun. (For details see § 132 on premodifying attributes). Participle I denotes an action that the person or thing performs or experiences:

What is the name of the man talking with your sister?

Thus the modified noun denotes the doer of the action expressed by the participle.

The gerund usually reveals the meaning of the modified noun, which never denotes the performer of the action.

What the use of crying so ?

That was my last chance of seeing him.

There was no hope of saving her.

When used as an adverbial modifier, the gerund is more varied in its application than the participle because it is used with different prepositions.

The participle and the gerund are interchangeable when used as adverbials of time characterizing the verb through simultaneous or prior events:


Discussing the plan

In discussing the plan

we heard a lot of helpfull suggestions.

Entering the room

On entering the room

he closed the door.

After discussing the plan

Having discussed the plan

we started carring it out.

Only the gerund is possible when the starting or the final point of the action is meant, as in:

He has never been at his native town since leaving it in 1964.

You must get your parents’ permission before leaving for the mountains.

Yet there are a number of cases, especially among predicative constructions, where the -ing form may be treated either as a participle or a gerund, the difference between them being neutralized, as in:

I don’t count on him scaring easily.

Then he was aware of Toscato shaking the door of the box.

I remember them staying with us once.

Fancy him saying so!

Participle II

§ 140. Participle II is a non-finite form of the verb with verbal and adjectival features. Participle II stands apart from the other non-finites in that it does not possess their morphological categories. Nevertheless, being a verb form, it possesses the potential verbal meaning of voice, aspect and correlation, which depend upon the meaning of the verb it is formed from and which are realized in the context.

The main meanings of participle II are those of a state as a result of some action or an action itself. One of the most essential characteristics of participle II is that when it is used as part of the sentence, participle II of a transitive verb is passive in meaning, participle II of an intransitive verb is active.

Thus the participles invited, told, taken are semantically passive and correspond to the Russian passive participles приглашенный, рассказан­ный, взятый. The participles arrived, gone, risen are semantically active and correspond to the Russian active participles прибывший, ушедший, поднявшийся (взошедший).

§ 141. The adjectival nature of participle II manifests itself in its function in the sentence, which is usually that of either attribute or predicative. It may combine with adverbs of degree typical of adjectives, such as very, too, slightly, so, much, more, as in:

I am very pleased with you.

The children were too excited to notice the newcomer.

No man has ever had a more devoted sister than I.

Instead of the negation not, which we find with the other non-finites, participle II is often negated with the prefix un-, as in unfinished, unanswered.

Participle II may turn into adjectives with qualitative meaning synonymous with other adjectives, as in celebrated - famous, tired - weary.

Similar to adjectives and participle I, participle II may form adverbs with the help of the suffix -ly: fixedly, unhurriedly, admittedly.

The adjectival nature of participle II is traced in adjectivized participles with a form different from the verbal participle II. These forms occur as attributes in such phrases as on bended knees, a drunken man, a lighted match (candle, torch), molten lava (lead, steel), roast meat, a rotten apple, a shaven head, a well-shaven man, sodden clothes, sunken eyes, a swollen river. Some forms are used predicatively: to be well-stricken in years, to be panic-stricken, poverty-stricken (but thunder-struck, theatre-struck).

§ 142. The verbal character of participle II is manifested in its combinability. Thus participle II of transitive verbs easily combines with a by-object denoting the doer of the action as in Jane entered the room followed by her brother.

Participles II of phrasal verbs retain their composite structure: a boy brought up in a teacher’s family.

Participles II of prepositional transitive verbs are followed by the appropriate prepositions: a book often asked for, the article referred to, a man much spoken of.

Ditransitive verbs keep their second object as in: That was the main question asked her at the wedding.

Participle II may be accompanied by an adverbial modifier expressed by adverbs or phrases combining with verbs: a house built two years before, man hidden in the bush, a play well acted, a story long forgotten.

One of the main verbal features of participle II is revealed in its functioning as part of the compound verb forms of the passive voice and the perfect.

Voice peculiarities of participle II

§ 143. Participle II of transitive verbs, when it is not part of a perfect form, is always passive in meaning. Depending on the verb and the context it may correspond to any passive participle in Russian: built -построенный, строившийся, строящийся; begun - начатый, начинае­мый, начинающийся; translated - переводящийся, переводившийся, переводимый, переведенный.

Having a passive meaning participle II of transitive verbs is opposed to participle I active: asking - asked, loving - loved, seeing - seen, writing -written, teaching - taught, watching - watched, etc.

The doer of the action or state denoted by participle II is to be found in the subject or object of the sentence, in the noun or pronoun modified by participle II, in the first (nominal) element of a predicative construction.

The passive meaning of participle II may be of three types:

1) denoting an action directed towards the person or non-person expressed by the subject or object. This is peculiar to durative (non-terminative) transitive verbs, such as to accompany, to follow, to watch, to carry, to teach, to listen (to), to laugh (at), to look (at, for, on), to speak (of, to), to love, to hate , as in:

Spanish is one of the foreign languages taught at our Institute.

I won’t have my friend laughed at.

2) denoting a state, which is the result of an action. This is typical of terminative transitive verbs, such as to bring, to catch, to do, to find, to make, to put, to solve, to build, to realise, to open, to close , etc.

The problem is solved. The door is shut.

Occasionally, in a certain context, participle II of the above-mentioned verbs may denote action, as in: Brightman’s place was an old English farm-house, built two years before.

3) denoting a pure state. This is the case with verbs denoting psycological states and emotions, such as to amuse, to annoy, to offend, to surprise, to please, to excite.

I felt annoyed when he refused to help me.

I’m very (much) pleased with what he has done.

Participle II of intransitive verbs is always active in meaning. The use of these participles is restricted. Only participles II of verbs denoting motion or change of state can be used as attributes. These are participles II of the verbs to arrive, to fall, to go, to rise, to depart, to decease, to retire, to fade, to wither, to vanish, to decay and some others. Participles II of these verbs correspond to the Russian active participle of the perfective aspect: arrived - прибывший, vanished - исчезнувший, faded - увядший, decayed - сгнивший, as in arrived guests, the risen moon, the vanisned civilisation, the fallen leaves, the retired president.

Among these participles we find some which can be used either transitively or intransitively, such as hidden, increased, diminished, returned. They correspond to the Russian perfective active participles with the suffix -ся (спрятавшийся, увеличившийся, вернувшийся): the man hidden behind the tree, an increased population, a returned traveller.

The aspectual meaning of participle II and perfect

§ 144. The original aspectual meaning of participle II is perfectivity. It is evident in terminative verbs and verbs of double aspectual meaning.

In transitive terminative verbs the passive meaning of participle II is combined with perfectivity. Thus participle II can be opposed to participle I in their aspectual meanings of perfectivity/imperfectivity: taking - taken, asking - asked, writing - written, telling - told (берущий - взятый, спрашивающий - спрошенный, etc.).

The original meaning may be modified by the context, as can be seen by comparing the following sentences: The story told by the hostess amused everybody (история, рассказанная хозяйкой...). Why don’t we believe stories told by hunters and fishermen? (истории, рассказываемые охотни­ками, т. е. которые рассказывают охотники)

There is a growing tendency in present-day English to use participle I passive as an attribute to emphasize the processual character of the action. Thus we may paraphrase the last sentence, saying, “Why don't we believe stories being told by hunters?”

Participle II of intransitive verbs or verbs used intransitively is always perfective in meaning and can be opposed to non-perfect participle I: rising - risen, decaying - decayed, going - gone, arriving - arrived, retiring -retired, as in: the rising moon - the risen moon, the retiring director— the retired director. The same in the auctioneer’s formula: Going! Going! Gone! (Продается! Продается! Продано!)

The meaning of perfectivity/imperfectivity results in the potential meaning of perfect. The idea of priority and simultaneity is suggested by the aspectual character of the verb and is realized in the given context.

In many cases, however, the ideas of priority and simultaneity become fused, since the action is prior to, and the resulting state is simultaneous with, the action of the finite verb or the moment of speech. Thus in the sentence First of all she went to the bombed building the action of “bombing” is prior to the action of the finite verb “went”, but the resulting state of the action is simultaneous with it.

Syntactical functions of participle II

§ 145. As part of the sentence participle II may stand alone or be the headword of a participial phrase. It may function as an attribute (close or detached), predicative, or as an adverbial modifier.

Participle II as attribute

§ 146. Participle II usually functions either as premodifier when it stands alone or forms a very short participial phrase containing an adverb. The verbal character of the participle in the first case is made clear only by its lexical meaning:

First of all she went to the bombed building.

Our minds should meet in a serious, mutually needed search for common understandings.

It was a neatly written letter.

Sometimes the preposition is kept:

The room even had a faint perfume about it which gave it a lived-in air.

As a postmodifier participle II manifests its verbal character more explicitly, even when it stands alone. It may be accompanied by a preposi­tion, by an agentive by-object, an adverb and prepositional phrases as adverbial modifiers.

Things seen are mightier than things heard.

The dictionary referred to is to be found in our library.

These are cities inhabited by their creators.

Two women dimly seen in the shadow are talking softly.

When participle II or a participial phrase is detached, its position is not fixed. It may occupy the initial position, the mid-position or the final position in the sentence. Detached attributes are separated from the noun by a comma (or commas) in writing and by a pause in speech. They are confined to literary style only.

Greatly excited , the children followed her into the garden.

Johnson, left in charge of both officers , marched about for a little while.

And people hurried by, hidden under their dreadful umbrellas.

Participle II as predicative

§ 147. In this function participle II denotes a state, as in:

The Fada road is finished , the great idea is realized.

You seem surprized.

He looks perplexed and troubled.

He felt thoroughly disappointed.

The door remained locked.

Occasionally we come across a participle II with an active meaning used predicatively:

The sun is not risen.

Everybody is gone.

Evening is come.

Participle II as adverbial modifier

§ 148. The adverbial function and meaning of participle II can be seen only from the general meaning of the sentence. In the vast majority of cases, when used adverbially, participle II is preceded by a conjunction, which explicitly indicates the semantic type of the adverbial modifier.

Participle II may serve as an adverbial modifier of:

time, usually with the conjunction when or until:

He is very affable when spoken to , but naturally silent.

He won’t stop arguing until interrupted.

reason:

Deprived of his wife and son by the Spanish adventure , Jolyon found the solitude at Robin Hill intolerable.

condition, mostly with the conjunction if or unless:

I shall certainly give evidence on your behalf, if required.

John will speak for hours, unless interrupted.

concession, with the conjunction though or although:

Though asked in disarming sociability , Haldone’s question was loaded.

comparison, with the conjunction as if or as though:

“I get off the train,” he repeated as if hypnotized.

Predicative constructions with participle II

§ 149. Participle II forms the second (verbal) element of the objective with the participle construction and of the absolute participial construction in two variants: non-prepositional and prepositional.

§ 150. The objective participial construction with participle II.

The objective participial construction with participle II consists of a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case and participle II forming a syntactical complex, in which the two components are in a preducative relationship.

I must have my watch mended.

I never heard him spoken of badly.

Мне нужно починить часы.

Я никогда не слышал, чтобы о нем плохо отзывались.

The construction functions as a complex object to transitive verbs, mainly verbs (a) of causative meaning, (b) of physical perception, (c) of wish:

a) to have, to get, to make

You must have your photo taken.

Where did you have your hair done?

I won’t have my best friend laughed at.

We must get our tickets registered.

The speaker made himself heard with the help of a microphone.

Besides the causative meaning suggesting inducement, sentences the verb to have may occasionally express experience or possess participle II emphasizing the resulting state, as in:

The patient has an arm broken.

I have my task done.

If the action is emphasized, the perfect form is preferable:

The patient has broken an arm.

I have done my task.

Notice the difference in translation:

У больного сломана рука. Больной сломал руку.

Мое задание выполнено. Я выполнил задание.

b) to see, to hear, to feel, to find

I saw Jane addressed by a stranger.

Have you ever heard the writer’s name mentioned before?

We found the door locked.

c) to wish, to want, to like, to prefer

I want the answer sent at once.

We prefer the letter answered by the chief.

Sentences with causative verbs are usually translated into Russian by simple sentences, the causative meaning being evident from the context or the situation. In other cases a complex sentence with an object clause is preferable.

§ 151. The nominative absolute participial construction with participle II.

The construction consists of the nominal element (a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case) and participle II which form a syntactical complex, the nominal element and the participle being in subject-predicate relation. The preparation completed , we started off.

The nominative absolute participial construction with participle being has the syntactical function of a detached adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances (a), manner (b), time (c), reason (d), condition (e).

a) The next day I observed you - myself unseen - for half an hour.

She was smoking now, her eyes narrowed thoughtfully .

b) He sat on the sofa, his legs crossed.

c) The duster refolded and restored , he threw his legs across the saddle. “Give it to Harriet, please,” was

then the direction, “and she can put it away.” This said , he turned and fixed his eyes on Mrs. Bretton.

d) We began to talk, but my attention distracted by my surroundings , I took small notice of him.

e) He was a gentleman, but he was passionate, the cup once sipped , would he consent to put it down?

§ 152. The prepositional absolute construction with participle II.

This construction differs from the discussed above in that it is introduced by the preposition with and its nominal element is hardly ever presented by a pronoun; it is more closely related to the predicate verb and is seldom set off by a comma.

She went on reading with her eyes fixed on the pages of the book.

It is unhealthy to sleep with the windows shut.

The main syntactical function of the construction is that of an adverbial modifier of manner or attendant circumstances.

An additional idea of time, reason, or condition may be prompted by the context, as in: I can’t walk with my leg broken (reason).

MODAL VERBS

§ 153. Modal verbs, unlike other verbs, do not denote actions to states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive in combination with which they form compound modal predicates. Thus modal verbs may show that the action (or state, or process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker as possible, obligatory, doubtful, certain, permissible, advisable, requested, prohibited, ordered, etc. Modal verbs occur only with the infinitive. This or that meaning is to a great degree determined by the comminicative type of the sentence and the form of the infinitive.

There are 12 modal verbs in English. They are: can, may, must, should ought, shall, will, would, need, dare, to be, to have (to have got). The latter two are modal only in one of their meanings.

Ten of them (that is, all but to be and to have ) are also called defective or anomalous verbs as they lack some features characteristic of other verbs, that is:

1) they do not take -s in the third person singular;

2) they have no verbals, so they have no analytical forms;

3) they have (except for can and may ) only one form and no past tense;

4) they are followed (except for ought ) by a bare infinitive (that is by the infinitive without the particle to );

5) they need no auxiliary to build up the interrogative and negative forms.

All modal verbs have 2 negative forms, full and contracted.

full form

may not

must not

would not

should not

need not

contracted form

mayn’t

mustn’t

wouldn’t

shouldn’t

needn’t

Some of them have peculiarities both in spelling and pronunciation:

cannot

shall not

will not

Can’t [ka:nt]

Shan’t [∫a:nt]

Won’t [wount]

Can

§ 154. This modal verb has two forms: can - for the present tense and could - for the past tense and for the subjunctive mood.

I can’t dance now but I could when I was young.

I wish I could go with you.

I. Can followed by the non-perfect common aspect infinitive expresses:

1. Physical and mental ability or capacity.

The notion of ability is also expressed by “to be able to”.

Mary can speak English quite well but she can’t write it at all (can = to be able, to know how to...).

John can keep a secret if he wants to (can = to be capable of).

I can drive a car = I know how to...

I couldn’t understand him when he spoke very fast (= was unable to, was incapable of...).

He could (was able to) speak English very well when he was twelve.

The meaning of ability is expressed only by “to be able to” when the reference is to the future, as can , having no infinitive, has no future tense form.

Soon he will be able to speak English quite fluently.

Can is interchangeable with to be able to when it denotes mere capacity,

I couldn’t/was not able to do that new job; it was too difficult.

This man could/was able to cure all diseases.

But only to be able to is used to express attainment or achievement of something through some capacity. Thus to be able to often combines the idea of “ability” and “achievement”. In this case was able to means “managed to” or “succeeded in”, and could is impossible.

The fire brigade was able (succeeded in putting, managed) to put out the fire before it destroyed the other

buildings. Пожарные су­мели, им удалось ...

I was able to go to the mountains yesterday as I had a day off (I could and went).

I was able to finish my work in an hour (I managed, I could and did it).

2. Possibility.

a) possibility due to circumstances:

Anybody can make a mistake . Ошибаться может каждый.

You can hardly blame him for that. Вряд ли можно его за это винить.

I couldn’t take your coat without paying you for it.

b) possibility due to the existing rules of laws:

In old days a man could be sentenced to death for a small crime. В старые времена можно было

приговорить человека к смерти за небольшое преступление.

The Lower House alone can initiate financial measures. Только Палата представителей может

выносить на рассмотрение финансовые вопросы.

c) possibility of the idea (the so-called “theoretical” possibility):

The railways can be improved . (It is possible for the railways to be improved, as they are not yet

perfect.)

In general statements of possibility can has roughly the same meaning as “sometimes”.

The sea can be rough . = The sea is sometimes rough. Mope иногда бывает бурным.

Can is generally used in questions about possibility and in statements about impossibility.

Can this be true ? (Is it possible that this is true?) Неужели это правда?

This can’t be true . (It is impossible that this is true.)

3. Permission.

Can we go home, Miss? Можно идти домой, мисс?

Не can go now. Теперь он может идти.

The teacher said we could go home. Учитель разрешил нам идти домой.

Can is now more common than may (or might) to express the idea permission.

4. Prohibition (it is found only with the negative form of the modal verb, as prohibition may be understood as the negation of permission - not to be allowed to.. .). It corresponds to the Russian нельзя, не надо.

You can’t cross the street here. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу.

You can’t touch the exhibits in a museum (it is not allowed).

- Can we stay here? - No, I’m afraid you can’t. (It’s not allowed.)

5. Request.

Can you hold on a minute, please?

Can I have some water ?

Can you put the meat in salted water?

Could suggests a greater degree of politeness:

Could you come again tomorrow?

II. Can followed by any form of the infinitive may express:

1. Strong doubt, improbability, incredulity. This meaning occurs only with the negative form of the modal verb + perfect infinitive, continuous infinitive, or be.

He can’t be working at this time

(it’s impossible that he is working...)

He can’t have seen it (it’s impossible that he saw it). He can’t be there.

- He может быть, чтобы он работал сейчас.

- He может быть, чтобы он видел это.

- He может быть, чтобы он был там.

Could is used instead of can to express greater doubt. Thus the difference between can and could is in the degree of expressiveness, could showing a greater degree of doubt or incredulity. The time-reference is indicated not by the form of the verb but by that of the infinitive.

He

Can’t

Couldn’t

be so old.

- He может быть, что он так стар.

Не

Can’t

Couldn’t

be telling the truth.

- не может быть, что он говорит правду.

He

Can’t

Couldn’t

have told the truth.

- не может быть, чтобы он сказал правду.

2. Surprise, when can/could is used in questions. It corresponds to the Russian неужели ...

Can it be so late as all that? Неужели уже так поздно?

То refer the action to the past a perfect infinitive is used.

Could he have known her before? Неужели он знал ее раньше?

Could he have been telling her the truth?

Can (could) he have let you down?

The verb can expressing surprise is not used in the negative form.

Therefore the Russian negative questions of the type - нeyжeли он не ... is translated into English in different ways:

a) by complex sentences:

Can if be that you haven’t seen him?

Неужели вы не видели его?

b) by different lexical means:

Can you have failed to see him?

Неужели вы не видели его?

Can you dislike the book?

Неужели вам не нравится эта книга?

Can nobody have seen him?

Неужели никто не видел его?

Can he have never written that letter?

Неужели он так и не написал письмо?

3. Reproach, implying that a person should have done something, or behaved in a certain way, but didn’t do it. This meaning is found only with the form could.

You could at least have met me at the station, couldn’t you?

In this sense could is interchangeable with might.

4. Purpose. This meaning occurs only with the form could in clauses of purpose.

I wrote down the telephone number so that I could remember it.

Note some set expressions with the modal verb can:

Cannot/can’t help doing smth . - He могу не делать что-то

When I saw him I couldn’t help laughing . - Когда я увидел его, я не мог не засмеяться.

Cannot/can’t but do smth . - не могу не ...

I cannot but suggest... - Я не могу не предложить ...

We cannot but hope he is right . - Нам остается только надеяться, что... (не можем не надеяться...)

One cannot but wonder - нельзя не задуматься

as can be - an intensifying expression

They are as pleased as can be . - Они очень (страшно) довольны.

It’s as ugly as can be. - Это необычайно уродливо (трудно себе представить что-либо более

отвратительное).

May

§ 155. This modal verb has two forms: may for the present tense and might for the past and as the subjunctive mood form. Thus the form might is used:

a) in indirect speech according to the rules of the sequence of tenses (though the verb could is preferable in this case).

He told me that I might go .

The librarian told the man that he might take the book home.

b) in some syntactical patterns requiring the subjunctive mood forms:

However hard he might (or may ) try , he will never manage to do the same.

I’ve brought you the book so that you may write your paper.

I. May followed by the non-perfect common infinitive expresses:

1. Permission. In this usage it expresses the meaning to have permis­sion to, to be allowed to, to be permitted to.

You may go now (you are allowed to go).

May we leave this with you? (Are we allowed to...? Is it all right if we leave it here?)

In polite requests for permission might is used.

Might I use your telephone, please?

I wonder if I might borrow your book.

Can is now more common than may or might to express informally the idea of permission, but may is often used when talking of ourselves.

May/might I help you?

When the action was permitted and performed the expression was allowed to is preferable.

When translating the story we were allowed to use a dictionary, so I took a Longman new dictionary.

2. Possibility of the fact (the so-called “factual possibility”).This meaning occurs only in affirmative sentences.

You may find all the books you want in the National Library. (It is possible that you will find...)

The railways may be improved . (It is possible that the railways will be improved.)

The above sentence could suggest that there are definite plans for improvement.

May expressing possibility is avoided in questions and in negative sentences, instead can is used.

3. Prohibition (only with the negative form of the modal verb).

You may not go swimming . (You are not allowed to ...) - He смей...

You may not enter the room until I say so. - He смей...

The contracted form mayn’t is also very rare.

There are other ways of expressing the idea of prohibition which are more common. They are mustn’t, can’t, and don’t. Mustn’t and can’t are often found in negative answers to express prohibition instead of may not.

II. May (might) followed by any form of the infinitive denotes:

1. Supposition, uncertainty . May in this sense is synonymous with perhaps or maybe , and occurs in affirmative and negative statements.

This news is so strange that you may not believe it. (Perhaps you won’t believe it.)

He may come or he may not . (Может быть, он придет, а может и нет.)

She may not know that you are here. (Perhaps she doesn’t know that you are here.)

Why hasn’t he come? He may have been hurt . (Perhaps he has been hurt. We still don’t know whether he

has or has not.)

Why aren’t you at the station? They may be arriving.

The non-perfect infinitive indicates reference to the present or fu­ture, that is, it expresses supposition or uncertainty about a present or future action.

They may arrive tonight or tomorrow.

The perfect infinitive indicates reference to the past.

May (might) in the sense of supposition or uncertainty is not used in questions, instead some other means are used: Is it (he) likely ... ? or Do you think ... ?

Is Mary likely to arrive tonight?

Do you think he has already come?

Note:

The difference between the meaning of the negative forms of can and may:

He may not be ill.=

It is possible that he isn’t ill.

He may not be working. =

It is possible that he isn’t working.

He can’t be ill. =

It is not possible that he is ill.

He can’t be working. =

It is impossible that he is working.

Can + negation in these sentences denotes doubt, incredulity on the part of the speaker, whereas may expresses uncertainty about a negation of some fact.

2. Reproach. This meaning is found only in positive statements and only with the form might as it is a reproach made about something that has not been done and thus implies some unfulfilled action.

You might at least offer to help.

In combination with the perfect infinitive it renders irritation (annoyance) that the action was not carried out.

You might have opened the door for me.

3. May/might partly loses its meaning when used in certain sentence patterns and is in such cases a quasi-subjunctive auxiliary (see § 80):

a) in clauses of purpose :

Sit here so that I may see your face more clearly.

He died so that others might live.

b) in clauses of concession :

Try as he may he will never be top of his class.

However hard he might try , he never managed it.

c) in object, predicative and appositive clauses after verbs or nouns expressing hope, wish, fear:

The doctor has fears that she may not live much longer.

The prisoner had hopes that he might be set free.

Here are some expressions with the modal verb may/might:

I may/might as well + infinitive — is a very mild and unemphatic way of expressing an intention.

I may as well take you with me.

It can be used with other persons to suggest or recommend an action.

You may as well give him the letter.

Might just as well means “it would be equally good to” and is used to suggest alternative actions. Though the meaning is basically the same as in three previous sentences, “just” makes the sentence more emphatic.

- I’ll go on Monday by a slow train.

- You might just as well wait till Tuesday and go by the fast one.

- I’ll do it at six.

- That’s far too late. You might just as well not do it at all.

Must

§ 156. The modal verb must has only one form for the present tense. It may also be used in reported speech, after the verb in the past tense in the principal clause.

I knew I must go there too.

I. Must followed by the non-perfect common infinitive may express:

1. Immediate obligation or necessity, or an obligation referring to the future . This meaning occurs in positive statements and questions.

We must begin before five, or we shan’t finish in time for our supper.

He must move the furniture himself. I can’t help him.

Must you really go so soon?

In this sense the verb must corresponds to the Russian надо, нужно, должен.

Do it if you must (если нужно, делайте).

I must go now (мне нужно идти).

Must expresses obligation or compulsion from the speaker’s viewpoint (unlike ‘have to’, which involves some other authority than the speaker, such as official regulations, etc.).

You must be back at 2 o’clock. I want you to do some cooking.

You must call me Sir (I like it that way).

Obligations expressed by must refer to the present or future, in reported speech they may refer to the past.

James said we must invite the Stewarts to dinner.

Future obligations can be made more precise with the future indefinite of the verb have to.

I’ll have to read it again.

We shall have to give you a new copy of the book.

Since the negative form of must denotes a negative obligation or sometimes prohibition (sec item 2), it cannot express absence of necessity which is expressed by needn’t.

- Must I go ? - No, you needn’t , if you don’t want to.

Must is used interchangeably with to be to for instructions, notices, or orders.

Passangers must cross the lines by the footbridge (the railway company instructs them to).

Applications for admission to the Students’ Room of the Department of Manuscripts must be

accompanied by a letter of recommendation.

This card must be surrendered with your room key on vacating Astor College.

All rooms must be vacated by 11 a.m. and the keys handed to the porter on the day of departure.

Guests must be out of the building by midnight.

In all the above cases must is preferable.

With a 2nd person subject must expresses an obligation which has the same effect as a command.

You must do as you are told.

You must be careful.

You must go now. I want to go to bed.

You must change your shoes, I won’t have you in here with muddy feet.

2. Prohibition. Such sentences are sometimes negative commands, corresponding to the Russian sentences with нельзя, не разрешается.

The girl mustn’t go home alone.

It’s very late.

Cars must not be parked in front of this gate.

You mustn’t do that!

You mustn’t come into the ward, it’s against the rules.

- Девочке нельзя идти домой одной.

- He разрешается оставлять машины перед воротами.

- He делайте этого!

- Нельзя заходить в палату, это запрещено.

3. Invitations.

You must come and see me sometime. - Вы обязательно должны навестить меня как-нибудь.

You must come and have dinner with us.

You must come and see our picture gallery.

This use of must renders emphasis to the sentence.

II. When combined with any form of the infinitive must expresses probability, near certainty . It has the same meaning as the modal words probably, evidently . In this sense must occurs only in positive statements and corresponds to the Russian modal words вероятно, должно быть.

He must be mad (it seems certain that he is mad).

He must be lonely (probably he is lonely).

With verbs which admit of the continuous aspect, the continuous infinitive should be used for reference to the present.

Where’s Nell? She must be sightseeing now (she is probably sightseeing).

John isn’t here. He must be working in the garden.

Jane is busy. She must be packing for the trip.

The perfect infinitive indicates a past action.

Did you always live with your father? You must have led quite a busy social life (evidently you led...).

The perfect continuous infinitive indicates the duration of the past action, a process in the past.

It must have been raining when you left (evidently it was raining when you left).

They must have been working all the lime. They look very tired (evidently they have been working all the

time).

Must expressing probability is not used:

a) with reference to the future. Instead of the modal verb the adverbs probably and evidently are used.

He will probably feel lonely.

b) in negative and interrogative forms. There are several ways of expressing the negative meaning of probability in such sentences: by negative affixes, or negative pronouns, or lexically.

1. You must have mis understood me.

2. They must have been in attentive.

3. She must have failed to recognize you.

4. He must have had no chance to warn you.

5. The letter must have never reached them.

6. The letter must have been left un answered.

7. No one must have seen him there.

8 . He must be quite un aware of the circumstances.

Besides the above mentioned shades of meaning, sometimes accompanied by emphasis, the modal verb must may be used solely for the sake of emphasis. In this case must is not translated into Russian, it merely emphasises some action or idea.

Just when we were ready to go away for the holidays, the baby must catch measles (ребенок вдруг

заболел корью, ребенок возьми и заболей корью).

Of course after I gave her my advice she must go and do the opposites (... она вдруг пойди и сделай

наоборот).

As we were starting what must he do but cut his finger (... он возьми да и порежь себе палец).

At a time when everybody is in bed he must turn on the wireless (... он вдруг включает приемник).

To have to, have got to

§ 157. As a modal verb to have to differs from the others in that it is not defective. It can have the category of person and number and all tense-aspect forms, as well as verbals. It is followed by a to-infinitive and combines only with the non-perfect form of it.

As there is no through train to our town we have to change in Moscow.

We had to look all over town before we found what we wanted.

She won’t have to walk the whole way, will she?

Having to go so soon we were afraid of missing the man.

Have to builds up its interrogative and negative forms with the help of the auxiliary verb to do.

Do you have to work so hard?

Do you have to leave already?

He doesn’t have to be here before Friday.

You don’t have to do what your sister tells you.

Why does he have to go there?

The modal verb to have to expresses:

I. Obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances. It is similar in its meaning to must (1). It corresponds to the Russian приходится, вынужден.

She is usually short of time so she has to go by air (ей приходится лететь, она вынуждена лететь).

My sister has a lot of friends in different parts of the country, so she has to write lots of letters (ей

приходится...).

In the past tense have to indicates a fulfilled obligation.

We had to do a lot of things during the week we stayed in the country (were obliged and did it).

They made such a noise that I had to send one of the boys to make inquiries (it was necessary and I did

it).

Have to replaces must where must cannot be used: a) to express past necessity or obligation, b) to express absence of necessity (in the sense of needn’t ), since must not means prohibition, and c) to express a future obligation, since the future tense of the verb have to makes the obligation more precise.

a) We had to do it again.

They had to do what they were told.

b) You don’t have to make another copy of the document, Miss Black; this copy will be quite satisfactory.

c) You’ll have to take a taxi if you mean to catch the train.

Have to as a modal verb can be used together with the modal verb may:

We may have to wait long here. - Нам возможно придется долго здесь ждать.

Have got to has the same basic meaning as have to . The difference lies in that have to usually denotes a habitual action and have got to denotes a particular action.

Do you have to get up early every morning?

Have you got to get up early tomorrow morning?

To be to

§ 158. To be to as a modal verb is used in the present and past indefinite tenses.

To be to expresses:

1. An obligation arising out of an arrangement or plan. It is found in statements and questions.

We are to complete this work by tomorrow. (Somebody expects it.)

I am to go down in my car and pick up the parcels.

When is the wedding to be?

When am I to come?

Who is to be the first?

The ship was to dock on Sunday.

I was to meet Mother at the dentist’s at 11.

The last two sentences in which to be is in the past indefinite do not indicate whether the action did or did not take place.

On the other hand this form is the only way to indicate a fulfilled action in the past.

I was to meet Mother at 11 (and I did).

The prize was to honour him for his great discoveries.

To emphasize that the action did not take place the perfect infinitive is used after the past indefinite of the verb to be to.

She was to have graduated in June, but unfortunately fell ill.

The present indefinite may signify an arrangement (especially official) for the future, or referring to no particular time.

The German Chancellor is to visit France.

A knife is to cut with.

2. A strict order or an instruction given either by the speaker or (more usually) by some official authority.

He is to return to Liverpool tomorrow (he has been given orders to return to Liverpool).

You are to stay here until I return (I tell you to ...).

You are to do it exactly the way you are told.

Note the difference between to be to and to have to:

Soldiers have to salute their officers (such is customary obligation, the general rule).

All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once (an order).

3. Strict prohibition (only in the negative form).

You are not to do that.

You are not to tell anybody about it.

We are not to leave the place until we are told to.

You are not to smoke in this room.

4. Something that is destined to happen or is unavoidable. It corresponds to the Russian суждено, предстоит.

I didn’t know at the time that she was to be my wife (что ей суждено было стать моей женой).

As a young man he didn’t know that he was to become a famous scientist (ему суждено было стать

знаменитым ученым).

If we are to be neighbours for life we should be on friendly terms (если нам предстоит всю жизнь быть

соседями...).

Не was never to see her again (ему больше никогда не суждено было ее увидеть).

It was not to be (этому не суждено было сбыться).

Sometimes it may be translated by the Russian verb хотеть, especially after the conjunction if.

If we are to get there on time, we must start at once (если мы хотим прийти вовремя, надо сразу

отправляться).

5. Impossibility. In negative sentences or in sentences containing words with negative meaning the verb to be to implies impossibility. In this case the passive form of the non-perfect infinitive is used, unless it is a question beginning with the interrogative adverbs how, where.

They are not to be trusted.

Nothing was to be done under the circumstances.

He was nowhere to be found.

Where is the man to be found?

How am I to repay you for your kindness?

This meaning is similar to the meaning of can and may.

Here are some set expressions with the verb to be to:

What am I to do? Что мне делать? Как мне быть?

What is to become of me? Что со мною станется (будет)?

Where am I to go? Куда же мне деваться?

Need

§ 159. The modal verb need may be either a defective or a regular verb. As a defective verb need has only one form and combines with a bare infinitive. In reported speech it remains unchanged. As a regular verb it has the past indefinite form needed and regular negative and interrogative forms.

There is a slight difference in the usage of regular and irregular forms. The regular form is used mainly when the following infinitive denotes habitual action. The defective form is more common when one particular occasion is referred to:

Need I do it?

You needn’t do it just now.

The teacher said that we needn’t come.

Do I need to show my pass every time?

You don’t need to say it every time you see him.

Need I show you my pass now?

The defective form is mainly restricted to negative and interrogative sentences, whereas the regular verb can be used in all types of sentences and is therefore more common.

Need expresses necessity. It is mainly used in questions and negative statements, where it is a replacement for must or for have (got) to.

Do you need to work so hard (do you have to work so hard? Have you got to...).

It corresponds to the Russian нужно.

You needn’t do it now. Сейчас не нужно этого делать.

Need she come tomorrow? Ей нужно завтра приходить?

The negation is not always combined with the verb, but may be expressed by other parts of the sentence.

I don't think we need mention him at all.

I need hardly say that you are to blame.

In questions need is used when there is a strong element of negation or doubt or when the speaker expects a negative answer.

Need she go there? (hoping for a negative answer)

I wonder if I need go there, (statement of doubt)

In negative statements need followed by a perfect infinitive indicates that the action expressed by the infinitive was performed but was not necessary. It implies a waste of time or effort, and is therefore translated by зря, незачем, не к чему было.

You needn’t have spent all the money. Now we've got nothing left.

Зря ты потратил все деньги, не к чему было тратить ... .

We needn’t have waited for her because she never came at all.

Нечего было ее ждать. Она все равно не пришла.

The difference between the two forms of need in negative sentences is as follows: the regular verb indicates that the action was not done because it was unnecessary, whereas the defective verb shows that the action, although unnecessary, was carried out. Compare the following examples:

Didn’t need to do smth = It wasn’t necessary, so probably not done.

We didn’t need to say anything at all, which was a great comfort.

She didn’t need to open the drawer because it was already open.

Needn’t have done smth. = It was not necessary, but done nonetheless.

You needn’t have said anything. Then he would never have known about it.

She needn’t have opened the drawer. She found it empty when she did.

Ought to

§ 160. The modal verb ought has only one form. It is not changed in reported speech.

Ought combines with the to-infinitive. When followed by the non-perfect or continuous infinitive it indicates reference to the present or future. In indirect speech it may also refer the action to the past.

You ought to be ashamed of yourself.

I told him that he ought to do it, so he did it.

She told him he ought not to go away.

Ought expresses:

1. Moral duty, moral obligation (which is not always fulfilled). It corresponds to the Russian следует.

You ought to look after your children better (you don’t always do it).

Вам следует больше заботиться о детях.

I wonder whether I oughtn’t to speak to him.

He ought to be punished, oughtn’t he?

When used with the perfect infinitive ought means that something right has not been done, a desirable action has not been carried out, and it, therefore, implies reproach.

You ought to have helped him (but you didn’t).

Вам следовало бы ему помочь.

Не ought to have been more careful (he was not careful enough).

Ему следовало бы быть более осторожным.

Ought not + perfect infinitive means that something wrong has been done and it is now too late to change it. It may also be viewed as a reproach.

She told him he ought not to have done it (but he had done it).

You oughtn’t to have laughed at his mistakes.

The opposite to ought to is needn’t used to mean that the action is unnecessary.

We ought to wash the dishes, but we needn’t dry them, because they will dry themselves.

2. Advisability (which is sometimes understood as desirability).

You ought to see a doctor.

We really ought to buy a new car, oughtn’t we?

3. Probability, something that can be naturally expected. It corresponds to the Russian должно быть, наверное.

You ought to be hungry by now (you probably are, but I’m not certain).

Вы, наверное, уже проголодались.

Apples ought to grow well here.

Здесь должны хорошо расти яблоки.

If he started at nine he ought to be here by four (he will probably be here by four).

There oughtn’t to be any difficulty (it’s unlikely that there will be).

Black Beauty is the horse that ought to win the race(... is likely to win ...).

In this sense ought is a weaker equivalent of must when the latter denotes near certainty.

Ought to + infinitive is used when describing something exciting, funny or beautiful in the meaning of I wish you could.

You ought to hear the way he plays the piano!

Should

§ 161. Historically should was the past form of shall and both the forms expressed obligation. But in present-day English they have developed different meanings and are treated as two different verbs.

Should followed by the non-perfect infinitive may be used with reference to the present and future and is not changed in reported speech.

You should be more careful.

Вам следует быть внимательнее.

I told him he should be more careful.

Should is nearly always interchangeable with ought to, as their meanings coincide.

It expresses:

1. Moral obligation, moral duty, which may not be fulfilled. Should is found in this sense in all kinds of sentences. However ought to is preferable in this sense:

All students should submit their work by present date (but some of them don’t).

Студенты должны сдать работу к сегодняшнему дню.

Private firearms should be banned. Личное оружие следует запретить.

Не should phone his parents tonight, but lie probably won’t have time.

Он должен позвонить, но, вероятно, у него не будет времени на это.

If you see anything strange you should call the police.

Если ты увидишь что-то странное, ты должен вызвать полицию.

When used in the negative form should denotes a weakened prohibition, more like negative advice.

He shouldn’t be so impatient.

When combined with the perfect infinitive should denotes criticism, faultfinding; the statement indicates that something desirable has not been done.

Your shoes are wet. You should have stayed at home.

You should have put more sugar in the pie. It isn’t sweet enough.

He hasn’t brought the book back, though he should have brought it last week.

A negative statement indicates that something wrong has been done.

You shouldn’t have done that. It was stupid.

(Вам не следовало это делать).

They should never have married. They are so unhappy.

Им вообще не следовало (не нужно было) жениться.

Не shouldn’t have taken the corner at such speed.

Ему не следовало поворачивать за угол на такой скорости.

2. Advice, desirability. This meaning is more common with ought to than with should.

You should stay in bed.

Вам нужно (следует) лежать в постели.

I think you should read this book.

Думаю, что тебе следует (стоит) прочесть эту книгу.

You should consult a doctor.

Показался бы ты врачу. (Тебе следует показаться врачу.)

As is seen from the above examples, it is sometimes difficult to discriminate between the first and the second meaning.

3. Probability, something naturally expected (only with reference to the present or future).

The effect of the tax should be felt in high prices (will probably be felt).

We needn’t get ready yet. The guests shouldn’t come for another hour.

Гости вряд ли придут раньше, чем через час.

Shall

§ 162. In present-day English shall is not a purely modal verb. It always combines its modal meaning of obligation with the function of an auxiliary verb in the future tense.

As a modal verb shall is not translated into Russian, usually its meaning is rendered by emphatic intonation.

Shall combined with only a non-perfect infinitive expresses:

1. Promise, oath, or strong intention. In this meaning shall is used with the 2nd or 3rd person with a weak stress.

It shall be done as you wish.

You shall never know a sad moment, Lenny, if I can help it.

He shall get his money.

“I want this luggage taken to my room”.

“It shall be taken up at once, sir.” - Его сейчас же отнесут наверх, сэр.

In the 1st person shall in this sense acquires a strong stress.

I want that prize and I ‘shall win it.

2. Threat or warning (shall is used in this meaning in the 2nd and 3rd person).

That day shall come.

She shall pay for it, she shall.

The child shall be punished for it. I won’t allow it.

Anyone found guilty shall be shot at once.

In the first two senses shall is used in affirmative and negative sentences.

3. A suggestion or offer

It is used in questions (and offers) in the 1st person singular and plural. Such sentences are translated into Russian by the infinitive.

“Shall I get you a chair?” – “Yes, please.” Принести вам стул? - Пожалуйста.

Shall we begin? - Yes, let’s. (Нам) начинать? - Давайте.

Shall I read? - Please, do. Мне читать? - Читайте, пожалуйста.

The above three meanings are closely connected with the old meaning of obligation which is at present not common in spoken English and which is normally confined to formal or archaic style (official regulations or other documents).

The Society’s nominating committee shall nominate the person for the office of president (...должны выставить кандидата...).

This meaning is found in subordinate clauses.

It has been decided that the nomination shall not he opposed.

Will

§ 163. Like shall, will is not a purely modal verb. It almost always combines its modal meaning with its functioning as an auxiliary verb expressing futurity. Will has two forms: will for the present tense and would for the past tense. Thus will and would are looked upon as forms of the same verb, although in a few cases their meanings differ.

I. Will combined with the non-perfect infinitive expresses:

1. Willingness, intention, determination. It is often rendered into Rus­sian by непременно, обязательно, охотно. Would in this meaning shows reference to the past.

I will write as soon as I can. (Я непременно напишу, как только смогу.)

I will be there to help. (Я обязательно там буду и помогу.)

I can and will learn it. (Я могу выучить и обязательно это выучу.)

When he was young, he was so poor that he would do anything to earn some money. (... он согласен был

на любую работу, чтоб подзаработать.)

This meaning is often found in conditional sentences.

If you will help me we can finish by six.

Если вы согласитесь мне помочь, мы можем кончить к 6 часам.

If you will wait for me I’ll be very grateful.

When used in the negative it denotes a refusal to do something.

I won’t accept your offer (I refuse to ...).

They wouldn’t listen to me (they refused to listen to me).

He wouldn’t answer my question (he refused to answer ...).

2. A polite request or an offer. This meaning occurs only in questions.

Will you pass the salt, please?

Will you haw some tea?

In comparison with will the form would renders a greater degree of politeness.

Would you please pass the salt?

Would you please lend me your pencil?

It is still more polite to use the combinations: Would you mind (+ -ing form), Would you be so kind as to...

Would you be so kind as to lend me your book?

3. A command (in military contexts it is a strict command).

Officers will report for duty at 06.00.

You will do exactly as I say.

You will go in there and tell him that the game is up.

An impatient command can begin with will you.

Will you be quiet! - Замолчишь, ли ты наконец?

Will you in the tag after a negative command can tone down the command (and is pronounced with the falling tone).

Don’t be late, will you?

But after a positive command will you has a rising intonation and expresses impatience.

Sit down, will you?

Shut the door, will you?

Shut the door, won’t you?

Would is never used in this meaning.

4. Insistence, resistence. Will and would are stressed when used in this sense.

He will try to mend it himself (he insists on mending it himself).

With reference to inanimate objects will and would show that a thing fails to perform its function. It occurs in negative statements and corresponds to the Russian никак не.

The door will not open.

The orange won’t peel.

The engine wouldn’t start.

The wound wouldn’t heal.

- Дверь никак не открывается.

- Апельсин никак не очистить.

- Мотор никак не заводился

- Рана никак не заживала.

5. Inevitability, characteristic behaviour, quality, or something naturally expected.

What will be will be.

Accidents will happen.

Boys will be boys.

Truth will out.

- Чему быть, того не миновать.

- Несчастные случаи неизбежны (не­счастный случай может произойти с каждым).

- Мальчишки всегда остаются мальчиш­ками.

- Истины не утаишь.

This sort of inevitability or prediction often occurs in sentences with conditional clauses.

If people study they will learn. (If people study they learn)

If litmus paper is dipped in acid, it will turn red (it turns red).

This meaning cannot be rendered in Russian by any analogous modal verb.

Oil will float on water.

Children will often be full of life when their parents are tired.

This car will hold six people comfortably.

That’s exactly like Jocelyn - she would lose the key.

6. Disapproval of something expected. In this meaning only would is used. It is found mainly in responses. It corresponds to the Russian этого и следовало ожидать, на него похоже.

“I know she attended the place.”

“Oh, yes, she would.” - Конечно, что еще можно ожидать.

“Hе refused to interfere.” “He would.” — На него похоже.

“I don’t like it and I don’t visit the place.” “No, you wouldn’t.” (I didn’t expect you would.)

You would be late! - Конечно, ты опять опоздал.

You would forget. - Конечно же, вы забыли.

II. Will/would combined with different forms of the infinitive can express prediction, a certainty about the present or the future (in a similar way as must).

This will be just what she wants.

That will be my wife.

This will be our train.

That would be he!

John will have arrived by now (by tomorrow).

- Это, очевидно, то, чего она хочет.

- Это, конечно, моя жена.

- Это, наверное, наш поезд.

- Это, наверное, он.

- Джон наверняка уже приедет к этому времени (к завтрашнему дню).

In the latter case must is impossible as with a perfect infinitive it has a reference to the past.

That would be in 1910, I think.

Why are you asking him?

Не wouldn’t know anything about it.

Who is the man? You wouldn’t know him.

- Я думаю, это, наверное, было в 1910 году.

- Зачем вы его спрашиваете?

- Вряд ли он что-либо об этом знает.

- Вряд ли вы его знаете.

Note the expression:

You would, would you? - Ax, ты так!

Dare

§ 164. The modal verb dare may be defective or regular.

As a defective verb dare has two forms: dare for the present tense and dared for the past tense. It is used chiefly in interrogative and negative sentences. It has the meaning - to have the courage or independence to do something, to venture.

How dare he speak to you like that? (I wonder at such impudence.)

How dare you sneak into my room like this?

He daren’t write anything in case it isn't good (he hasn’t got the courage).

Dare you ask him? (Are you brave enough to ask him?)

That’s as much as I dare spend on it.

As a regular verb dare has a limited paradigm of finite forms and no verbals. It may have two meanings:

1. To venture, to have the courage or impudence (like the defective dare). In this sense it is used mainly in negative statements.

He didn’t dare to stop me (he didn’t have the courage).

She doesn’t dare to answer.

Don’t you dare to touch me.

2. To challenge, to defy.

I dared him to jump (I challenged him to do it).

I dare you to say this straight to her face. - Попробуй, скажи ей это прямо в лицо.

Note the following combinations with the modal verb dare.

I dare say — I suppose, no doubt.

I dare say you are right. - Очень возможно, что вы правы.

I dare say he will come later. - Полагаю (пожалуй), он придет позже.

THE NOUN

§ 165. The noun denotes thingness in a general sense. Thus nouns name things (book, table), living beings (man, tiger), places (valley, London, England), materials (iron, oil), processes (life, laughter), states (sleep, consciousness), abstract notions (socialism, joy) and qualities (kindness, courage).

Semantic characteristics

§ 166. Semantically all nouns fall into proper nouns and common nouns.

§ 167. Proper nouns are geographical names (New York, the Thames, Asia, the Alps), names of individual (unique) persons (John, Byron, Brown), names of the months and the days of the week (January, Sunday), names of planets (the Moon, the Sun, the Earth), names of ships, hotels, clubs (Shepherd's Hotel), of buildings, streets, parks, bridges (Buckingham Palace, Trafalgar Square, Regent Street, Charing Cross Road, Piccadilly Circus, Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Waterloo Bridge), of institutions, organizations, magazines and newspapers (the United Nations, the New Times, the Guardian). They are written with capitals.

§ 168. Common nouns can be classified into nouns denoting objects that can be counted and those that cannot. So there are count and non-count and collective common nouns. The former are inflected for number, whereas the latter are not. Further distinction is into concrete nouns, abstract nouns and nouns of material.

Semantic classification of English nouns is shown in the following scheme:

Concrete nouns semantically fall into three subclasses.

1. Nouns denoting living beings - persons and animals:

boy, girl, dog, cat.

2. Nouns denoting inanimate objects:

table, chair.

3. Collective (собирательные) nouns denoting a group of persons:

family, crowd.

There are some nouns which may be classified both as count and non-count. They often have considerable difference in meaning in the two classes.

Count nouns

Non-count nouns

He used to read an evening paper.

She was a beauty.

They hoped to have pleasant experiences.

I saw him in a group of youths.

They wrappped up the present in brown paper.

Beauty is to be admired.

He has a great deal of experience.

Vie was speaking with the enthusiasm of youth.

A noun of material used as a count noun undergoes a semantic change so as to denote: kind of, type of: He found her drinking Chinese tea, which she didn't likebut what could one do, other teas were common. The same can be seen in the title A. Conan Doyle devised for a story "Upon the Distinction Between the Ashes of the Various Tobaccos".

Morphological composition

§ 169. According to their morphological composition nouns can be divided into simple, derived, and compound.

Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog, chair, room, roof, leaf.

Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes).

The main noun-forming suffixes are those forming abstract nouns and those forming concrete, personal nouns.

Abstract nouns

Concrete nouns

-age: leakage, vicarage

-al: betrayal, portrayal, refusal

-ancy/-ency: vacancy, tendency

-dom: freedom kingdom

-hood: brotherhood, childhood

-ing: meaning, cleaning

-ion/~sion/-tion/-ation: operation, tension, examination

-ism: darvinism, patriotism

-ment: agreement, unemployment

-ness: darkness, weakness

-ship: friendship, membership

-ty: cruelty, sanity, banality

-th: growth, strength

-y: difficulty, honesty

-(i)an: physician, Parisian, republican

-ant/-ent: assistant, student, informant

-arian: vegetarian

-ее: refugee, employee, payee

-er: teacher, worker, singer

-ician: musician, politician

-ist: socialist, artist

-or: visitor, actor

-let: booklet, leaflet

-ess: actress, tigress, waitress

-ine: heroine

-ix: proprietrix

-ette: usherette

The four suffixes -ess, -ine, -ette are feminine.

Sometimes nouns formed by abstract noun suffixes may come to de­note concrete things or persons as in translation (a process and its result), beauty (may denote an abstract notion and a beautiful woman).

Compound nouns consist of at least two stems. The meaning of a compound is not a mere sum of its elements. The main types of compound nouns are:

noun stem + noun stem:

seaman (моряк),

airmail (авиапочта)

adjective stem + noun stem:

bluebell (колокольчик),

blackbird (черный дрозд)

verb stem + noun stem:

pickpocket (карманный вор)

gerund + noun stem:

looking-glass (зеркало),

dancing-hall (танцевальный зал)

noun stem + prepositions + noun stem:

father-in-law (свекр, тесть)

mother-in-law (свекровь, теща)

man-of-war (военный корабль)

substantivised phrases:

forget-me-not (незабудка),

pick-me-up (тонизирующий напиток)

Morphological characteristics

§ 170. Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of number and case.

Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:

masculine (names of male beings)

- boy, man, husband, bachelor, ox, cock;

feminine (names of female beings)

- girl, woman, wife, maid, cow, hen;

neuter (names of inanimate objects)

- table, house.

The distinction may be also expressed by word-formation of different types:

a) feminine suffixes

-ess (actress, hostess, poetess, tigress),

-ine (heroine),

-ette (usherette);

b) compounds of different patterns:

noun + noun stem

pronoun + noun stem

Tom-cat

doctor

dog-otter

male-frog

cock-pheasant

- Tabby-cat

- woman-doctor

- bitch-otter

- female-frog

- hen-pheasant

he-wolf

he-cousin

- she-wolf

- she-cousin

There are also some traditional associations of certain nouns with gender. These are apparent in the use of personal or possessive pronouns:

a) moon and earth are referred to as feminine, sun as masculine:

It is pleasant to watch the sun in his chariot of gold and the moon in her chariot of pearl.

At first the earth was large, but every moment she grew smaller.

b) the names of vessels (ship, boat, steamer, ice-breaker, cruiser, etc.) are referred to as feminine:

The new ice-breaker has started on her maiden voyage.

She is equipped with up-to-date machinery.

c) the names of vehicles (car, carriage, coach) may also be referred to as feminine, especially by their

owners, to express their affectionate attitude to these objects:

She is a fine car.

d) the names of countries, if the country is not considered as a mere geographical territory, are referred to as

feminine:

England is proud of her poets.

But: If the name of the country is meant as a geographical one the pronoun it is used. Iceland is an island, it is washed on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean.

The category of number

§ 171. English nouns that are inflected for number (count nouns) have singular and plural forms.

Singular denotes one, plural denotes more than one. Most count nouns are variable and can occur with either singular or plural number. In Modern English the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The plural form is marked by the inflexion -(e)s. The spelling and the pronunciation of the plural morpheme vary.

§ 172. Regular plurals

I. Nouns ending in vowels and voiced consonants have the plural ending pronouced as [z]:

bee - bees [bi:z], dog - dogs [dɔgz]

II. Nouns ending in voiceless consonants have a voiceless ending:

book - books [buks]

III. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -as, -ch, -x, -z, (sibilants) have the ending [iz]:

actress - actresses ['æktrɪsɪz]

bush - bushes ['bu∫ɪz]

watch - watches ['wot∫ɪzj

box - boxes ['boksɪz]

IV. Nouns ending in -o have the ending [z]:

hero - heroes ['hɪǝrouz]

photo- photoes ['foutouz]

The regular plural inflexion of nouns in -o has two spellings; -os which occurs in the following cases:

a) after a vowel - bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos;

b) in proper names - Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos;

c) in abbreviations, kilos (kilogramme), photos (photograph), pros (professional);

d) also in some borrowed words: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos, tangos, tobaccos.

In other cases the spelling is -oes: tomatoes, echoes, Negroes, potatoes, vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes

Note:

Some nouns may form their plural in either way:

oes/os: cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s.

V. The letter -y usually changes into -i:

sky skies [skaiz]

But the letter -y remains unchanged -ys:

a) after vowels:

days (except in nouns ending in -quy: soliloquy - soliloquies).

b) in proper names:

the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys;

c) in compounds:

stand-bys, lay-bys.

The word penny has two plural forms:

pence (irregular) - in British currency to denote a coin of this value or a sum of money:

Here is ten pence (in one coin or as a sum of money);

pennies (regular) - for individual coins.

Here are ten pennies.

VI. Thirteen nouns ending in -f(e) form their plural changing -f(e) into -v(e): the ending in this case is pronounced [z]:

calf - calves

elf - elves

half - halves

knife - knives

leaf - leaves

life - lives

loaf - loaves

self - selves

sheaf - sheaves (снопы)

shelf – shelves

thief - thieves

wife - wives

wolf - wolves

Other nouns ending in -f(e) have the plural inflexion -s in the regular way: proof - proofs, chief - chiefs, safe - safes, cliff - cliffs, gulf - gulfs, dwarf - dwarfs, reef- reefs, grief - griefs; the ending is pronounced [s].

In a few cases both -fs and -ves forms are possible:

scarf - scarfs/scarves,

dwarf - dwarfs/dwarves,

hoof - hoofs/hooves.

VII. Nouns ending in -th after a short vowel have the ending -s [s]:

month — months [mʌnθs].

Nouns ending in -th after a long vowel or a diphthong have [9z] in the plural: baths [ba:ðz], paths [paðz], oaths [ouðz].

But: youths [ju:θs], births [bǝ:θs].

VIII. The plural of abbreviations is sometimes formed in spelling by doubling a letter:

Ms (manuscript)

p. (page)

Mr (Mister)

M.P. (Member of Parliament)

M.D. (Doctor of Medicine)

Co. (Company)

- MSS

- pp.

- Messrs ['mesǝz]

- M.P.s ['em'pi:z]

- M.D.s ['em'di:z]

- Co.s [kouz]

In a phrase like "Miss Brown" two different forms are used for the plural. We may either say "the Miss Browns" or "the Misses Brown", the latter being generally considered more correct.

Irregular plurals

§ 173. For historical reasons certain nouns form their plural differently.

1. Seven nouns distinguish plural from singular by vowel change:

man - men

woman - women

tooth - teeth

foot – feet

goose - geese

mouse - mice

louse - lice

2. Two nouns have -en to mark the plural:

ox - oxen, child - children.

Brother has two plural forms: brothers and brethren, the latter being used as a religious term or in elevated style to denote people of the same creed, not relations.

3. With some nouns the plural is identical with the singular form (for details see § 176, II):

a) sheep-sheep (овца/ы);

swine - swine (свинья/и);

deer - deer (олень/и);

grouse - grouse (куропатка/и).

This sheep looks small. All those sheep are good.

I bought a grouse (three grouse for dinner).

There’re so many fish, they splinter the paddles.

Note:

There, are some animal names that have two plurals:

fish - fish/fishes, pike - pike/pikes, trout - trout/trouts, carp –carp/carps, salmon - salmon/salmons.

The zero plural is more common to denote hunting quarries (We caught only a few fish. We caught five salmon. He shot quail (перепелок) to make money), whereas the regular plural is used to denote different individuals, species, kinds of animal, especially fish with the same name or insects or other small animals which cause disease or damage.

The plant was covered in greenfly.

This animal is infected with hookworm.

There are three greenflies on my hand.

Two large hookworms were found in his stomach.

There were two quails for sale.

b) identical singular and plural forms are also typical of nationality nouns in -ese, -ss: Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Swiss.

We met a Japanese. We met many Japanese on our holiday.

Note:

The word for people of the country is the same as the plural noun; the other way is to use substantivized adjectives in this sense:

Englishmen - the English Dutchmen - the Dutch.

c) two nouns borrowed from Latin and one from French also have identical forms for singular and plural:

series - series (ряд, серия);

species - species (вид, порода, род)

corps [ko:] - corps [ko:z] (корпус, род войск).

d) names, indicating number, such as:

pair, couple, dozen, score (два десятка),

stone (мера веса: 14 англ. фунтов = 6,35 кг) and

head (голова - поголовье скота)

have the same form for both the singular and plural when they are preceded by a numeral, that is, they

function as an indication of a kind of measure: two dozen of handkerchiefs, five dozen of eggs. The child

weighs two stone. One thousand head of cattle.

But when they have no number as predeterminer they take the usual plural form: dozens of times, to go in pairs.

4. A number of foreign (particularly Latin and Greek) nouns have retained their original plural endings.

Loans of Greek origin

Singular

Plural

-is [ɪs]

basis

crisis

analysis

thesis

parenthesis

axis

hypothesis

diagnosis

-on [ǝn]

criterion

phenomenon

[ǝ]

miasma

-es [i:z]

bases

crises

analyses

theses

parentheses

axes

hypotheses

diagnoses

[ǝ]

criteria

phenomena

-ata [ǝtǝ]

miasmata

Loans of Latin origin

-us [ǝs]

stimulus

nucleus

radius

corpus

genus

[ǝ]

formula

antenna

vertebra

-um [ǝm]

datum

stratum

erratum

-es,-ix [ɪks]

index

appendix

matrix

-i [ai]

-ога [ǝrǝ]

-era [ǝrǝ]

stimuli

nuclei

radii

corpora

genera

-ае [i:]

formulae (or regular - formulas)

antennae

vertebrae

-a [ǝ]

data

strata

errata

-ices [ɪsi;z]

indices

appendices

matrices

[i:z]

or indexes

or appendixes

or matzixes

Other loan nouns

Fr. -ean [ou]

tableau

bureau

It.-o [ou]

tempo

-eaux [ouz]

tableaux

bureaux (or bureaus)

-i [i]

tempi (or tempos)

As can be seen from the above list some loan nouns may have two plural forms: the English plural and the original foreign one:

memorandum

memoranda

memorandums

focus

foci

focuses

curriculum

curricula

curriculums

formula

formulae

formulas

cherub

cheribum

cherubs

There is a tendency to use the regular English plural forms in fiction and colloquial English and the foreign plural in academic or learned language.

Sometimes different plural forms have different meanings:

index

indexes (list of contents of books)

indices (a mathematical term - показатель)

genius

geniuses (men of talent)

genii (fabulous spirits guarding a place - духи, домовые )

§ 174. Plural in compound nouns

1. As a rule in compounds it is the second component that takes the plural form:

housewives, tooth-brushes, boy-scouts, maid-servants.

2. Compounds in -ful have the plural ending at the end of the word:

handfuls, spoonfuls, mouthfuls, (though spoonsful and mouthsful are also possible).

3. Compounds in which the first component is man or woman have plurals in both first and last components:

men-servants, women-doctors, gentlemen-farmers.

4. Compounds ending in -man change it into -men in spelling. In pronunciation, however, there is no difference between the singular and plural forms, both having [ǝ]:

policeman [ǝn] - policemen [ǝn].

Such nouns as German, Roman, Norman are not compounds, and therefore they have regular plurals:

Germans, Romans, Normans.

5. In compounds originating from a prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element only the first noun takes the plural form:

editors-in-chief, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chief, coats-of-mail, men-of-war (военные корабли).

6. In compounds with a conjunction as a linking element the plural is taken by the second noun:

gin-and-tonics.

7. In compound nouns formed by a noun plus a preposition, or an adverb, or an adjective only the first element takes the plural:

passers-by, lookers-on, courts-martial, attorneys-general.

8. When the compound is a substantivized phrase which does not contain a noun, the last element takes the plural ending –s:

forget-me-nots, breakdowns, stand-bys, grown-ups, close-ups,

pick-ups (случайные знакомства),

drop-outs (дезертиры),

go-betweens (посредники).

Invariable nouns

Invariable nouns cannot change their number, some of them are always singular in meaning (linguistics, news), some denote plurality (cattle, police).

§ 175. Singular invariable nouns.

1. Here belong all non-count nouns:

a) material nouns - tea, sugar, gold, silver, oil, butter, sail. (As has been mentioned they may become

count nouns with a specific meaning: cheeses - kinds of cheese, beers - portions of beer, as two glasses

or cans of beer, two coffees, icecreams.)

b) absrract nouns - music, anger, foolishness.

2. Proper nouns:

The Thames, Henry.

3. Some nouns ending in -s:

a) news - Here is the 10 o’clock news;

means - by this means (этими средствами)

gallows - They fixed up a gallows (виселицу).

b) some diseases - measles (корь), mumps (свинка), rickets (рахит), shingles (краснуха);

However sometimes the usage varies: Mumps is/are a medical problem.

c) some games - billiards, bowls (гольф), dominoes, draughts (шашки);

But when used attributively no plural is used: a billiard table.

d) some proper nouns - Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders, Marseilles, Naples, Wales, the United

Nations, thе United States.

4. Nouns ending in –ics:

classics, linguistics, mathematics, phonetics, athletics, ceramics, ethics, gymnastics, politics, tactics.

Nouns of this group are occasionally understood as plurals:

Their tactics requires/reguire concentration of troops.

Politics has/have always interested me.

Plural invariable nouns

§ 176. Plural invariable nouns comprise two types - marked and unmarked plurals.

I. In the first type the form of the noun itself shows plurality. These nouns are rather numerous. Semantically they fall into several groups:

a) names of tools or articles of dress consisting of two equal parts which are joined: bellows, binoculars, breeches, braces, flannels, glasses, pants, pincers, pliers, pyjamas, scales, scissors, shorts, spectacles, suspenders, tights, tongs, trousers, tweeters;

These nouns can be made singular and countable by means of a pair of: a pair of trousers, a pair of scissors. Accordingly they are used with the verb-predicate in the singular (this pair of trousers is ...)

b) miscellaneous nouns: annals, antics, archives, arms, ashes, the Commons (the House of Commons), contents, customs, customs-duty, customs-house, earnings, goods, goods train, greens, holidays, summer-holidays, manners, minutes (of the meeting), outskirts, quarters, head­quarters, stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts, the Middle Ages;

c) some proper nouns: the East Indies, the West Indies, the Hebrides, the Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands.

II. In the second type of the plural invariable nouns the meaning of plurality is not marked in any form (hence the term “unmarked plural invariables”). They are usually treated as collective nouns (собирательные).

English collective nouns denote only living beings (family, police, clergy, cattle, poultry, etc.) and have two categorical meanings: the first - plurality as indivisible whole and the second - discrete plurality, that is plurality denoting separate beings. In the latter case these nouns are called nouns of multitude. Thus, one and the same noun may be a collective noun proper and a noun of multitude.

The difference in two categorical meanings is indicated by the number of the verb-predicate (singular in the first case and plural in the second), as well as by possessive and personal pronouns. The meaning of the predicate is also important: predicates denoting physiological processes or states, emotional or psychic reactions, states always imply separate beings involved into it. Compare the following examples:

Collective nouns proper

Nouns of multitude

The family was large

The cattle is in the mountains

The crew on the ship was excellent.

The crowd was enormous.

The committee was unanimous.

The family were fond of their house.

The cattle are grasing there.

The crew have taken their posts.

The crowd were watching the scene spell-bound.

The committee were divided in their opinion.

Discrete plurality is also expressed by substantivized adjectives denoting people:

the helpless, the needy, the poor, the sick, the weary, the rich.

§ 177. Ways of showing partition.

Many non-count nouns combine with a set of nouns showing some part of material or abstract notion. Here are some typical partitives for material and abstract nouns:

a slice of bacon

a slice of cake

a piece

a lump

of coal

a piece

a loaf

of bread

a piece

a lump

of sugar

a piece

a stick

of chalk

a blade of grass

a piece

a bar

of chocolate

a piece

a block

of ice

a piece

a sheet

of paper

a piece

a strip

of land

a grain of rice

a piece

an article

of furniture

a pile

a heap

of rubbish

a piece of evidence

a fit of passion

a piece of research

a piece

a word

of advice

a piece

an item

of information, news

§ 178. In some cases there is no obvious logical reason for the as­signment of various English nouns to the count or non-count class. In Russian and English the attribution of the corresponding nouns may be different. Here are some cases when the classes of nouns in English and Russian do not coincide:

English non-count nouns

Russian count nouns

advice (they gave us some valuable advice)

news

progress (they are making slow progress)

research (do some research)

knowledge (you have a fairly good knowledge of the subject)

совет/советы

новость/новости

успех/успехи

исследование/исследования, научная работа знание/знания

English singular invariable nouns

Russian plural invariable nouns

ink

cream

yeast

money

hair

fruit

applause

chess

чернила

сливки

дрожжи

деньги

волосы

фрукты

аплодисменты

шахматы

Note:

Hair is a count noun in the sense of волос, волосок. Fruit as a count noun means kinds of fruit: dried fruits keep long.

English plural invariable nouns

Russian singular invariable nouns

sweepings

clothes

greens

contents

odds

cop

одежда

зелень (овощи)

содержание

преимущество (спортивное)

The category of case

§ 179. Case is a grammatical category which shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is expressed by the form of the noun.

English nouns have two cases: the common case and the genitive case. However, not all English nouns possess the category of case; there are certain nouns, mainly nouns denoting inanimate objects, which cannot be used in the genitive case.

The common case is unmarked, it has no inflexion (zero inflexion) and its meaning is very general.

The genitive case is marked by the apostrophe s (‘s).

§ 180. In writing there are two forms of the genitive: for most nouns it is ‘s (mother’s) and for nouns ending in -s and regular plural nouns only the apostrophe (mothers’).

In speech there are four ways of pronunciation of the genitive case.

1. [z] after vowels and voiced consonants: Negro’s, dog’s;

2. [s] after voiceless consonants: student’s;

3. [Iz] after sibilants: prince’s, judge’s;

4. zero endings: girls’, boys’.

The zero form is used:

a) with regular plural nouns – students’, drivers’, doctors’;

b) with Greek nouns in -s of more than one syllable:

Socrates’ ['sokrati:z] wife,

Xerxes’ ['z ǝ ksi: z] army,

Euripides’ |juǝ'rɪpɪdi:z] plays.

In many other names ending in the voiced sibilant [z] the normal spelling of the genitive case is with the apostrophe only (though sometimes 's occurs too): Burns’ (Burns’s) poems, Dickens’ (Dickens’s) novels.

Names ending in sibilants other than [z] have the regular [ɪz] in the genitive:

Marx’s [sɪz] ideas,

Tess’s [sɪz] misfortunes.

Irregular plural nouns forming their plural by vowel change also have the regular [z] in the genitive:

Children’s games,

women’s faces.

Compound nouns have ’s joined to the final component:

the editor-in-chief’s office,

my mother-in-law’s garden,

a passer-by’s comment.

§ 181. A specific feature of the English genitive case is the so-called group genitive when ‘s can be joined:

1) to a group of two coordinated nouns if such a group refers to a single idea (when two persons possess or

are related to something they have in common):

Mum and Dad’s room.

John and Mary’s car.

2) to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a clause:

the Duke of Norfolk’s sister,

the secretary of state’s private room,

the man I saw yesterday’s son.

3) to a noun (pronoun) + a pronoun group:

someone else’s benefit.

4) to a group ending in a numeral:

in an hour or two’s time.

§ 182. The main meaning of the genitive case is that of possession, hence the traditional term ‘the possessive case’. This general sense undergoes a number of modifications under the influence of the lexical meaning of both the noun in the genitive case and the noun it modifies.

The main modifications of this meaning are:

1. The idea of belonging: John’s coat, Mary’s car.

2. Different kinds of relations, such as:

a) relation of the whole to its parts: John’s leg, the cat’s tail;

b) personal or social relations: John’s wife, John’s friend.

Besides the genitive case retains some of its old meanings:

subjective relations:

Chekhov’s observation = Chekhov observed;

the doctor’s arrival =- the doctor arrived;

authorship:

Byron’s poem, Shakespeare’s tragedy;

objective relations:

Caesar’s murder = Caesar was murdered;

Jule’s arrest = Jule was arrested;

measure:

an hour’s trip, a mile’s distance.

In some cases the form ’s completely loses the meaning of possession and comes to denote a quality, as in man’s blood, woman’s work (serving in works canteen or a transport cafe, is generally regarded as woman’s work), his sly idiot’s smile - идиотская улыбка, you’ve got angel’s eyes - ангельские глазки, this is a women’s college - женский колледж.

The use of the genitive case and its equivalent of-phrase

§ 183. The genitive case is used:

1. With nouns denoting persons and animals.

John’s idea, the swallow’s nest, the mare’s back.

With other nouns (denoting inanimate objects or abstract notions) the of + noun phrase is used: the back of a train, the legs of a table.

2. With nouns denoting time and distance, such as minute, moment, hour, day, week, month, year, inch, foot, mile and substantivized adverbs: today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc.

a moment’s delay

an hour’s drive

today’s newspaper

a week’s time

a night’s rest

a month’s absence

a mile’s distance

a few minutes’ silence

yesterday’s telephone conversation

With these nouns the of-phrase is either impossible, as in the first three examples, or if it is possible the two variants are not interchangeable.

today’s papers - сегодняшние газеты

the papers of today - газеты сегодняшнего дня

3. With the names of countries and towns.

Britain’s national museums

Canada’s population

London’s ambulance services

4. With the names of newspapers and nouns denoting different kinds of organizations.

The Guardian’s analysis, the Tribune’s role, the company’s plans, the firm’s endeavours, the Coal Board’s Offer, the government’s policy, the organisation’s executive board, the Geographical Society’s gold medal.

5. Often with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town:

the world’s top guitarists, the nation’s wealth.

6. With the nouns ship, boat, car:

the ship’s crew, the car’s wheel.

7. With nouns denoting planets: sun, moon, earth:

the sun’s rays, this earth’s life.

8. With some inanimate nouns in the following set expressions:

to one’s heart’s content (desire), at death’s door, at arm’s length, out of harm’s way, a hair’s breadth, a

needle’s eye, at a stone’s throw, to move at a snail’s pace, at the water’s edge.

§ 184. The syntactical function of the genitive case is that of an attribute. It is always used as a premodifier of a noun and is sometimes called the dependent genitive.

However there are some cases when the noun in the genitive case is not followed by the headword and then it stands for the whole noun phrase. This is the so-called absolute genitive. It is used:

1. To avoid repetition:

Our house is better than Mary’s (than Mary’s house).

2. After the preposition of:

an old friend of my mother’s, that cousin of my husband’s.

3. To denote shops such as the butcher’s, the baker’s, the grocer’s, the chemist’s, or institutions, where the genitive is usually a saint's name:

St Paul’s (Cathedral), St James’s (Palace),

or places of residence:

at Timothy’s, at Old Jolyon’s, at my uncle’s.

There are also cases (though rare) when a noun is modified by two successive nouns in the genitive case. It is the so called double genitive, as in My mother’s father’s people. The first in such structures has as a rule the meaning of possession (the father of my mother), while the second may either have the same meaning (the people of my father) or other meanings as in: the boy's half-hour’s run.

Syntactical functions of the noun

§ 185. A noun may be used in the function of almost any part of the sentence, although its most typical functions are those of the subject and the object. It may function as

1. Subject:

The ship got under way.

2. Predicative:

He was certainly the best hated man in the ship.

3. Object:

I gave him a pound. Twelve dollars are enough for the man.

4. Objective predicative:

I found him an excellent listener.

5. Attribute:

A dog is a man’s best friend.

6. Adverbial modifier (usually as part of a prepositional phrase):

High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince.

THE ARTICLE

§ 186. The article is a form word that serves as a noun determiner. It is one of the main means of conveying the idea of definiteness and indefiniteness.

There are two articles in English: the definite article the [ði:] and the indefinite article a [ei].

Definiteness suggests that the object presented by the following noun is individualized and singled out from all the other objects of the same kind, whereas indefiniteness means a more general reference to an object. Thus when saying The book is a historical novel or The boy has a dog or The telephone is out of order, the speaker treats the objects book, boy, telephone as specific objects, while saying a dog, a historical novel the speaker characterizes the objects in a more general way, pointing out what kind of novel the book is and what kind of pet animal the boy has.

The notion of definiteness/indefiniteness determines the important role of the article in the process of communication. The definite article usually presents the notion as something already known, whereas the indefinite article introduces a new item of information. The presentation of objects as definite or indefinite, as already known or as new, depends on the speaker or the writer, who by using articles establishes mutual understanding between the speaker and the listener, the writer and the reader.

Since the article is a noun determiner and the noun is the headword in a noun phrase, the syntactical role of the article consists in marking off a noun or a noun phrase as part of the sentence.

The morphological value of the article lies in indicating the substantivization of other parts of speech, mainly adjectives or participles (see examples 1 and 2 below), also pronouns (examples 3 and 4), adverbs (example 5), numerals (example 6):

1. More nurses were required to tend the sick and the wounded.

2. Her hair was a bright brown.

3. It wasn’t a he.

4. He is such a nothing.

5 . There is a Beyond.

6. She was only just fifty and looked a handsome thirty-five.

Both articles have originated from notional parts of speech, whose influence may be traced in their meaning and use.

The definite article developed from a demonstrative pronoun, which accounts for its meaning of definiteness. The demonstrative force remains in many phrases, such as at the time, of the kind, in its use before restrictive attributes, and in some situational uses.

The indefinite article developed from the cardinal numeral one, The numerical meaning is evident in such phrases and sentences as at a time, in a moment, wait a minute, not a sound was heard.

The pronunciation of the articles and the spelling of the indefinite article depend upon the initial sound of the following word. The indefinite article is spelled as a before consonant and as an before vowel sounds. When stressed it is pronounced respectively as [eɪ] or [æn]. However, since the articles are usually unstressed, the pronunciation of the indefinite article is generally reduced to the neutral vowel [ǝ] before consonants, and to [ǝn] before vowel sounds, which depends entirely on the pronunciation and not the spelling of the following word, as can be seen in the table below.

The definite article is pronounced as [ði:] when stressed. When unstressed, it is pronounced as [ðǝ] before consonants and [ðɪ] before vowels:

[ðǝ]

[ðɪ]

the dog

the house

the European

the unit

the manuscript

the apple

the hour

the x-ray

the uncle

the MP

Since the article is the opening element of a noun phrase, it is placed before the noun it refers to or before all the other noun premodifiers. The exceptions to this rule are as follows:

a) the definite article may be preceded by the predeterminers alt and both:

Are you going to cook all the cakes yourself?

Both the answers were good.

b) the indefinite article may be preceded by the predeterminers what, such, quite:

What a sight I am in this hat!

You were such a queen, and I was such a nothing!

You are quite a scholar.

с) the indefinite article is placed after adjectives preceded by the adverbs too, as, so:

That was too difficult a problem for the child to solve.

It’s as good an excuse as any for breaking it up.

I’ve never seen so miserable a creature as Jane was at the moment.

The use of the indefinite article

The main functions of the indefinite article are classifying, generic and numerical.

§ 187. In its classifying function the article serves to refer an object to the class or group of objects of the same kind.

We saw a speck in the distance. It was a ship.

I am a school teacher.

Somewhere a telephone began to ring.

The door opened and a man entered.

Janet lived alone in a small shabby house.

He was a man I would be glad to spend half my time in hell with.

The noun preceded by the classifying indefinite article may be accompanied by pre- or postmodifying attributes. The indefinite article is used so long as the reference to the class is preserved, as can be seen from the examples below.

I’ve read a novel.

It is a very interesting novel.

It is a novel by a modem writer.

It is a teenager novel about American boys.

It is an exciting novel which is very suitable for staging.

But: It is the novel our teacher mentioned at the last lesson.

Though mostly used with counts the indefinite article may be used in the classifying function with non-counts, unique and proper nouns.*

* For details see § 192, 198, 201.

The moon rose early.

It was a very pale siver moon.

§ 188. In its generic function the indefinite article implies that the object denoted by the noun is spoken of as a representative of the class, and therefore what is said about the thing, animal, person, or notion mentioned, refers to any object of the same kind, as in:

An oblong has four sides, a triangle has three sides.

A tram runs on rails, a bus does not.

A horse has four legs.

A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines.

A library is a collection of books.

The noun preceded by the generic indefinite article may be modified by an attribute which restricts the class represented by the object mentioned or narrows the scope of reference, but does not individualize it.

A complex sentence has two or more clauses.

A man who looks after the books in a library is called a librarian.

The indefinite article in its generic function is often used in proverbs and sentences expressing a general truth.

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

An elephant never forgets.

As a man sows, so he shall mow.

With the nouns in the plural in this case no article is used. It should be noted that the generic function of the indefinite article, though akin to the classifying function, is different not only in its meaning, but also in its role in the process of communication. In the majority of cases a noun with the indefinite article in its generic function is the starting point of the utterance, whereas a noun with the indefinite article in its classifying function used as subject or predicative presents a new item of information, which is the most important part of the utterance.

§ 189. In its numerical function the indefinite article retains its original meaning of the cardinal numeral one.

The Indian summer returned for a day.

Of course I won’t say a word.

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

A stitch in time saves nine.

The numerical function of the indefinite article is evident with nouns denoting units of measure (time, distance, length, weight, etc.): 60 miles an hour, ten shillings a yard. The wireless had become a ton weight. We walked a mile or two.

The function of the indefinite article is also numerical in noun phrases with an ordinal numeral as premodifier, where the article suggests the meaning one more, another:

In this final chapter, we come to a third way in which one may view these parts of the sentence.

The indefinite article in its numerical function may signal a change in the meaning of a non-count making it a count. Thus an ice-cream, a coffee, a tea, a beer, a whisky, etc. mean a portion of, a glass of, a pint of, etc.:

David has ordered a second whisky.

The three main functions of the indefinite article are interrelated, one of them predominating in the context. Thus in the sentence I’ve bought a new dictionary the function of the article is classifying. The numerical idea is implied, but it is not conspicuous enough. If the speaker is interested in number he must say: I’ve bought one dictionary or I want only one dictionary.

On the other hand when the article is used in its numerical sense, the classifying function coexists with the numerical function. Thus in the proverb An apple a day keeps the doctor away the idea of number (one apple, one day) goes together with the idea of class (a kind of fruit, a unit of time),

In the generic function the ideas of oneness and class are combined, but there is no reference to a specific existing thing, person or notion. If we say A triangle has three sides we mean one triangle and a certain class of geometrical figures, but we do not refer the figure drawn on the blackboard to the class mentioned. To express the latter idea we must say The figure is a triangle. The same applies to the following sentences: I wanted to be a doctor where we deal with a classifying meaning of the article, but A doctor is an intelligent man - with generic.

§ 190. There are a number of set expressions with the indefinite article. In most of them the main functions of the indefinite article can be seen.

at a time

at a glance

as a result (of)

as a whole

to be (to feel) at a loss

to have a mind (to do something)

to have a good time

to have a headache (a toothache, a sore throat)

in a good (evil) hour

in a hurry (but: in haste)

in a fury

in a low voice

in a whisper

It is a pity

It is a pleasure

It is a shame

What a shame!

What a pity!

at a distance of...

(but: in the distance)

at a depth (but: in the depth)

at a speed of...

They were much of a size

Birds of a feather flock together.

many a time (not once, on many occasions)

many a man (not one)

The use of the definite article

§ 191. The definite article implies that the speaker or the writer presents a person, a thing or an abstract notion as known to the listener or the reader, either from his general knowledge, or from the situation, or from the context. Hence, the two main functions of the definite article are specifying and generic.

§ 192. The definite article in its specifying function serves to single out an object or a group of objects from all the other objects (things, persons, animals, abstract notions) of the same kind. The specification is carried out by means of (1) a restrictive attribute, of (2) the preceding context, (3) the situation or (4) the meaning of the noun.

1) A restrictive attribute is most useful in singling out or individualizing an object (such attributes are also called specifying or limiting). It may be expressed by a single word, a prepositional phrase, a participial phrase, or by a clause, all functioning as postmodifiers.

Somebody moved in the room above.

I’m convinced Davis is the man we are looking for (the very man).

The students in the next room are taking an examination.

That was the end of my first journey into the enchantment of the past.

The man standing by the window is my uncle.

I said nothing to Mr Smith. I think he was already rehearsing the story he would fell to Mrs Smith.

There are also postmodifying attributes which refer the object they modify to a class of similar objects, and in this case they require the indefinite article before the modified noun.

A letter written in pencil is difficult to read.

A letter which is written in pencil is difficult to read.

In like fashion premodifying attributes, especially expressed by adjectives, have either descriptive force in which case they do not influence the use of articles, or a restrictive force due to their meaning. Those are the limiting adjectives very, right, left, wrong, only, one, opposite, last, next (following), the pronominal adjective same, ordinal numerals. Their meaning specifies the object well enough to exclude a possibility of choice or change within a class.

We got into the wrong train.

Are we on the right road?

He is the only man for this position.

Morning light ... touched the opposite seat.

That’s the great Rita. The one and only Rita.

My first job was not a success. But the second job was a sensational success.

Apparent exceptions to the rule are caused by a certain shift in the meaning of premodifiers, which may acquire a new qualitative tinge. Thus an only child means a child who has no brothers or sisters, a first impression or a first attempt has its own qualitative peculiarities, a last look is a farewell look, a second, a third, a tenth means one more, another. In such cases the classifying force of the article prevails. See the examples below, the last of which also suggests reference to a class, namely to the class of books in their first edition.

I haven’t got four brothers. I’m an only son.

Alec turned up as if for a last look at the retreating figure.

It was a good first impression.

What made him spot Boot? It’s a sixth sense

He picked up a first edition of “The Torrents of Spring”.

Note:

There is no article if the numeral is part of a proper name: Fifth Avenue, Sixty-Sixth Street.

2) An object or a group of objects may be specified by reference to file preceding context (backward reference). This use of the definite article is qualified as anaphoric. The noun with the definite article may be a mere repetition of the noun mentioned before (see examples a) and b) below); it may be referred to the words or statement just mentioned (ex. c, d), or may be a final statement prompted by the context (e):

a) My wife always had a passion for owls. The passion’s grown since our marriage.

b) Three little kittens lost their mittens ... The three little kittens they found their mittens.

c) ‘My wife has left me.’ Dirk could hardly get the words out.

d) Dainty spoke aloud. The habit was certainly growing.

e) My daughter’s getting married at the week-end, but I don't think I shall go.

—You don’t like the man?

3) One of the most usual ways of singling out an object or a group of objects is situational specification. Though the object is mentioned for the first time, no attribute or context is necessary for the speaker (or the writer) to point it out and for the listener (or the reader) to understand what object is meant.

After visiting a theatre we may say: I liked the acting and I enjoyed the music too. After a flower exhibition: The flowers were splendid. In many everyday situations: Go to the kitchen. Open the door. Pass the butter. Keep off the grass.

When we say Let’s go to the river, depending on the place we live in, it may be the Neva, the Thames, the Amazon, etc. With reference to a certain school we may say: The bell rang and the teacher came in, or Miss , Smith came in.

If the situational reference is not clear enough to the listener, the speaker should employ another specifier as in the following: “Hilary, would you mind if we fixed the day?” “What day?” “The day for me and Crystal to get married.”

4) The definite article in its specifying function is used with unique objects or notions. They are the sun, the moon, the earth, the sea, the world, the universe, the horizon, the equator, the south, the north, the west, the east.

The sun sank below the horizon.

The sky had cleared...

The moon is the heavenly body that moves round the earth.

He sailed round the world.

The use of the definite article with nouns denoting unique objects is similar to the situational use, only unique objects suggest situations on a larger scale. Nouns denoting unique objects are also similar to proper nouns, especially to those originated from common nouns, such as the Tower, the Hermitage, the British Museum.

Though in the majority of cases proper nouns are used without an article, thanks to their origin, various historical processes and traditional usage, there are a number of proper nouns which are preceded by the definite article (for more examples see the list in § 194).

Nouns denoting unique objects may be preceded by the indefinite article in its classifying function when some aspect or phase of the object is meant or the word is used figuratively.

It’s a high sky tonight, big and pale.

The sun shone in an unclouded sky.

Night had fallen and I was guided by a full moon.

She in turn had discovered in Cal Finley a world of which she had never dreamed before.

It has always been a dream of her life.

§ 193. The definite article in its generic function refers the following noun to the whole class of objects of the same kind.

The lion is the king of the animals.

The trout - oh the trout – he’s the real king of fish.

Only the poet or the saint can water an asphalt pavement in the confident anticipations that lilies will

reward his labour.

Since 1925 Mr Warren has made an outstanding contribution to American letters in the fields of

education, poetry, criticism, and the novel.

The generic article suggests a very high degree of abstraction in a count noun, the next stage of abstraction being achieved by the absence of the articles, as with the words man and woman when used in a generic meaning.

Woman is physically weaker than man.

This was more than man can be expected to bear.

Observe the difference between the generic use of the word man without an article (the class as a whole) and the generic use of the same word with the indefinite article (a representative of the class) in this quotation:

Man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed, but not defeated.

In many cases either the generic definite or the generic indefinite article may be used. The generic definite article expresses the idea of the whole class, whereas the indefinite article emphasises the idea of any individual’s belonging to the class, e.g. The horse is a domestic animal. A horse is a domestic animal. The generic indefinite article is often preferable when a detailed description follows: A person who prepares somebody else’s writings for a publisher is called the editor. A crane is a large bird with a long neck and beak.

There are certain contexts, however, where the use of the generic indefinite article is logically impossible, as in:

The tiger is in danger of becoming extinct.

The lion is the king of the animals.

The atom was known to the ancient Greeks.

Singular nouns preceded by the generic definite or the generic indefinite article correspond to plural nouns with no article.

The tiger lives in the jungle.

Tigers live in the jungle.

The generic use of the definite article occurs with nouns denoting social classes (both singular and plural forms), for example: the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the aristocracy, the gentry, the workers, the public, the peasants, the intelligentsia. The same applies to people belonging to some school or movement in literature or art, for example: the romanticists, the impressionists.

The use of the definite article before substantivized adjectives in their collective or abstract meaning is also generic: the poor =- all who are poor, the strong = all who are strong, the obvious = all that is obvious, the beautiful = all who are beautiful or all that is beautiful, beauty:

Take Charley, for example. He has associated with the learned, the gentle, the literate and the reasonable

both in France and America. Three things will never be believed - the true, the probable and the logical.

§ 194. Set expressions with the definite article:

the other day

the day after tomorrow

by the dozen (the score, the hundred)

by the hour

in the morning

in (during) the night

in the afternoon

in the evening

in (the) summer

in (the) springtime

in the singular

in the plural

in the past, in the present

in the future (but: in future = from this time on)

on the whole

out of the question

to pass the time

all the same

just the same

by the by

by the way

to take (seize) smb by the shoulder

(by the arm)

to pull smb by the hair

to kiss smb on the cheek

(on the forehead, etc.)

to be wounded in the knee

(in the arm, etc.)

to keep the house (but: to keep house)

to play the piano (the guitar, etc.)

to tell the truth

to tell the time

§ 195. List of proper nouns regularly used with the definite article.

I. Astronomical names.

The Milky Way, the Great Bear, the Little (Lesser) Bear.

II. Geographical names.

1. The North Pole, the South Pole, the Arctic, etc.

2. Mountain ranges:

the Alps, the Pennines, the Urals. But single mounts take no article.

3. Rivers:

the Thames, the Hudson, the Amazon, the Rein, the Nile, the Neva, the Danube, etc.

4. Seas and oceans:

the North Sea, the Red Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic (Sea), the Arctic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the

Pacific (Ocean), etc.

5. Canals:

the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, etc.; also the English Channel.

6. Some countries, areas, provinces:

the USA (the United States of America), the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the

Crimea, the Caucasus.

7. Deserts:

the Sahara (Desert), the Gobi (Desert), the Karakum (Desert).

8. Parts of towns:

the West End, the East End, the Soho, the City (of London), the Bronx (in New York).

9. The de facto capital of the Netherlands:

the Hague.

III. Names of public institutions (museums, theatres, hotels, restaurants), unique buildings and monuments:

the Tate (Gallery), the National Gallery, the Metropolitan Museum (Opera), the British Museum, the

Louvre, the Hermitage, the Prado, the Grand (Hotel), the Savoy,the Kremlin, the White House, the

Bronze Horseman, the Sphinx.

IV. Names of vessels:

the Discovery, the Titanic, the Queen Elisabeth, the Dolores, etc.

V. Names of most newspapers (in English-speaking countries):

the Times, the Washington Post, the Canadian Tribune, etc.

Absence of the article

§ 196. The absence of any article, which is sometimes referred to as the zero article, is as meaningful as their actual use. It is regularly observed with count nouns in the plural, with non-counts used in a general sense, with proper nouns.

§ 197. The indefinite article has no plural form and thus it cannot be used with nouns in the plural in any of its functions.

The plural form without an article corresponds to the classifying and generic uses of the indefinite article and sometimes to the generic use of the definite article.

Jane is a student.

A dog barks.

A man who has nothing to say has no words.

The tiger lives in the jungle.

Jane and Mary are students.

Dogs bark.

Men who have nothing to say have no words.

Tigers live in the jungle.

If the idea of number is retained, an indefinite pronoun (some, any, no), adjectives (several, a lot of, many), or a cardinal numeral accompanies the plural noun.

Have you a record teaching English pronunciation?

There grew a cherry-tree once.

Have you any records teaching English pronunciation?

They have some (several, many, ten) records of the kind.

There grew three (some, a lot of) cherry-trees once.

§ 198. Non-count nouns, abstract or material, when used in a general sense, are not preceded by any article, as in:

Time will show who is right.

He has such huge pride.

She said with astonishment, “Where are you, Maurice?”

We walked forward in silence.

They greeted him without enthusiasm.

Premodifiers of abstract non-count nouns do not influence the use of articles, they only restrict the meaning of the noun, as in: history - English history, medieval English history; music - folk music, pop music, classical music; art - modern art, abstract art; weather - nasty weather, fine weather; advice - valuable advice.

He doesn’t love abstract art.

The same refers to material non-counts beautiful silk, Venetian glass, stained glass.

However the indefinite article is used with both kinds of noun if the classifying idea predominates (An English grammar - a kind of it, a soil of it); with words denoting feeling the indefinite article suggests a manifestation of that feeling, with nouns of material a particular kind of the substance mentioned. In contexts of the kind non-counts are usually accompanied by descriptive attributes.

That, sir, was a profound knowledge of man.

He always had a love for the concrete.

I can’t remember a time when I wasn’t painting with my father standing beside me.

I was no good at football, but does it make an unhappy boyhood?

It is incredible to me that there should be an after life.

She put down the mirror with a feeling of hopelessness.

In nouns which may function as both counts and non-counts the absence of the article indicates a non-count with general meaning, whereas the indefinite article shows that it is a count noun, abstract or concrete.

Compare the meanings in such pairs of nouns as:

Language is a means of communication.

It is always interesting to study a foreign language.

Light is necessary for life.

They saw a light in the distance.

Absence of the article before an originally count noun may suggest a shift in its meaning. Thus in to teach piano (violin) the noun piano means a subject to be taught, just as history, literature, etc., whereas in to play the piano the noun piano denotes a musical instrument with the article in its generic function. In such expressions as to go to school, to be at school the adverbial meaning predominates and the noun loses its nominal quality.

If partition or indefinite amount is meant, it is expressed by an indefinite pronoun (some, any) or a partitive noun (a piece, an item, a bit). With material nouns partitive meaning is also expressed with the help of nouns denoting measure or amount (a cup of tea, a glass of milk, a pint of beer, a slice of bread, a loaf of bread, a spoonful of medicine, a sack of coal, etc.).

All non-counts can be preceded by the definite article in its specifying function. Thus we say the art of the nineteenth century, the music of the Renaissance, the history of England, (but: English history) the history of the Middle Ages, and also: What’s the weather like today? How did you like the music?

Note the difference between English (French, Spanish) literature and the English (French, Spanish) language. Here literature is a non-count, whereas the word language is used as a count noun. The adjectives operate as specifiers restricting the abstract notion of language to one particular language.

Compare also the use of in darkness, in the darkness. The first suggests the state of darkness as such, the second is situationally or contextually determined, as in these two examples: The yard and the lane outside it were in darkness. In the darkness he could discern the figure of the watchman.

§ 199. Proper names point out individual objects. Their individualizing meaning makes the use of an article unnecessary. All proper names of living beings are situationally specified (when we say Tom, Mary, Mrs Brown, Mr Wilson, etc.), for there are hundreds if not thousands of people bearing the same name.

When a proper name is preceded by a modifier no article is used in case the latter denotes a title, relationship, or rank, or if the proper name is accompanied by adjectives which sometimes form part of it: simple Simon, lucky Jim, old Jolyon, young Jolyon, poor Smith, Miss Dodson, Mister Brown, Colonel Pickering, Queen Elisabeth, Professor Jones, President Kennedy, Doctor Manson.

When modified by other adjectives, not commonly used, proper names may take the definite article.

Use of the definite article before proper names

§ 200. The definite article is necessary:

1. When additional specification is needed. This is realized with a restricting attribute, usually formed as an of-phrase or a clause, or with the definite article alone, or a premodifier operating as one:

Gloria at twenty-six was still the Gloria of twenty.

Did Bait understand the England of today?

That’s not the George Lamb I knew.

“You are the Mr Murdstone who married the widow of my late nephew?” said my aunt.

“Why, she’s Sue Courtenay,” Gladys informed her uncle impressively.

The Sue Courtenay! Why, don’t you know her?”

“Cap’n Kit, that’s my name.” “What? The Captain Kit? O’course I’ve heard of him.”

2. When the specifying premodifier denotes a profession or points out some peculiar feature or temporary state (often expressed by a participle): the playwright Pinter, the painter Reynolds, the electrician Smith, the unsophisticated Kitty, the susceptible Mr Snodgrass, the puzzled Henry, the calculating Becky, the brilliant George Osborne, the offended Soames.

3. Before a group of objects or persons bearing the same name and forming one whole: The Pennines, the Alps, the Rockies, the Urals - a group of mountains, a mountain range; the British Isles, the Philippines, the Canaries, the Hebrides, the Shetlands - a group of islands, an archipelago; the Browns, theTullivers - a family, a clan, as in: the Dobsons were a very respectable family indeed.

The absence of the article before a plural proper name suggests a mere plurality, as in: There are a lot of Wilsons, Browns and Smiths in England.

4. Before proper nouns formed by means of substantivized adjectives: the Pacific (ocean), the Atlantic (ocean), the Mediterranean (Sea), the Argentine (Republic), but Argentina (because it is a proper name).

5. Before nicknames: the Gadfly, the Scout.

Use of the indefinite article before proper names

§ 201. The indefinite article is necessary:

1. When the person mentioned belongs to the family bearing the same name:

Mrs Tulliver had been a Miss Dodson...

No daughter of the house could be indifferent of having been born a Dodson, rather than a Gibson or a

Watson.

2. When nothing is known about the person mentioned but the name.

This usage corresponds to the Russian word «некий».

There’s a young American girl staying at the hotel. She’s a Miss Render.

3. When an originally proper name comes to be used as a common noun (usually as a result of metonymy or metaphor), as in:

This man doesn’t know a Rubens from a Rembrandt (pictures of these painters).

There is in Gary’s work the naturalness and zest of a Defoe, the generosity of a Fielding (like that of

Defoe, like that of Fielding).

Everybody isn’t a Mary Pickford (a film star like Mary Pickfbrd).

He was a Crusoe with no need to look for footprints in the sand (a man like Crusoe).

‘Have a cigar.’ ‘If it is a real Havana.’

4. When some phase, aspect, or state is meant, whether it refers to a living being or a geographical place:

John was inside, a very different John from the lad he had known seven years ago.

And now here was Gulliver’s girl Barbara, that mournful-eyed waif from an unhappy France.

So at night Castle dreamt of a South Africa reconstructed with hatred.

(Compare with the same use of the indefinite article before unique and non-count nouns.)

§ 202. Absence of the articles in set expressions

at dinner (breakfast, etc.)

at first notice

at first sight

at night

at table

at war

in search of

in spite of

by airmail

by letter

by telegram

by air

by car

by land

by plane

by sea

by ship (boat)

by train

by tram

by tube

by water

out of date

out of order

out of place

out of sight

arm in arm

day after day

day by day

hand in hand

night after night

night by night

a kind of

a sort of

place,

book,

task, etc.

by accident

by chance

by mistake

by name

by sight

on account of

on condition that

to be in

to go to

bed

from beginning to end

from day to day

from east to west

from head to foot

from morning to (till) night

from side to side

in debt

in demand

in secret

in sight

in time

to be at

to go to

to come to

to come from

to leave

school,

college,

(the) university

to be at

to leave

to take to

hospital

to be at

to go to

sea

in addition to

in (on) behalf of

in care of

in case of

in charge of

in reference to

to be in

to go to

church

to be at

to put to

prison

to be in

to be out of

to go to

town

to ask (for) permission

to catch (lose) sight of

to give offence (permission)

to give way to

to keep house (to do housework)

to keep time

to lose touch with

to lose track of

to make fun of

to make use of

to pay attention to

to set fire to

to shake hands with

to take care of

to take notice of

In these set expressions nouns combine with prepositions or verbs and acquire a new shade of meaning, expressing an adverbial relation, a state or a process. Concrete count nouns lose their nominal meaning. Thus He is in bed may mean He is ill, or He is asleep, or He is not up. But we say: There were no chairs enough and we sat on the bed.

My brother goes to school (college) means He learns there. However, if we mean the building or the institution, we use an article according to the general rules, as in: We shall meet at the school. The school isn't far from our home. Ours is a very good school. Parents are regularly invited to the school.

The noun town without an article means the nearest big centre of population as contrasted to the country or a smaller town, it may also denote the central part of a big town, as opposed to its suburbs.

To be at sea may mean "far away from the land" or (figuratively) "to feel puzzled"; to go to sea is "to become a sailor". But we say: The swimmer jumped into the sea. We lived near the sea, etc.

No article is used as a rule when two notions, very closely related, are mentioned, as in:

They looked like mother and daughter.

We are no longer boy and girl.

It’s no use interfering into a quarrel between husband and wife.

§ 203. Notes on the use of nouns denoting time and meals.

Nouns denoting time are treated as abstract nouns bordering on proper names. No article is used with reference to parts of the day or of the year, light or darkness, as in:

Evening came. Night fell. Day broke. We’ll wait till night. Twilight is the faint light just before sunset and

just after sunrise. Winter set in. “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?”

It was early morning (late afternoon, Friday morning, Saturday night, etc.).

It was early spring (late autumn, etc.).

They met at noon (at sunset, at midnight).

However articles may occur with such words according to the common usage of the articles in their (a) specifying, (b) generic, (c) classifying or (d) numerical functions.

a) The evening was calm. The winter is severe this year.

The twilight was sad and cloudy.

We stayed at my aunt’s for the night. (той ночью, в ту ночь)

We watched the sunrise from the balcony.

The winter of 1978 was severe.

It happened on the morning of April 12th.

b) Evening is the latest part of the day.

Tell me the four seasons of the year!

c) It was a wonderful day (a hot summer, a warm morning, a gloomy afternoon, a glorious sunrise, etc.).

That was a restless night.

d) I’ll ring you up in a day or two.

When names of meals denote simply an occasion or process of taking food, they are used without an article in phrases and patterns, such as:

to have (take, serve, cook) dinner, breakfast, lunch, supper;

to go to (to be at) dinner, lunch, etc.;

Lunch is at two p.m.

Dinner is ready (served, laid).

What have you bought for lunch (dinner, supper)

What shall we have for supper (dinner)?

An article is used mainly when a formal meal is meant or when the notion referred to is specified or classified.

They gave a dinner (luncheon, supper) in honour of the ambassador (a kind of reception)

The dinner you cooked was beyond all expectations! It was a marvellous dinner.

Note on the use of next and last as noun premodifiers

§ 204. Nouns with these premodifiers are not preceded by any articles when counting from the moment of speaking, as in;

We’ll speak about it next time (next Friday, next month, next spring, next year):

We spoke about it last time (last Friday, last month, etc.).

The definite article occurs when the situation is viewed from some moment in the past or in the future and when the noun is modified by a specifying attribute or attributive clause.

We spent (or: we’ll spend) a week in the Crimea, and the next two weeks in the Caucasus.

The last time I saw Mary she looked a picture of health.

We shall resume our talk the next time I see you.

Omission of the articles

§ 205. The omission of an article differs from the absence of an article in that it is stylistically or traditionally determined. It occurs in cases where economy of expression is required and is often accompanied by other ellipses, such as omission of prepositions, auxiliaries, etc.

1. In newspaper headlines:

‘Girl saw Flame’, ‘CTV is winning Fireside Battle’.

(Cp. the text of the newspaper report that follows the headline: Commercial television is winning the

battle of the fireside.)

2. In telegrams:

Attending cytological congress Rome will stop few days on way love John.

3. In newspaper announcements:

Anna Linden, daughter of a Manchester engineer, made her debut...

4. In stage directions:

At rise of curtain... goes to telephone; stands at door.

5. In reference entries or notes:

See table Taxonomic Classification on following page.

Hellman, Lilian, American dramatist, author of a succession of dramas ...

Use of the articles with nouns in some syntactical functions

§ 206. 1. A noun in the subject position is usually preceded by the definite article in its specifying function, or by either of the articles in their generic function. In these cases the noun denotes some notion forming the starting point of the utterance and therefore is presented as known to both the speaker and the addressee.

The way was long. The wind was cold.

The minstrel was infirm and old.

The indefinite article in its classifying function occurs to express the idea of novelty or unexpectedness, no matter what the position of the subject is:

On the opposite side of the landing a girl was standing.

A girl was standing on the opposite side of the landing.

Such sentences are translated into Russian with inverted word order:

На другой стороне площадки стояла девушка.

A similar use of the indefinite article occurs in sentences with the existential construction There is (comes, appears, etc.), as in:

There is an exception to the rule.

2. When used as a predicative the noun is usually preceded by the indefinite article in its classifying function. The position of the predicative is most suitable for the manifestation of the classifying function and for giving some new information:

This is a house.

George is a telephone engineer.

The definite article before a noun in this position suggests the identity of the object expressed by the predicative noun with that expressed by the subject:

This is the house that Jack built.


He is the telephone engineer (the one we have sent for).


The absence of the article before predicative count nouns indicates:

a) that the noun has lost its original meaning and suggests some social position, post or title:

Mrs Mantoffle was president of all sorts of societies and committees.

With this knowledge he can be king.

He was on the programme as assistant stage Manager.

J. F. Kennedy was elected President in I960.

b) that the idea of quality or state predominates over the idea of thingness (usually when the noun is

preceded by ‘more’ or followed by ‘enough’).

Fool, fool that she was to get into such a state.

But you’ll be man enough to tell me the truth.

Randal was in the end more artist than scientist.

3. With the noun functioning as objects any article can be used depending on how the speaker formulates his thought; the indefinite article is preferable after verbs of possession and obligatory in verb-object phrases denoting a single action such as to have a smoke, to give a look, etc.

4. The use of the articles with nouns in the function of an adverbial modifier depends partly on the type of adverbial modifier.

In adverbial modifiers of place the definite article is used in its speci­fying function to identify the exact place:

Jane is in the garden.

The indefinite article in its classifying function is preferable when the attention is focused on a description of the place rather than on its identification, as in: Crystal lived alone in a small shabby house.

In adverbial modifiers of comparison the indefinite article is preferably used in its classifying function with the generic tinge since comparison is drawn with a representative of the class: e.g. I can read you like a book. It is used also in phraseological combinations as strong as a lion, as hard as a nail, as meek as a mouse, etc.

5. In attributes the indefinite article is used to emphasize the importance and novelty of the notion mentioned. Therefore we find the indefinite article in such phrases as the son of a teacher, the daughter of a doctor, or
a doctor's daughter, it may be paraphrased as Her father is a doctor. She is the daughter of the doctor uggests reference to a definite person known from the situation equal to our doctor, the doctor here.

6. In apposition either of the articles can be used, depending on whether the noun in apposition serves to classify or to identify the notion expressed by the noun:

I've got acquainted with Mr Smith, an architect.

We've got acquainted with Mr Smith, the architect.

There is a substantial difference in the communicative value of the apposition depending on the use of the articles. The indefinite article implies that the listener (reader) does not know anything about the person or thing denoted by the head-noun and requires some new knowledge about it. Here the indefinite article has a classifying function:

Have you ever heard of 'Caesar's Wife', a play by Maugham?

Paul Long, a neighbour of yours, will be visiting us this evening.

The definite article implies that the listener (reader) is supposed to be familiar with the person or thing mentioned from his general knowledge or the situation

I want to speak to Mr Smith, the electrician.

"Hamlet", the tragedy by Shakespeare, has been screened many a time.

Note a restrictive appositions in noun phrases of the kind: the (famous) novelist Gr. Greene, the novel "The Heart of the Matter", the number ten (цифра десять) (but: page number 10), the noun "story" the letter "e".

THE ADJECTIVE

Semantic characteristics

§ 207. According to their way of nomination adjectives fall into two groups - qualitative and relative.

Qualitative adjectives denote properties of a substance directly (great, cold, beautiful, etc.).

Relative adjectives describe properties of a substance through relation to materials (woollen, wooden, feathery, leathern, flaxen), to place (Northern, European, Bulgarian, Italian), to time (daily, monthly, weekly, yearly), to some action (defensive, rotatory, preparatory), or to relationship (fatherly, friendly).

Qualitative adjectives in their turn may be differentiated according to their meaning into descriptive, denoting a quality in a broad sense (wonderful, light, cold, etc.) and limiting, denoting a specific category, a part of a whole, a sequence of order, a number (the previous page, an equestrian statue, medical aid, the left hand).

Limiting adjectives single out the object or substance, impart a concrete or unique meaning to it, specify it, and therefore can seldom be replaced by other adjectives of similar meaning.

Among limiting adjectives there is a group of intensifiers, which often form a phraseological unit with their head-word, for example: an obvious failure, a definite loss, a sure sign, a complete fool, absolute nonsense, plain nonsense, the absolute limit.

Relative adjectives are also limiting in their meaning.

Many adjectives may function either as descriptive or limiting, depend­ing on the head-word and the context. Thus a little finger may denote either a small finger or the last finger of a hand. In the first case little is descriptive, in the second it is limiting. Likewise musical in a musical voice is descriptive, while it is limiting in a musical instrument.

Adjectives also differ as to their function. Some of them are used only attributively and cannot be used as p r e d i с a t i v e s (a top boy in the class, but not *the boy was top): some are used only as predicatives and never as attrubutes (He is well again, but not *The well boy).

The change in the position and, accordingly, of the syntactic status of the adjective may also result in the change in the meaning of the adjective. Thus in a fast train the adjective is limiting and denotes a specific kind of train (скорый поезд), whereas in the train was fast the adjective is descriptive, as it describes the way the train moved (поезд шел на большой скорости).

Morphological composition

§ 208. According to their morphological composition adjectives can be subdivided into simple, derived and compound.

In the case of simple adjectives such as kind, new, fresh, we cannot always tell whether a word is an adjective by looking at it in isolation, as the form does not always indicate its status.

Derived adjectives are recognizable morphologically. They consist of one root morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes - suffixes or prefixes. There are the following adjective-forming suffixes:

-able

-al

-ary

-ed

-en

-que

-fold

-ful

-ic

-id

-ish

-ive

-less

-like

-ly

-most

-ory

-ous

-some

-y

understandable

musical, governmental

documentary

beaded, barbed

wooden, silken, shrunken

picturesque

twofold, manifold

careful, sinful

pessimistic, atomic

torpid, morbid

feverish, bluish

effective, distinctive

careless, spotless

manlike, warlike

kindly, weekly, homely

uttermost

observatory

glorious

lonesome, troublesome

handy, messy

Some adjectives are former participles and therefore retain participial suffixes: charming, interesting, cunning, daring.

The suffixes -ly, -ed, -ful, -ary, -al, -y are not confined to adjectives only. Thus, many adverbs are derived from adjectives hy means of the suffix -ly (strongly, bitterly, quickly). Most of the verbs form their past tense and participle II with -ed. There are many nouns with the suffixes -al (festival, scandal, criminal), -ary (boundary, missionary), -ful (mouthful, handful), -y (sonny, doggy), etc.

Compound adjectives consist of at least two stems. They may be of several patterns:

a) consisting of a noun + an adjective:

colour-blind, grass-green;

b) consisting of an adjective + an adjective:

deaf-mute;

c) consisting of an adverb + a participle:

well-known, newly-repaired, much-praised;

d) Consisting of a noun/pronoun + a verbal:

all-seeing, heart-breaking, high-born, high-flown, man-made;

e) consisting of an adjective/adverb + a noun + the suffix -ed:

blue-eyed, long-legged, fair-haired, down-hearted.

Morphological characteristics

§ 209. Adjectives in English do not take any endings to express agreement with the head-word.

The only pattern of morphological change is that of degrees of comparison, which is possible only for descriptive qualitative adjectives the meaning of which is compatible with the idea of gradation of quality.

There are three grades of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. The superlative is generally used with the definite article. Ways of formation may be synthetic, analytic, and suppletive (irregular). The synthetic way is by adding the inflection -er, -est, as fine -finer - finest. This means is found with monosyllabic and some disyllabic adjectives in which the stress falls on the last syllable:

1) full - fuller - fullest

polite

profound

complete

- politer

- profounder

- completer

- politest

- profoundest

- completest

2) in which the second syllable is the syllabic [1]:

able

noble

- abler

- nobler

- ablest

- noblest

3) with adjectives in -er, -y, -some, -ow:,

tender

happy

handsome

narrow

- tenderer

- happier

- handsomer

- narrower

- tenderest

- happiest

- handsomest

- narrowest

Synthetic inflection, however, is often found in other disyllabic adjectives:

You are the horridest man I have ever seen.

Polysyllabic adjectives form their degrees of comparison analytic­ally, by means of more and most:

difficult - more difficult - most difficult

curious - more curious - most curious

Note 1:

Even monosyllabic adjectives used in postposition or predicatively have a greater tendency towards analytic forms of comparison than when used attributively.

Compare:

He is a man more clever thап you.

He is a cleverer man.

The superlative is sometimes used without the when the aqjective denotes a very high degree of quality and no comparison with other objects is implied.

The path is steepest here.

She is happiest at home.

Note 2:

This morphological pattern (long - longer - longest) is not confined to adjectives, there are also a number of adverbs which may have the same endings, i.e. soon - sooner - soonest, hard - harder - hardest.

Superlatives are often used alone before an of-phrase:

the best of friends, the youngest of the family.

Several adjectives form their degrees of comparison by means of (suppletive forms) irregularly:

good/well

bad

little

many

- better

- worse

- less

- more

- best

- worst

- least

- most

far

farther - farthest (with reference to distance)

further - furthest (with reference to distance, abstract notions and in figurative use)

old

older - oldest (with reference to age)

elder - eldest (with reference to the sequence of brothers and sisters)

Adjectival compounds can be inflected in two ways, either the first element is inflected (if it is an adjective or adverb), or comparison is with more and most, for example:

well-known

dull-witted

kind-hearted

- better-known

- more dull-witted

- more kind-hearted

- best-known

- most dull-witted

- most kind-hearted

The following adjectives generally do not form degrees of comparison:

1. Limiting qualitative adjectives which single out or determine the type of things or persons, such as:

previous, middle, left, childless, medical, dead, etc.

2. Relative adjectives (which are also limiting in their meaning) such as:

woollen, wooden, flaxen, earthen, ashen.

3. Adjectives with comparative and superlative meaning (the so-called gradables) which are of Latin origin:

former, inner, upper, junior, senior, prior, superior, etc. (originally with comparative meaning), and

minimal, optimal, proximal, etc. (originally with superlative meaning).

With most of them the comparative meaning has been lost and they are used as positive forms (the inner wall, the upper lip, superior quality, minimal losses).

However, some comparatives borrowed from Latin (major, minor, exterior, interior, junior, senior) may form their own comparatives with a change of meaning.

4. Adjectives already denoting some gradation of quality, such as darkish, greenish, etc.

Adjectives of participial origin

§ 210. Only certain adjectives derived from participles reach full adjectival status. Among those in current use are interesting, charming, crooked, learned, ragged and those compounded with another element, which sometimes gives them quite a different meaning (good-looking, heart­breaking, hard-boiled, frost-bitten, weather-beaten, etc.).

In most cases, however, the difference between the adjective and the participle is revealed only in the sentence. The difference lies in the verbal nature retained by the participle. The verbal nature is explicit when a direct object or a by-object is present. This can be seen from the following pairs of sentences:

With an adjective

With a participle

You are insulting.

His views were alarming

The man was offended.

You are insulting us.

His views were alarming the audience.

The man was offended by the secretary’s remark.

The verbal force of the participle is revealed in its limited combinability - it is not combinable with very. In the above sentences, it is possible to use very in the left-hand column, but not in the right-hand column.

Some adjectives only look like participles, there being no corresponding verbs:

downhearted, talented, diseased.

In some cases there are corresponding verbs, but the -ed - participle is not interpreted as passive, because the corresponding verb can be used only intransitively:

the escaped prisoner (the prisoner who has escaped)

the departed guests (the guests who have departed)

the faded curtains (the curtains which have faded)

the retired officer (the officer who has retired)

(See participles of intransitive verbs, § 143.)

Adjectives and adverbs

Some adjectives coincide in form with adverbs, for example, slow, long, fast, above, real, mighty, sure, the last three being used as adverbs only in colloquial style.

Adjectives

Adverbs

The examples above (given above)

a fast walk

It is real.

He is sure of it.

We could see nothing above or below

to walk fast

He is real good.

It sure will help.

Patterns of combinability

§ 211. Adjectives are combined with several parts of speech.

1. They may combine with nouns, which they may premodify or postmodify: a black dress, a chivalrous gentleman, the delegates present.

If there are several premodifying adjectives to one headword they have definite positional assignments. Generally descriptive adjectives precede the limiting ones, as in a naughty little boy, a beautiful French girl, but il there are several of each type, adjectives of different meanings stand in the following order:

Adjectives

Adjectives

Adjectives

Adjectives

Adjectives

Limiting

expressing

denoting

denoting

denoting

denoting

adjectives

judgement

size

colour

form

age

or general

Noun

characteri­-

zation

pleasant

large

pale green

thick

old

French

horrid

small

bright red

round

young

left

nice

little

blue

square

For example: a large black and white hunting dog, a small pale green oval seed.

This order of words is of course not absolutely fixed, since many adjectives may be either descriptive or limiting (see above), depending on the context. The adjectives are not separated by commas, unless they belong to the same type: a nice little old man. However, if there is more than one adjective of the same type they are separated by commas: nasty, irritable, selfish man (all three belong to the type of ‘judgement or general characterization’).

Postmodification is usual for the adjectives elect, absent, present, concerned, involved, proper.

The president elect (that is: who has been elected and is soon to take office).

In several noun-phrases of French origin (mostly legal or quasilegal) the adjective is also postpositional.

attorney general

heir apparent

time immemorial

body politic

Queen Regnant

Lords Spiritual (Temporal)

These noun-phrases are very similar to compounds and some of them are spelt as a compound, with a hyphen (knight-errant, postmaster-general). The plural ending is attached either to the first element, or to the second:

court-martials

postmaster-generals

courts-martial

postmasters-general

Postmodification may be due to the structural complexity of postmodifiers (the children easiest to teach, the climate peculiar to this country), or to the presence of only or all in preposition (the only actor suitable, the only person visible, all the money available).

2. Beside their usual function, that of modifying nouns, adjectives may be combined with other words in the sentence.

They may be modified by adverbials of degree, like very, quite, that, rather, most, a lot, a sort of, a bit, enough, totally, perfectly, so... as: very long, a bit lazy, sort of naive, far enough, a little bit tired, a most beautiful picture, not so foolish as that, she is not that crazy.

The adverb very can combine only with adjectives denoting the gradable properties. Thus it is possible to say very tired (tiredness may be of different degree), but it is impossible to say *very unknown, *very ceaseless, *very unique, as these adjectives do not allow of gradation.

With the adverb too the indefinite article is placed between the adjective and the head-noun. With the adverb rather the article is placed after it:

This is too difficult a problem to solve at once.

This is rather a complicated matter.

3. Predicative adjectives are combined with the link verbs to be, to seem, to appear, to look, to turn, or notional verbs in a double predicate:

He looks tired. She does not seem so crazy as before. She is quite healthy. She felt faint. If sounded rather

fussy. The food tasted good. The flowers smell sweet.

Syntactic functions

§ 212. Adjectives may have different functions in the sentence.

The most common are those of an attribute or a predicative.

The attributes (premodifying and postmodifying) may be closely attached to their head-words (o good boy, the delegates present), or they may be loose (detached) (Clever and ambitious, he schemed as well as he could). In the first case the adjective forms a group with the noun it modifies; in the second case the adjective forms a sense-group separate from the head-word and the other parts of the sentence. A detached attribute is therefore separated by a comma from its head-word if it adjoins it, or from other parts of the sentence if it is distant from the head-word. As predicatives, adjectives may form a part of a compound nominal or double predicate (he was alone, the window was open. Old Jolyon sat alone, the dog went mad). Predicative adjectives may be modified by adverbials of manner, degree, or consequence and by clauses, forming long phrases as, in:

He is not so foolish as to neglect it.

She is not so crazy as you may imagine.

It is not as simple as you think.

Adjectives may also function as objective or subjective predicatives in complex constructions:


We consider him reliable.

I can drink coffee hot.

He pushed the door open.

Better eat the apples fresh.

I consider what he did awful.

objects + objective predicatives

The fruits were picked ripe.

The windows were flung open.

subjective predicatives

Adjectives may be used parenthetically, conveying the attitude of the speaker to the contents of the sentence (strange, funny, curious, odd, surprising), often premodified by more or most.

Strange, it was the same person.

Most incredible, he deceived us.

A certain type of exclamatory sentence is based on adjectives, often modified by other words: How good of you! How wonderful! Excellent! Just right!

Substantivized adjectives

§ 213. Substantivized adjectives may fall into several groups, according to their meaning and the nominal features they possess.

1. Some substantivized adjectives have only the singular form. They may have either the singular or plural agreement, depending on their meaning. These are:

a) substantivized adjectives denoting generalized or abstract notions.

They are used with the definite article and have singular agreement:

the fabulous, the unreal, the invisible:

The fabulous is always interesting.

There are, however, certain exceptions. Substantivized adjectives denoting abstract notions may sometimes be used in the plural. Then no article is used:

There are many variables and unknowns.

b) substantivized adjectives denoting languages are used without a determiner, but are often modified by a pronoun. They also have singular agreement.

My Spanish is very poor.

He speaks excellent English.

c) substantivized adjectives denoting groups of persons or persons of the same nationality are used with the definite article the and admit only of plural agreement the old, the poor, the rich, the blind, the dumb and deaf, the mute, the eminent, the English.

He did not look an important personage, but the eminent rarely do.

The poor were robbed of their lands.

2. Some substantivized adjectives have the category of number, that is they can have two forms - the singular and the plural. These are:

a) substantivized adjectives denoting social rank or position, military ranks, party, creed, gender, nationality, race, groups of people belonging to certain times or epochs, etc. In the plural the use of the article is not obligatory: nobles, equals, superiors, inferiors, commercials, domestics, privates, regulars, ordinaries, marines, Christians, primitives, moderns, ancients, contemporaries, liberals, conservatives, Europeans, Asiatics, Eurasians, Indians, Easterns, blacks, whites, etc.

When denoting an individual such words are used in the singular and are preceded by the indefinite article: a noble, a private, a regular, an ordinary, a Christian, a primitive, a liberal, etc.

There were a few deads missing from the briefing.

- How many have you killed?

- One hundred and twenty two sures. Not counting possibles.

He’s been working like a black.

b) substantivized adjectives denoting animals and plants: evergreens, thoroughbreds (about horses).

3. Some substantivized adjectives have only the plural form. These are:

a) substantivized adjectives denoting studies and examinations. They have either the singular or plural

agreement depending on whether they denote one notion or a collection of notions: classics, finals

(final examinations), midsessionals, etc.

Finals were approaching.

b) substantivized adjectives denoting collection of things, substances and foods. Some of these admit

either of both the singular and plural agreement (chemicals, movables, necessaries, valuables, eatables,

greens), others admit only of a singular agreement (bitters).

c) substantivized adjectives which are the names of the parts of the body are used with the definite article

the and admit of the plural agreement: the vitals, the whites (of the eyes).

d) substantivized adjectives denoting colours are used in the plural without any article: greys, reds,

purples, greens.

THE PRONOUN

§ 214. Pronouns are deictic words which point to objects, their properties and relations, their local or temporal reference, or placement without naming them. They constitute a limited class of words (that is a closed system) with numerous subclasses. They are generally differentiated into noun-pronouns (substituting nouns) and adjective-pronouns (substituting adjectives).

Morphological composition and categorical characteristics

§ 215. Pronouns may be of different structure: simple, compound, and composite.

Simple pronouns comprise only one morpheme - the stem:

I, you, he, we, etc.; this, that, some, who, all, one, etc.

Compound pronouns comprise more than one stem:

myself, themselves, somebody, everybody, anything, nothing, etc.

Composite pronouns have the form of a phrase:

each other, one another.

Patterns of morphological change in pronouns vary greatly not only from subclass to subclass, but also within certain subclasses. Some pronouns have the category of number (I - we, this – these), while others have not; some have the category of case expressed in a similar way to that of nouns (somebody – somebody’s), some have a pattern of their own (he - him), and others have no case distinctions at all. Some pronouns have person and gender distinctions, such as personal pronouns, while others have none.

The pronouns also have specials forms to distinguish between animate and inanimate objects. This category is to be found again in personal pronouns (he/she - it), possessive pronouns (himself/herself - itself), conjunctive pronouns (who - what), relative pronouns (who - which), and interrogative pronouns (who - what).

Subclasses of pronouns and their functions

§ 216. Semantically all pronouns fall into the following subclasses:

I. Personal pronouns are noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I , you, he, we, they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to the speaker. Thus I (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker together with some other person or persons, you indicates the person or persons addressed, while he, she, they (him, her, them) indicate persons (or things) which are neither the speaker nor the persons addressed to by the speaker.

Personal pronouns have the category of person, number, case (nominative and objective), and gender, the latter is to be found in the 3rd person only: masculine and feminine is he - him, she - her; neuter case-forms it - it coincide.

The nominative case form is generally used as subject of the sentence, or predicative in the compound nominal predicate in sentences like: It was I who did it. However, in colloquial style the form of the objective case is preferable, especially in sentences of the type: It is me.

Both the nominative and the objective case forms are used after the conjunctions as and than in comparative constructions:

She is as stout as I now;

Last year he looked much older than I;

She is as old as me;

He was a better friend to you than me.

The nominative case-form (as well as the objective) is used in elliptical sentences: “Who is there? – I”. “Who did it? – Me”.

The objective case form is used mainly as an object (with or without a preposition), occasionally as an attribute in prepositional phrases: Give me your hand; Were you speaking about me ?; The better half of me protested.

The fact that semantically personal pronouns indicate persons or things restricts their functioning as adverbial modifiers. However, they may occur in this function in a prepositional phrase: He stood close to me; Keep behind me.

The pronoun you implies a person, sometimes an animal, or an inanimate object, when the latter is personified: Glad to see you here, Mary; Oh, Cat, you are as clever as a man ...

Its singular and plural forms, as well as the objective case forms, coincide: Are you in, John?; Where are you going, children? The plural and the singular forms are differentiated only through their co-referents (denoted by John, children), as both agree with the verb in the plural.

Historically, the form you is the plural form, the singular form being thou (the objective case thee). It is no longer used nowadays except in poetry and other literary texts, where it produces a particular stylistic effect: “So”, said the messenger, “Then thou are the spokesman.”

The pronouns he (him), she (her) usually refer to persons, he - to male, she - to female. However some other phenomena are often referred to as he or she in poetry and fiction. Those referred to as he are: sun, wind, fear, love; those referred to as she are: earth, moon, ship, boat, car, hope, justice, modesty and some others. Also countries, especially native countries, are referred to as she: England, France, Italy, the USA, etc.

I was born in Ireland. She is the best country for me.

The nominative case forms are used as subject or predicative; when used as predicatives both nominative and objective case forms are possible: At last he lost his way; It was he; It is him. It keeps true also for comparative constructions: She did it better than he (him).

The pronoun it can perform functions varying so greatly that three statuses of this word should be differentiated. They are the personal pronoun it, the impersonal pronoun it, and the demonstrative pronoun it.

The personal pronoun it refers to non-persons, that is, to animals, things and abstract notions, as in:

The room was large. Somebody had already cleaned it.

We had no mutual understanding, and I wanted it badly.

The dog was sitting by him. Several times it had turned and looked up at the boy.

However when speaking of pet animals, especially cats and dogs, it is usual to refer to them as he or she depending on whether they are male or female, as in:

He is a very nice dog. He is my friend. He knows how I feel.

It’s Pussy. She wants to go out.

The demonstrative pronoun it indicates non-persons or certain situa­tions, mentioned in the previous context:

Some were dancing, some tried to sing. A big man, bottle in hand, lay by the armchair. Clouds or smoke

hung under the ceiling. Suddenly I felt sick of it all.

Besides its anaphoric use, it is also used with demonstrative force when preceding the words it points to:

It’s my husband. It’s Mary. It was a red rose.

It may also have the force of a purely formal element of the sentence, as the formal subject or object devoid of any lexical meaning. Its function is to point to the real subject or object which comes after the predicate and is expressed either by an infinitive (an infinitive phrase) or by a gerund (a gerundial phrase), or else by a clause.

It was nice to stop here.

It was useless trying to see him.

It was clear to everybody that she was not well.

May I take it that you will keep your word?

When it refers to the predicative (or any part in this position) it selves as means of producing emphasis: the word in the predicative position becomes prominent and therefore becomes the information focus of the sentence:

It was he who did it.

Именно он это сделал. (Как раз он это сделал).

It was there that we met.

Именно там мы встретились. (Там-то мы и встретились).

It was to this room that Soames went.

Именно в эту комнату пошел Соме.*

* See Syntax, § 121.

The impersonal pronoun it functions as a purely structural element -the subject of impersonal sentences describing various states of nature and environment, or things, time, measure, or distance, etc., as in: It was raining; It was cold that day; It’s spring already; It’s 10 o’clock; It’s still sixty miles to the river.

The pronoun they (them) is the plural form of the pronouns he, she and the personal it . Its syntactic functions are similar to those of the forms in the singular. It may be used as subject (They had no time) and as predicative (It's they who will answer first). The objective case form can also be used in these cases (That’s them). The same form is to be found in comparative constructions, as objects and adverbial modifiers:

Do you know them, boy? (object)

Try to catch up with them. (prepositional object)

In front of them there were seven candles. (adverbial modifier)

In addition to their usual function when they have personal meaning the pronouns we, you, they may be used as indefinite-personal, indicating people in general or a limited group of people. The difference between them is in their reference: we refers to a group of people including the speaker, you includes only the listener(s), and they excludes both the speaker and the listeners.

As we know, geographic limits between dialects are not easy to establish.

You never saw such a commotion up and down the house, in all your life, as when my Uncle Podger

undertook to do a job.

When you are tired they give you some pills, and in a minute you are your own self again.

They say you were in the park with her?

What do they teach you there?

§ 217. Possessive pronouns indicate possession by persons (my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs) or non-persons (its, their, theirs). They comprise two sets of forms: the conjoint forms - my, your, his, her, our, their, which always combine with nouns and premodify them as attributes and the absolute forms - mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, which do not combine with nouns, but function as their substitutes. Thus, they may be adjective-pronouns when used as conjoint forms and noun-pronouns when used as absolute forms. There is no absolute form corresponding to the pronoun it .

Both conjoint and absolute forms may function with reference to persons and non-persons; pointing back (with anaphorical force) and forward (with anticipatory force).

My friends are waiting for me.

I liked this house and its wonderful garden.

Where are the dogs? Mine is under the table.

The coat isn't mine, it’s yours.

Hers was a wonderful room.

A peculiarity of the English language is that possessive pronouns, not the article, are used with reference to parts of the body, personal belongings, relatives, etc.

I raised my eyebrows.

He rose up and put his hands in his small pockets.

Where are you going to spend your leave?

I can’t see my way ahead.

§ 218. Reflexive pronouns indicate identity between the person or non-person they denote and that denoted by the subject of the sentence. They are: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, structurally derived either from the possessive pronouns (myself, yourself, ourselves, yourselves), or from personal pronouns (himself, herself, itself, themselves); the pronoun oneself is derived from the indefinite pronoun one.

Reflexive pronouns derived from possessive and personal pronouns have the categories of person, number, and gender in the 3d person singu­lar only. The generalising reflexive pronoun oneself has none of these.

Oh, I can do it myself. He felt himself grow hot to the roots of his hair.

If these are several homogeneous subjects denoting different persons including the 1st, the 1st person plural reflexive is used: You, mother, and I must now think about ourselves. If there is no 1st person, the 2nd person plural reflexive is used: You and mother must now think of yourselves.

If the subject is the indefinite pronoun one, the corresponding reflexive is used: One must not deceive oneself. If the subject is expressed by any other indefinite pronoun himself or themselves is used: Has anybody hurt himself?

The most common functions of the reflexive pronouns are those of an apposition and objects (direct, indirect, prepositional):

Cedric himself knew nothing whatever about it. (apposition)

I have all kinds of beautiful sentiments myself. (apposition)

I learned to dress myself many years ago. (direct object)

“How well you talk,” said the Miller’s wife pouring herself a large glass of warm ale. (indirect object)

She talks only about herself. (prepositional object)

Less common are the functions of the subject, predicative, attribute, and adverbial modifiers:

My wife and myself welcome you, sir. (subject)

In some minutes she became herself again. (predicative)

She showed me a large picture of herself as a bride. (attribute)

My brother was a Robbins like myself. (adverbial modifier of comparison)

He lived in a tiny cottage all by himself. (adverbial modifier of manner)

§ 219. Reciprocal pronouns indicate a mutual relationship between two or more than two persons, or occasionally non-persons (each other, one another) who are at the same time the doer and the object of the same action. Thus They loved each other means that the doer A loved the object В and at the same time the doer В loved the object A.

The pronoun each other generally implies that only two persons are involved, one another usually being preferred when more than two persons are involved.

Both of them are composite words and have only one grammatical category - the category of case (each other’s, one another’s).

Reciprocal pronouns in their common case form function as objects:

Now they hate each other. They often quarrelled with one another.

The possessive case forms are used as attributes:

They stood silent, in each other’s arms.

§ 220. Demonstrative pronouns point to persons or non-persons or their properties: this (these), that (those), such.* The first two of them have the category of number. This (these) and that (those) function both as noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns; such functions only as an adjective-pronoun:

* The demonstrative of it was given above. See Personal pronouns.

This is my brother Rob.

That is very kind of you.

(noun-pronouns)

This house is too large just for one person.

She is such a silly little tiring.

(adjective-pronouns)

The general demonstrative meaning of this (these) is of relatively near reference in time or space, while that (those) implies distant reference in time or space. Both of them are commonly used anaphorically, pointing to things, persons, or situations denoted in the preceding context, as in the following examples with this and that:

He tried the door. This did not yield.

A tall blonde came forward. This was the barman’s wife.

“I often wondered how you were getting on.” – “That was very kind of you.”

Sometimes, however, these pronouns may be used with anticipatory force, pointing to something new, or something still to come:

I know this – you’re a traitor.

This time I'll win.

I’ve never seen this dress of yours.

When used with words denoting periods of time (a day and its parts, week, month, year, century) the pronoun this implies that these periods include the moment of speaking:

This year he is going abroad. I had no breakfast this morning. I haven’t seen her this week.

When used with the words town, country, government the pronoun this implies ones in which the speaker lives or is staying at the moment of speaking. Phrases like in this town, in this country, this government, etc., should be translated into Russian by the actual names of the town or country as in the following:

Englishman: I do like this country - Я очень люблю Англию

or by a possessive pronoun: Я очень люблю свою (нашу) страну.

The pronoun that (those) pointing to something relatively remote in space or time may refer to something already known or past:

Do you see that red roof over there? That’s my house.

Oh! that was a sad mistake.

That (those) can be used either as a noun-substitute or as a sentence-substitute.

The perfume of the rose is more subtle that that of the lily.

Syntactically the pronouns this and that can be subject, predicative, object, or attribute.

This was my old dear car again.

His story was like that.

Do you remember this?

The woods are so beautiful at this time of year.

When used as attributes both this and that exclude the use of the article. The pronoun such points to a certain quality in things, persons, or situations. It is more often used anaphorically, although can also be used in its anticipatory function.

I like such little towns as this.

He could not love her. Such was everyone’s verdict.

You can buy there such things as buns, sausage rolls, and plum cakes.

Such never precedes the definite article, though it often occurs with the indefinite one, which is placed after such.

I’ve never seen such a beauty.

§ 221. Indefinite pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or else their properties in a general way without defining the class of objects they belong to, class or properties they possess. They are: some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one.

Some and any are both noun-pronouns and adjective-pronouns; their compounds in -body, -one, or -thing, as well as the pronoun one, are only noun-pronouns.

Some, any, something, anything have no grammatical categories, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, and one have the category of case (somebody’s, anybody’s, someone’s, anyone’s, one’s).

Some and any indicate qualities or quantities, depending on the class and grammatical form of the noun with which they are used as attributes or for which they function as their substitutes. The idea of quantity is actualised if they combine with:

a) count nouns in the plural:

Are there any roses in your garden? I have a tot of flowers in my garden, some of them are sweet-

scented, some are not.

b) nouns of material:

Give me some water, please. Can you see any snow on the mountaintop?

c) abstract nouns:

She won’t give you any trouble.

When used before noun-phrases with cardinal numerals some denotes approximate quantity: some ten years ago, some twenty people (около, приблизительно).

The idea of quality is actualised when some and any combine with count nouns in the singular. In a positive statement any acquires the meaning of ‘любой'.

They bought some old house in the country, (какой-то дом)

Any horse will do now. (любая лошадь)

Very often the idea of quality and that of quantity go together: Some people will do it of their own free will means a certain type of persons and о certain number of people.

Some and any, indicating both indefinite qualities and quantities, differ in meaning: some has assertive force, that is presupposes the presence of some quality or quantity. It generally corresponds to the Russian неко­торый, какой-то, некоторое количество. Any has a non-assertive force, that is, does not presuppose the presence of any quality or quantity, and generally corresponds to the Russian какой-нибудь, какой-либо, сколько-нибудь.

The difference in meaning predetermines their use. Some is commonly used in affirmative and imperative sentences.

There are some apples on the table. Give him some milk.

Any is commonly used:

1) In negative sentences (with negatives not, no, never, neither... nor), in sentences with incomplete negatives (hardly, little, few, least, etc.), and with implied negatives (fail, prevent, reluctant, hard, difficult).

I don’t like any of them. She has never lasted any wine.

I hardly knew any of those present.

He failed to find any of them.

2) In questions, mostly general:

Did you see any of them? Is there any bread there?

3) In conditional clauses:

If any person learns about it, you will have to leave.

4) In comparative phrases:

He did more for me than any of you.

However, some not any, is used in interrogative sentences when their basic meaning is assertive and the speaker suggests that a certain state of affairs exists, as in:

Did you see some new English books on the shelf?

(The speaker suggests that there are new English books on the shelf and the addressee had only to look on them).

When will you have some time to show me your presents?

Some, not any, is preferable when making invitations or offers if it presupposes an acceptance:

Will you have some tea? Would you like to see some of my pictures?

The same holds true for negative sentences and conditional clauses with positive orientation.

She would not find some letters she had left on the table.

If you bring her some flowers, she'll be only too glad.

On the other hand any can be found in affirmative sentences if used with the meaning of no matter what, no matter who, as in: I am so hungry. I’ll eat any piece of stale bread. Any of them will do. (Я съем любой черствый кусок хлеба, любой из них подойдет).

Syntactically some and any can be used as subject, object, or attribute.

The compound pronouns of this subclass (something, somebody, someone, anything, anybody, anyone) are used only as noun-pronouns. Those ending in -thing imply non-persons, and those ending in -body imply persons. The difference in their communicative value is the same as between some and any. The pronouns with the element some- are used in affirmative and conditional sentences, or in interrogative, negative and conditional sentences if they are assertive:

Something unexpected always happened to him.

Что-нибудь неожиданное всегда случалось с ним.

Let somebody bring me a glass of water.

Пусть кто-нибудь принесет мне стакан воды.

Did somebody called me up?

Мне кто-то звонил?

The pronouns beginning with any are used in negative and interrogative sentences, in conditional clauses, in comparative phrases and in affirmative sentences meaning no matter what, no matter who.

I don’t see anyone here.

Я никого здесь не вижу.

If anyone calls, ask them to wait a moment.

Если кто-нибудь зайдет, попросите подождать минуту.

The pronoun one is indefinite-personal. It indicates people in general implying inclusion of the speaker, much in the same way as the indefinite-personal we, you, they do:

One is used as subject and attribute (in the genitive case)

One never knows what may happen.

Никогда не знаешь, что может случиться.

The use of one is rather formal. In everyday speech we or you is preferable:

You never know what may happen.

§ 222. Negative pronouns as the term implies render the general meaning of the sentence negative.

They are: no, none, nothing, nobody, no one, neither. No is used only as an adjective-pronoun, none, nothing, nobody, no one as noun-pronouns, neither may be used as both adjective-pronoun and noun-pronoun.

Unlike Russian, in sentences with negative pronouns no other nega­tive words can be used:

Я ему ничего не сказал. - 1 told him nothing.

Only two negative pronouns have the category of case: nobody – nobody’s, no one - no one’s. The other pronouns of this subclass have no grammatical categories.

No and none refer to all nouns denoting both persons and things, nothing refers to things, whereas nobody and no one refer to persons only. Nobody means to offend you. The pronoun neither refers to two persons or things and therefore correlates only with count nouns. It has a disjunctive force (ни тот, ни другой).

No trees could be seen. I will give you no trouble.

No means not ... a when premodifying count nouns are in the singular.

I have no pen. = I haven’t a pen with me. (ни одной ручки)

None refers to many people, therefore it agrees with the predicate verb in the plural.

None were present at the meeting.

I remember none of the stories.

Nothing happened. I could see nothing there.

Nobody answered. (Not anybody) No one stirred. (Not anyone)

Neither came back. Neither book interested me.

When neither is used as subject, the predicate verb is in the singular:

Neither was present.

Nobody and no one cannot be postmodified by an of-phrase. Only none can be used in this case.

None of my relatives came to our wedding.

§ 223. Detaching pronouns indicate the detachment of some object from other objects of the same class. There are only two pronouns of this subclass - other, another. They are used both as noun-pronouns and as adjective-pronouns.

One of the girls was pretty, while the other was terribly plain.

He gulped one cup, then another.

I live on the other side.

Both other and another have the category of case (other – other’s, another – another’s), but only other has the category of number (other -others).

The pronoun other has dual reference, personal and non-personal, and correlates with all subclasses of nouns in the singular and in the plural:

Other times have come, other people are of importance.

Unlike the majority of pronouns, other (both as a noun-pronoun and as an adjective-pronoun) can be preceded by the definite article and other determiners.

The other tree was half-withered.

Then he gave me his other hand.

That other question quite upset me.

Show me some other pictures.

His sister’s other child was only five then.

In these sentences other is used as an attribute. The attributive func­tion can also be performed by the noun-pronoun other in the genitive case, as in: The other’s mouth twitched where other's stands for some noun from the previous context.

The pronoun another also has a dual reference, but it correlates only with count nouns in the singular.

Will you have another cup?

Then another runner came into view.

Another has two meanings:

1) a different one -

I don’t very much like this dress, will you show me another.

2) one more, one in addition to the one or ones mentioned before –

She asked me a question, then another.

Detaching pronouns can be used as subject, object, adverbial modifier and attribute.

§ 224. Universal pronouns indicate all objects (persons and non-persons) as one whole or any representative of the group separately. They are: all, both, each, every, everything, everybody, everyone, either.

Of these only everybody and everyone have the category of case (every­body - everybody's, everyone – everyone’s), others have no grammatical categories.

These pronouns, as can be seen from the definition, differ in their reference.

Some universal pronouns (all, everybody) have always collective or all-embracing reference. They correspond to the Russian все, весь, целый, всё as in:

All were present.

Все присутствовали.

All night long she sat by the window.

Всю ночь напролет она просидела у окна.

I haven’t read all the book.

Я не прочел всей книги.

Everything looks so beautiful in spring.

Все так красиво весной.

She is everything to me.

Она для меня всё.

Two pronouns (both, either) indicate a group comprising two persons or non-persons treated either as a whole (both) or as consisting of individual objects in a group of two (either - каждый из двух). In accordance with their reference both takes a predicate-verb in the plural and either - in the singular. The article is usually placed after both.

Both have come in time.

Both the windows were shut.

Either of these will do.

- Оба пришли вовремя.

- Оба окна были закрыты.

- Любой из них подойдет.

Some pronouns (every, each, either) always have individual reference (каждый, другой), therefore they agree with the predicate-verb in the singular.

She searched every corner, but found nothing.

Each of them keeps silent.

Two pronouns (everybody, everyone) may have both collective and individual reference. In the first case it corresponds to the Russian все, in the second case to the Russian каждый. This or that reference is generally marked not so much by the predicate-verb, as by correlation with personal or possessive pronouns.

Everybody did as he thought best.

Everybody was eager to give his evidence.

Tell everybody that they are to wait a bit.

Everybody lowered their eyes.

The women stood by the gates and everyone told her own story.

§ 225. Interrogative pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or tlieir properties as unknown to the speaker and requiring to be named in the answer. Accordingly they are used to form special (or pronominal) questions.

This subclass of pronouns comprises who, whose, what, which, who­ever, whatever, whichever. Of these only the pronoun who has the category of case — the objective case is whom. However there is a strong tendency in colloquial English to use who instead of whom, especially with prepositions.

Who did you get it from ?

Who have you been with ?

Who do you mean?

instead of Whom did you get it from? (or from whom), Whom have you been with? (or with whom). Whom do you mean?

Who, whose, whoever have personal reference, what, whatever have non-personal reference, and which may have both personal and non-personal reference.

The number of the persons implied by who can be derived from the context. Accordingly the predicate-verb may be in the singular or in the plural.

Who has come ? It’s my brother.

Who are to come today?

When who is used as predicative, the link verb naturally agrees with the subject:

Who is she? Who are you? Who were those people?

The pronouns what may be both a noun-pronoun (что?) and an adjective-pronoun (каков? какой?). It has mostly a non-personal reference, as in:

What has happened?

What is his name?

What did you say?

What are you looking at?

What book are you reading?

When what is used as subject it is, unlike who, always used with the predicate verb in the singular.

What is there on the table? - Some books and papers.

However when what is used as a predicative the link verb agrees with the subject.

What are their names?

What and who can both be used as predicatives in questions concerning persons. In this case they convey different meanings. Who-questions inquire about the person's name or parentage, while what-questions inquire about person’s occupation, profession, rank, etc.

“Who are you?” — “I am your sister’s son.”

“Who is he?” – “He is Mr. Smith.”

“What is she?”- “She is a painter”.

Which is both a noun-pronoun and an adjective-pronoun. It may have either personal or non-personal reference.

Which of these men is your husband?

Which colour do you prefer?

Which always implies a choice among a certain limited group of persons or things, corresponding to the Russian который, какой из. The same meaning may be rendered by what, but what has always indefinite reference, whereas which has definite reference. Thus the following two questions.

Which books would you like to buy?

What books would you like to buy?

differ in meaning, as the first implies that one is to choose from a given number of books and that one knows what kind of books they are. When answering this question one may either specify the books or just point to them saying “these”. The second sentence implies that one is to choose from an indefinite number of books, from books in general. This sentence corresponds to the Russian Какие (какого жанра и т. п.) книги Вы хотели бы купить? When answering this question, one simply has to specify them.

The pronouns whoever, whatever, whichever are noun-pronouns. Whoever has personal reference, whatever has non-personal reference, whichever may have either personal or non-personal one. When used in questions they express indignation or surprise.

Whoever could have done it?

Whichever was it?

Whatever are you trying to do?

Whatever is he talking about?

§ 226. Conjunctive pronouns (whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever) are identical with the interrogative pronouns as to their morphological, referential and syntactical characteristics. They refer to persons and non-persons. The difference between the two subclasses lies in that the conjunctive pronouns, along with their syntactical function in the clause, connect subordinate clauses to the main clause. They are used to connect subject, predicative, and some adverbial clauses, or rather to indicate the subordinate status of these clauses, as the sentence may begin with the clause they introduce.

Who did it will repent. (who opens the subject clause)

I know who did it. (who opens the object clause)

They were what you call model girls. (what opens the predicative clause)

Whatever you may do you can’t save the situation. (whatever opens the adverbial concessive clause)

Conjunctive pronouns always combine two functions - notional and structural. They are notional words because they function as parts of the sentence within a clause and they are structural words because they serve as connectors or markers of the subordinate clause.

The compounds whoever, whatever, and whichever introduce subject and adverbial clauses and have a concessive meaning:

Whoever told you this may be mistaken.

Whichever you choose, I’ll help you.

Whatever may be the consequences, I insist on going on.

§ 227. Relative pronouns refer to persons and non-persons and open attributive clauses which modify words denoting these persons or non-persons. They are who, whose, which, that. Who, like its homonyms, has the category of case (who-whom), the others have no categories.

Relative pronouns, like conjunctive pronouns, have two functions - notional and structural: they are parts of the sentence and connectors between the main clause and the subordinate attributive clause they are used in. But unlike conjunctive pronouns they are always related (hence their name relative) to some noun or pronoun in the main clause. Compare the following sentences:

Who he was is still a mystery(conjunctive pronoun)

I don’t know which of the books is better.

That is the man who has saved your child (relative pronoun)

Here is the book which the lecturer recommended.

Conjunctive and relative pronouns do not coincide referentially: the conjunctive pronouns who and whose have only personal reference; the relative pronoun who has personal reference, but whose has dual reference (personal and non-personal); the conjunctive pronoun which has dual reference, whereas the relative which has only non-personal reference.

The man who stood at the gate was Jim.

Then the man whose face I still could not see began singing.

The village whose roofs were seen in the distance was N.

I picked up the letter which was on the window sill.

Relative pronouns may function in the subordinate attributive clause as subject, object, attribute, and adverbial modifier (with prepositions).

Types of pronouns

The list of pronouns

Personal pronouns

The common case: I, you, he, she, it, we, they.

The objective case: me, you, him, her, it, us, them.

Possessive pronouns

Conjoint forms: my, your, his, her, its, our, their.

Absolute forms: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs.

Reflexive pronouns

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

Demonstrative pronouns

this, that, these, those, such, same.

Indefinite pronouns

some, something, somebody, someone; any, anything, anybody, anyone.

Negative pronouns

no, nothing, nobody, no one, none, neither.

Universal pronouns

all, each, both, either, every, everything, everybody, everyone.

Detaching pronouns

other, another.

Reciprocal pronouns

each other, one another.

Interrogative pronouns

who, what, which, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever.

Conjunctive pronouns

who, what, which, whose, whoever, whatever, whichever.

Relative pronouns

who, whose, which, that.

THE NUMERAL

§ 228. The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession.

In accordance with this distinction the numerals fall into two groups cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).

Cardinals

Ordinals

0 nought, zero

1 one

2 two

3 three

4 four

5 five

6 six

7 seven

8 eight

9 nine

10 ten

11 eleven

12 twelve

13 thirteen

14 fourteen

15 fifteen

16 sixteen

17 seventeen

18 eighteen

19 nineteen

20 twenty

21 twenty-one, etc.

30 thirty

40 forty

50 fifty

60 sixty

70 seventy

80 eighty

90 ninety

100 one (a) hundred

101 one (a) hundred and one, etc.

1,000 one (a) thousand

1,001 one (a) thousand and one, etc.

100,000 one hundred thousand

1.00.0 one million

1.000.001 one million and one, etc.

1st first

2nd second

3rd third

4th fourth

5th fifth

6th sixth

7th seventh

8th eighth

9th ninth

10th tenth

11th eleventh

12th twelfth

13th thirteenth

14th fourteenth

15th fifteenth

16th sixteenth

17th seventeenth

18th eighteenth

19th nineteenth

20th twentieth

21st twenty-first, etc.

30th thirtieth

40th fortieth

50th fiftieth

60th sixtieth

70th seventieth

80th eightieth

90th ninetieth

100th (one) hundredth

101st (one) hundred and first, etc.

1,000th (one) thousandth

1,001st one thousand and first, etc.

100,000th (one) hundred thousandth

1,000,000th (one) millionth

1,000,001st (one) million and first, etc.

Morphological composition

The Cardinals

§ 229. Among the cardinals there are simple, derived, and compound words.

The cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple words; those from thirteen to nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -teen; the cardinals denoting fens are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -ty.

Note:

Mind the difference in the spelling of the stem in three and thirteen (thirty), four and forty, five and

fifteen (fifty).

The cardinals from twenty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over hundred are compounds.

In cardinals consisting of tens and units the two words are hyphenated:

21 - twenty-one,

35 - thirty-five,

72 - seventy-two, etc.

In cardinals including hundreds and thousands the words denoting units and tens are joined to those denoting hundreds, thousands, by means of the conjunction and:

103 - one hundred and three,

225 - two hundred and twenty-five,

3038 - three thousand and thirty-eight,

9651 - nine thousand six hundred and fifty-one.

Note:

If not part of a composite numeral the words hundred, thousand and million in the singular are always used with the indefinite article; a hundred pages, a thousand ways; in composite numerals both a and one are possible, but one is less common; a (one) hundred and fifty pages.

The words for common fractions are also composite. They are formed from cardinals denoting the numerator and substantivized ordinals denoting the denominator. If the numerator is a numeral higher than one, the ordinal in the denominator takes the plural form. The numerator and denominator may be joined by means of a hyphen or without it:

1/3 - one-third (one third),

2/7 - two-sevenths (two sevenths), etc.

In mixed numbers the numerals denoting fractions are joined to the numerals denoting integers (whole numbers) by means of the conjunction and:

3 1/5 - three and one-fifth,

20 3/8 - twenty and three-eighths.

In decimal fractions the numerals denoting fractions are joined to those denoting whole numbers by means of the words point or decimal:

0.5 - zero point (decimal) five,

2.3 - two point (decimal) three,

0,5 - zero decimal five,

0,005 - zero decimal zero zero five.

The ordinals

§ 230. Among the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.

The simple ordinals are first, second and third.

The derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals by means of the suffix -th:

four-fourth, ten-tenth, sixteen-sixteenth, twenty-twentieth, etc.

Before the suffix -th the final у is replaced by ie:

thirty - thirtieth, etc.

Mind the difference in the spelling of the stems in the following cardinals and ordinals:

five-fifth, nine-ninth.

The compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case only the last component of the compound numeral has the form of the ordinal:

twenty-first, forty-second, sixty-seventh, one hundred and first, etc.

Morphological characteristics

§ 231. Numerals do not undergo any morphological changes, that is, they do not have morphological categories. In this they differ from nouns with numerical meaning. Thus the numerals ten (десять), hundred (сто), thousand (тысяча) do not have plural forms:

two hundred and fifty, four thousand people, etc.,

whereas the corresponding homonymous nouns ten (десяток), hundred (сотня), thousand (тысяча) do:

to count in tens, hundreds of people, thousands of birds, etc.

Patterns of combinability

§ 232. Numerals combine mostly with nouns and function as their attributes, usually as premodifying attributes. If a noun has several premodifying attributes including a cardinal or an ordinal, these come first, as in:

three tiny green leaves, seven iron men, the second pale little boy, etc.

The only exception is pronoun determiners, which always begin a series of attributes:

his second beautiful wife;

these four rooms;

her three little children;

every second day, etc.

If both a cardinal and an ordinal refer to one head-noun the ordinal comes first:

the first three tall girls, the second two grey dogs, etc.

Nouns premodified by ordinals are used with the definite article:

The first men in the moon, the third month, etc.

When used with the indefinite article, they lose their numerical meaning and acquire that of a pronoun (another, one more), as in:

a second man entered, then a third

(вошел еще один человек, потом еще).

Postmodifying numerals combine with a limited number of nouns. Postmodifying cardinals are combinable with some nouns denoting items of certain sets of things:

pages, paragraphs, chapters, parts of books, acts and scenes of plays, lessons in textbooks, apartments

and rooms, buses or trams (means of transport), grammatical terms, etc.;

room two hundred and three, page ten, bus four, participle one, etc.

Note:

In such cases the cardinals have a numbering meaning and thus differ semantically from the ordinals which have an enumerating meaning. Enumeration indicates the order of a thing in a certain succession of things, while numbering indicates a number constantly attached to a thing either in a certain succession or in a certain set of things. Thus, the first room (enumeration) is not necessarily room one (numbering), etc. Compare:

the first room I looked into was room five,

or

the second page that he read was page twenty-three, etc.

Postmodifying ordinals occur in combinations with certain proper names, mostly those denoting the members of well-known dynasties:

King Henry VIII - King Henry the Eighth,

Peter I - Peter the First, etc.

Mind the position of the article in such phrases. It is always attached to the numeral.

When used as substitutes numerals combine with various verbs:

I saw five of them. They took twenty.

As head-words modified by other words numerals are combinable with:

1) prepositional phrases:

the first of May, one of the men, two of them, etc.

2) pronouns:

every three days, all seven, each fifth, etc.

3) adjectives:

the best three of them, the last two weeks, etc.

4) particles:

just five days ago, only two, only three books, he is nearly sixty, etc.

Note:

The numeral first may combine with the particle very:

the very first of them.

When they have the function of subject or predicative the numerals are combinable with link verbs, generally the verb to be:

ten were present,

the first was my father

we are seven,

she is the second.

Occasionally they are combinable with some other link verbs:

two seemed enough,

the third appeared to be wounded.

Syntactic function

§ 233. Though cardinals and ordinals have mainly similar syntactic functions they differ in certain details.

The most characteristic function of both is that of premodifying attribute:

two rooms, the third person, etc.

In this connection it must be remembered that while the ordinals are used as ordinary attributes, cardinals with the function of an attribute govern the number of the noun they modify:

one page, but two (three, etc.) pages.

Note 1:

Quite unlike Russian, composite cardinals ending in one (twenty-one, thirty-one, two hundred and one, three hundred and twenty-one, etc.) require a plural noun:

twenty-one pages, two hundred and one pages.

Note 2:

In numbering the items of certain sets of things cardinals, not ordinals, are used to modify the nouns denoting these things. The cardinals thus used are always postmodifying. The nouns modified do not take an article:

page three, lesson one, room thirty-five, etc.

(In Russian both ordinals and cardinals are possible in this case, though ordinals are preferable. Compare:

пятая страница and страница пять,

десятая аудитория and аудитория десять.)

Both cardinals and ordinals may have the functions of subject, object, predicative and adverbial modifier of time:

Three of us went home.

I saw two of them in the forest.

They were seven.

She got up at five today.

However, in all these cases a noun is always implied, that is, the numeral functions as a substitute for the noun either mentioned in the previous context, or self-evident from the situation. The only case in which the numerals (cardinals) can really have the function of subject, object or predicative is when they are used with their purely abstract force:

five is more than three; two plus two is four, etc.

Substantivized numerals

§ 234. Numerals can be substantivized, that is, take formal nominal features: the plural suffix -s, an article, and the ability to combine with adjectives and some other modifiers of nouns. When numerals undergo substantivization not only their morphology is changed, but also their meaning. Thus when the numerals hundred, thousand and million are substantivized they acquire the meaning "a great quantity", as in:

hundreds of books, thousands of people, millions of insects, etc.

Other numerals, both cardinals and ordinals, can also be substantivized.

Cardinals are substantivized when they name:

1) school marks in Russia

(He got a two. He got three fives)

or

school marks in Great Britain

(He got ten. He got three nines last week).

2) sets of persons and things:

They came in twos. They followed in fours. Form fours!

3) playing cards:

the two of hearts, the five of spades, the seven of diamonds, the ten of clubs, three of trumps.

4) boats for a certain number of rowers:

a four, an eight.

5) decades:

in the early sixties, in the late fifties, etc.

The meaning of substantivized ordinals is less affected by substantivi­zation and remains the same:

He was the first to come.

She was the fourth to leave.

THE STATIVE

§ 235. The stative denotes a temporary state of a person or a non-person. Unlike such classes of words as nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs the number of statives functioning in English is limited. There are about 30 stable statives, used both in colloquial and in formal style:

ablaze

adrift

afire

aflame

afloat

afoot

afraid

aghast

aglow

agog

ahead

akin

ajar

alight

alike

alive

aloof

alone

amiss

ashamed

askew

aslant

asleep

aslope

astir

astray

athirst

awake

awry

and about 100 unstable ones, which are seldom used even in formal style and never in colloquial:

ashudder, atwist, atremble, agleam, etc.

Semantically statives fall into five groups describing various states of persons or non-persons:

1. Psychological states of persons:

afraid, aghast, ashamed, aware, agog.

2. Physical states of persons:

alive, awake, asleep.

3. States of motion or activity of persons or non-persons:

afoot, astir, afloat, adrift.

4. Physical states of non-persons:

afire, aflame, alight, aglow, ablaze.

5. The posture of non-persons:

askew, awry, aslant, ajar.

Morphological characteristics

§ 236. From the point of view of their morphological composition the class of statives is homogeneous, that is all of them have a special marker, the prefix a-: asleep, alive, alone, afire, etc.

Note:

In English there are some words devoid of the marker -a-, which are semantically and functionally very similar to statives. These are:

fond, glad, ill, sorry, well.

Their grammatical status is intermediate between that of stative and adjective.

As regards their structure, statives with the marker a- fall into two groups: those that can be divided into morphemes (the prefix a- and the stem of a noun, a verb, or an adjective) a-sleep, a-fire, a-glow, and those that cannot be devived because the part following a- does not correspond to any noun, verb, or adjective stem, as in a-loof, a-ware, a-fraid.

Statives do not change their form to express concord with the word they refer to.

Note:

There are other words besides statives with the prefix a-:

across, along (adv. and prep.), amidst (prep.), anew (adv.) arise (verb), aloud (adj.), amount (noun), etc.

Syntactic function

§ 237. Statives may have three functions in a sentence: that of predicative in a compound nominal or a double predicate (the most common function), that of objective predicative, or occasionally that of attribute.

When used in the function of predicative statives describe the state of the person or non-person denoted by the subject and are connected with the subject by means of a link verb or in some cases by a notional verb.

Statives as predicatives within a compound nominal predicate:

He was terribly afraid of his father.

The house was ablaze with lights.

Soon she fell fast asleep.

He seemed afraid to go any further.

She felt alert and young.

Why do they look so frighteningly alike ?

The Overlords remained aloof, hiding their faces from mankind.

Statives as predicatives within a double predicate:

He sat quite alone on that large verandah of his.

For a moment she stood aghast, looking at the door.

She was lying wide awake listening to all the sounds of the night.

She sounded very high and afraid.

When they have the function of objective predicative, statives describe the state of the person or non-person denoted by the object:

First of all have the fire alight in the drawing room.

The large dog kept him afloat until the raft came up.

Don’t keep the door ajar.

Leave me alone, you fool.

I’ll get him awake in a minute.

Although the function of attribute is not characteristic of statives, some of them may have this function (either detached or undetached attributes).

Statives as undetached attributes are always postmodifying:

No man alive could have done it.

No one aware of the consequences of his deed would have defied the fate.

When used as detached attributes, statives may be either post- or premodifying:

The microphone, already alive, was waiting for him.

He stood, alert and listening, while the noise from the reef grew steadily around him.

Aloof on her mountain-top, she considered the innumerable activities of men.

In all these cases the stative retains its predicational force.

THE ADVERB

§ 238. The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or characteristics.

From this definition it is difficult to define adverbs as a class, because they comprise a most heterogeneous group of words, and there is consi­derable overlap between the class and other word classes. They have many kinds of form, meaning and function. Alongside such undoubtful adverbs as here, now, often, seldom, always, there are many others which also function as words of other classes. Thus, adverbs like dead (dead tired), clear (to get clear away), clean (I've clean forgotten), slow, easy (he would say that slow and easy) coincide with corresponding adjectives (a dead body, clear waters, clean hands). Adverbs like past, above are homonymous with prepositions. There is also a special group of pronominal adverbs when, where, how, why used either as interrogative words or as connectives to introduce subordinate clauses.

Where shall we go? (an interrogative pronominal adverb)

We’ll go where you want (a conjunctive pronominal adverb).

Some adverbs may be used rather like a verb, as in “Up. Jenkins! Down, Peter!”, where the first word is like an imperative.

In many cases the border-line between adverbs and words of the other classes is defined syntactically.

He walked past. (adverb)

He walked past the house. (preposition)

They took the dog in. (adverb)

They left the dog in the house, (preposition)

He did everything slowly but surely. (adverb)

Surely you know him. (modal word)

There are three adverbs connected with numerals: once, twice, and thrice (the latter being archaic). They denote measure or frequency.

She went there once a week.

I saw him twice last month.

Twice is also used in the structure twice as long, etc.

He is twice as tall as his brother.

She is twice as clever.

Beginning with three the idea of frequency or repetition is expressed by the phrases three times, four times; He went there four times; he is four times as bigger; she is ten times cleverer.

Morphological composition

§ 239. Adverbs vary in their structure. There are simple, derived, compound, and composite adverbs.

Simple adverbs are after, here, well, now, soon, etc.

In derived adverbs the most common suffix is -ly, by means of which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately, immediately, constantly, purely, slowly, charmingly.

The less common snffixes are the following:

-wise

-ward(s)

-fold

-like

-most

-way(s)

clockwise, crabwise, corkscrew -wise, education- wise

onward(s), backward(s), homeward(s), eastward(s)

twofold, manifold

warlike

innermost, outermost

longways , sideways

Of these suffixes the first two are more ptoductive than the rest.

Compound adverbs are formed of two stems:

sometimes, somewhere, everywhere, downstairs, etc.

Composite phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-forms, as

a great deal, a little bit, far enough, now and then, from time to time, sort of, kind of, a hell of, a lot of, a

great deal of.

Morphological characteristics

§ 240. The only pattern of morphological change for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. The three grades are called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees.

Adverbs that are identical in form with adjectives take inflections following the same spelling and phonetic rules as for adjectives:

early

late

hard

slow

- earlier

- later

- harder

- slower

- earliest

- latest

- hardest

- slowest

Several adverbs ending in -ly (quickly, loudly) form comparatives according to the same pattern, dropping their adverb-forming suffix. These adverbs acquired the form in -ly only recently and retained the older forms of the comparative and superlative:

quickly

loudly

- quicker

- louder

- quickest

- loudest

However most disyllabic adverbs in -ly and all polysyllabic ones form the comparative and superlative analytically, by means of more and most:

wisely

softly

deeply

- more wisely

- more softly

- more deeply

- most wisely

- most softly

- most deeply

The adverb often occurs with both types of comparison:


often

oftener

more often

As with adjectives, there is a small group of adverbs with comparatives and superlatives formed from different stems (suppletive forms). These comparatives and superlatives are identical with those for the corresponding adjectives and can be differentiated from the latter only syntactically.

well

badly

little

much

far

- better

- worse

- less

- more

further
farther

- best

- worst

- least

- most

- furthest

- farthest

Which do you like best ?

This is least painful for you.

Either farther (farthest) or further (furthest) are used when speaking of places, directions, or distance:

He is too tired to walk any farther (further).

But only further (furthest) is used with the meaning more, later:

Don’t try my patience any further.

Most of the adverbs, however, stand outside the degrees of comparison:

pronominal adverbs denoting place and time

(here, somewhere, there, sometimes, when),

denoting manner

(somehow, thus), and

adverbs of manner denoting gradation

(minimally, optimally, proximally - ближе к центру).

Semantic characteristics

§ 241 . According to their meaning adverbs fall into many groups. Here are the main ones:

Adverbs of place: outside, there, in front, etc.

Adverbs of time include those denoting duration (long, continually), interval (all day), timing (yesterday, today, recently, lately, immediately, once, at once, now), frequency (often, now and then, occasionally). Several of them denote an indefinite time - soon, yet, always, already, never, ever.

Adverbs of manner: well, carefully, intentionally, silently, clearly, etc.

Adverbs of degree: thoroughly, very, much, completely, quite, rather, a lot, a little, a great deal, badly, greatly, hardly, barely, scarcely, narrowly, just, almost, mostly, enormously, largely, tremendously, keenly, somewhat, too, so, most, all but.

Among these some are synonymous (much, very), but their combinability is different. Thus much is used to modify verbs, nouns, statives and adjectives, and very is used with adjectives and adverbs in the positive and superlative degrees, whereas with comparatives only much is used:

to travel much

to be much improved

much better

much slower

very much in love

very much alive

very much alike

very much afraid

very nice

very glad

very slow

very quickly

With participles, however, both much and very may be used, often they go together:

much admired, very surprised, very much amused.

Among adverbs of degree there are many the meaning of which has become weakened and which are used as intensifiers, adding emotional colouring to the content of what is said. This group of adverbs is very difficult to define because adverbs of other semantic groups can occasionally function as intensifiers:

awfully painful,

very quiet,

rather calm,

most expensive,

terribly unjust,

faintly uneasy,

really pretty,

positively wonderful,

extremely beautiful,

too frightful,

so nice,

etc.

Syntactic functions and patterns of combinability

§ 242. Adverbs may perform different functions, modifying different types of words, phrases, sentences. Some adverbs are restricted in their combinability whereas others may modify different words, for instance enough, which may be used in to work enough, not quickly enough, quick enough. The most typical function of the adverb is that of adverbial modifier.

The combinability and functions of the adverbs are as follows:

1. Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers of manner, place, time, degree to a finite or non-finite form of the verb:

He spoke aloud; I quite forgot about it; he spoke well.

Some adverbs of time though synonymous, are used in different syntactical patterns. Thus, already is used in affirmative sentences, and yet - in interrogative and negative sentences:

They have already finished.

They haven’t finished yet.

Have they finished yet?

However, already may occur in interrogative and negative sentences when there is an element of surprise or the question is suggestive, that is the speaker expects an affirmative answer.

Have they finished already? (The speaker is surprised at their having already finished.)

In the same way still, meaning “continuously, up to this moment”, is used in affirmative sentences and any more in negative sentences. If any more is used in a question, it implies that the speaker expects a negative answer.

He still works at the library.

He does not work there any more.

Does he take music lessons any more? - No, he doesn’t.

2. Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers to an adjective or another adverb. Usually the modifying adverb is an intensifier:

very, rather, awfully, so, terribly, extremely, most, utterly, unusually, delightfully, unbelievably,

amazingly, strikingly, highly, that, etc.

The same applies to composite adverbs, such as

kind of, sort of, a good bit of, a lot of, a hell of, a great deal of, etc.

She is terribly awkward; they are very happy: Meg is clever enough; you speak so slowly; they settled in a rather quiet street; the boy is unbelievably fat; she was strikingly handsome; we did it sort of proudly; quite definitely, too much, right there, a great deal too much.

Some adverbs - still, yet, far, much, any combine with comparative adjectives: much worse, not any better, still greater, etc.

He could not speak any plainer.

You could do it far more neatly.

She is much wittier than her friend.

Comparative adverbs are used in clauses of proportional agreement, that is, parallel clauses in which qualities or actions denoted in them increase or decrease at an equal rate. (See Syntax § 177)

The longer I think about it the less I understand your reasons.

To express the idea that a quality or action decreases or increases at an even rate the comparative may be repeated, the two identical forms being connected by and:

He ran faster and faster.

3. There are some adverbs which may modify nouns or words of nominal character, functioning as attribute, as in:

the way ahead, the trip abroad, the journey home, his return home, the sentence above (below), my friend

here, the house opposite, the day before, etc.

A few adverbs can premodify nouns without losing their adverbial character:

the then president, in after years, the above sentence, the now generation.

Their combinability with prepositional phrases can be illustrated by the following:

right up to the ceiling.

Positional characteristics

§ 243. As adverbs modify words of different classes, they accordingly occupy different positions in the sentence. In comparison with other words, adverbs may be considered as the most movable words. However, adverbs are not identical in their ability to be moved to another position in the structure. Thus, adverbs of manner and degree are very closely attached to the word they modify and cannot be moved away from it. He sings well – is the only possible arrangement of the three words, unless the change of position is caused by inversion and a general shift of the communicative focus: Only well does he sing (он поет только хорошо). If such an adverb is put in other positions this may result in a change of meaning in which case it is no longer an adverb (it has already been mentioned that adverbs are often defined by position rather than form): well, he sings when nobody is in.

If the predicate is an analytical form adverbs of frequency and indefinite time are usually placed between its parts:

Have you ever seen him?

You are always laughing at me.

Adverbs of degree usually premodify adjectives or verbs:

awfully painful, terribly unjust, really pretty, so nice, to thoroughly understand, etc.

The most mobile are adverbs of time and place, which can occupy several positions without any change in their meaning, as in:

Usually he sings well.

He usually sings well.

He sings well usually.

The initial position of the adverb of manner always makes it emphatic.

Proudly he showed his diploma to his parents.

Carefully he signed his name.

In these sentences, despite the detachment of the adverbial modifier, its connection with the verb is evident (showed proudly, signed carefully).

Note:

Care should be taken not to confuse adverbs of manner and modal words, which may have the same word-form and occur in the same position. The only guide in these cases is punctuation and the relation between the words:

Naturally I wanted him to answer - modal word.

I wanted him to answer naturally - adverb.

They wanted to live naturally - adverb.

They wanted to live, naturally - modal word.

MODAL WORDS

§ 244. Modal words express the speaker’'s attitude to what his utterance denotes. The speaker’s judgement may be of different kinds, that is, the speaker may express various modal meanings.

Modal words are an invariable part of speech. They may refer to a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence. Their syntactical function is that of a parenthesis, they may also be a sentence in themselves, in which case they are used to answer a general question:

Will you help me? Certainly.

Precisely this.

Except this man, of course.

Semantically modal words fall into three groups, denoting:

1. Certainty/doubt (certainly, of course, indeed, surely, decidedly, really, definitely, naturally, no doubt,

etc.).

Certainly, it was astonishing that she should be preoccupied with her schemes for the welfare of

Constance.

Of course, it would have been different if they had married.

In answers the meaning of these words is weakened.

2. Supposition (perhaps, maybe, probably, obviously, possibly, evidently, apparently, etc.).

Manson’s nature was extraordinarily intense. Probably he derived this from his mother.

You have come quickly to a resolution. But perhaps you have been considering this question for a long

time?

Obviously you didn’t read it.

3. Estimate proper (good/bad) – (luckily, fortunately, happily, unfortunately, unluckily, etc.).

Fortunately there were few people at the morning surgery.

Unhappily a terrible storm broke out before the travellers had reached their destination.

THE PREPOSITION

§ 245. A preposition is a function word indicating a relation between two notional words. Its semantic significance becomes evident when different prepositions are used with one and the same word, as in:

to go to the park, to go across the park, to go round the park, to go out of the park, to go through the

park, etc.

A preposition may altogether change the meaning of the verb:

he shot the officer (he aimed at him and hit him),

he shot at the officer (he aimed at him but probably missed).

Although the tradition of differentiating prepositions from other word classes (conjunctions, and in some cases adverbs) is well established, it is not always easy to draw the border-line; nearly all one-word prepositions can also function as adverbs or as conjunctions, their status being determined only syntactically. A few words - after, before, since, for (with the change of meaning), behind - may function not only as adverbs, adverbial postpositions, or conjunctions, but also as prepositions. Compare the following groups of sentences:

They sailed up (postposition).

They sailed up the river (preposition).

Everybody was up at the sound of the bell (adverb).

The milk boiled over (postposition).

He presided over the meeting (preposition).

I can’t tolerate such men as him (preposition).

As he was passing the door he turned back (conjunction).

No one saw him but me (preposition).

But no one saw him (conjunction).

He is stronger than me (preposition).

He is stronger than I am (conjunction).

Morphological composition

§ 246. Most of the common English prepositions are simple in structure:

out, in, for, on, about, but (в значении кроме, исключая), against.

Derived prepositions are formed from other words, mainly participles:

excepting, concerning, considering, following, including, during, depending, granted, past, except.

There are also many compound prepositions:

within, outside, upon, onto, throughout, alongside, wherewith, whereof, whereupon, herein, hereafter, withall.

Composite or phrasal prepositions include a word of another class and one or two prepositions, as in by virtue of, but for, because of, by means of, instead of, in lieu of, prior to, on account of, abreast of, thanks to, with reference to, opposite to, in front of, for the sake of, in view of, in spite of, in preference to, in unison with, for the sake of, except for, due to, in addition to, with regard to, on behalf of, in line with, at variance with.

A composite preposition is indivisible both syntactically and semantically, that is, no element of it can be varied, abbreviated, or extended according to the normal rules of syntax. Thus in the composite preposition for the sake of neither the definite article nor the preposition can be re­placed by words of similar meaning.

Semantic characteristics

§ 247. Semantically prepositions form a varied group of words. Most of them are polysemantic (in, to, for, at, from), their original meaning having become vague, others have retained their full meaning and are accordingly monosemantic (down, over, across, off, till, until, save, near, along, among, despite, during, etc.). This also applies to prepositions borrowed from Latin: versus, via, plus, minus.

Relations expressed by prepositions may be of various types:

1) agentive - the letter was sent by a friend of mine;

2) attributive - a drawing in crayon, the people in question (люди, о которых идет речь);

3) possessive and partial relations - one of my friends, the roof of the house, a glass of brandy, a decline in

waste, a rise in production;

4) relation indicating origin, material, or source - a girl from Brighton, made of gold:

5) objective relation – don’t be angry with me, I'II look into the matter, to work at a book, to speak on the

matter (about the matter, of the matter);

6) relation indicating to whom the action is directed - to show it to him, to give lessons to the children;

7) instrumental relation - to write with a pencil, to cut with a knife;

8) relation of subordination - to be secretary to a Minister;

9) relation defining the sphere or field of activity - the country depends on exports for its food; Tom is good

at football;

10) relation of involvement or association - to cooperate with some­body; coffee with cream, to compare this

with that, to get involved in a discussion;

11) respective relation - he is big for a youngster, I did not know I had a blackguard for a son;

12) relation of resemblance - he is like his father;

13) relation of dissociation and differentiation - to disburden oneself of one’s past; to be devoid of

something, to disentangle oneself from something; to know something from something, to deduce from

something;

14) various adverbial relations:

a) of manner, means, style and language - with diligence, by telegram, in slang, in bad print, in a neat

hand.

in good style, in brief;

b) of purpose or aim - to send for the doctor, he did it for fun, the police were after the criminal;

c) temporal relations. These may be subdivided into those denoting precedence, sequence, duration, etc. -

in good time, at 5 o’clock, before the dawn;

d) of cause or reason - I did it out of fear, through his negligence, I despise you for this;

e) spacial relation, including directional relation - past the gate, by the window, across the river, at the

gate;

f) concessive relation - in spite of the bad weather, despite our protests, for all his attempts, with all her

diligence.

The relations enumerated above to a great degree depend on the meaning of the words connected by prepositions. Sometimes the relation indicated by a preposition is too abstract to be defined in words, as its use is often figurative or metaphorical, as in:

He broke away from them on some vague pretext.

The role of the preposition is difficult to define when it introduces predicatives, when its meaning is

‘in the capasity of’, ‘in the role of’, ‘having the quality of’.

As a friend he was admirable, but one cannot praise him as a husband.

His career as a lawyer was short.

We regard him as a fool.

She went to the ball with her aunt as chaperone.

When a preposition is used figuratively, the concept expressed by the preposition may be so blurred or weak that one preposition may be replaced by another without any essential alteration to the relation between the words. Thus the following words may be used with different prepositions without change of meaning:

aversion from, to

disgust against, at, towards

repugnance against, for, to

along, down, over the centuries

Words of the same root can be used with different prepositions:

to pride oneself on , to be proud of, pride in;

to confide in, confidence in, to be confident of.

Combinability of prepositions

§ 248. As a rule a preposition governs a noun. However it may also be followed by a pronoun, a gerundial phrase or a clause with nominal function, as in:

for advantage, at five o’clock, at taking measures, he was surprised at what he saw.

As prepositions indicate only the relationship between two words their position is clearly defined.

Many prepositions tend to form a phrase called a prepositional phrase, often combining either with the preceding verb or adjective, or with the following noun. Such prepositions cannot be replaced by others.

Phrases comprising verbs with prepositions to laugh at, to call for, to refer to, to look for (at, after) very often function as idioms, making one whole, so that the verb retains the preposition even if its complement is transferred, as in the passive construction:

quick action was called for, the book is often referred to.

With some polysemantic verbs the preposition often indicates its meaning, as in:

to look for

to look at

to look after

to look through

- искать

- смотреть (на)

- присматривать (за)

- просматривать

Some verbs are used with or without a preposition, with but slight difference as to content. Thus no preposition is used in the boy climbed the tree, but it is found in he climbed up the tree.

Similarly a preposition is often so closely connected with the adjective or stative it follows, that it has practically no separate meaning, and may be said to be nothing but a formal means of connecting the word with its complement:

She was afraid of the dog; The country is rich in minerals.

Prepositions with nouns or clauses may modify a preceding noun, as in:

men at work, method of teaching, the novel about which we've been speaking.

Positional characteristics

§ 249. Normally a preposition stands between two words to express the relation between them. However, there are cases when one of the two words with which the preposition combines either takes the initial position or is not used at all. In these cases the preposition is attached to the remaining word. It occurs in:

1) special questions, both direct and indirect:

What are you driving at?

Who shall I send it to?

What train shall I go by?

I asked him who the flowers were for.

However, the preposition may precede the interrogative or relative words. In this case the sentence sounds more formal.

To whom shall I send this?

By what train shall I go?

He did not know to whom he should turn for help.

The preposition precedes the interrogative when the preposition forms a stock phrase with a noun.

In what respect was he suspicious?

To what extent is this true?

In abbreviated sentences and clauses consisting only of a preposition and an interrogative word the preposition normally precedes it.

- But to whom?

In colloquial style the preposition is at the end.

- Who by ?

- “Apologize?” she said. “What about?

2) some clauses beginning with conjunctive and relative pronouns and in subordinate contact clauses:

What I am thinking of is how he got there.

The man I told you about is my relative.

The girl he is in love with studies at the University.

It is his talents he relies on.

In formal style however, the preposition precedes the connective:

The man about whom I told you is a relative of mine.

3) exclamatory sentences:

What a nice place to live in!

4) passive constructions:

The doctor was immediately sent for.

How strange it is to be talked to in this way.

5) some syntactical patterns with the infinitive or gerund:

He is difficult to deal with.

It is not worth worrying abont.

This is not a suitable house to live in.

Note:

If two or more prepositions refer to one word, the second (third) preposition may be used absolutely:

Holly thought of the lashes above and below Val’s eyes, especially below.

His wife was attached to, and dependent on, him.

THE CONJUNCTION

A conjunction is a function word indicating the connection between two notional words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.

Morphological composition

§ 250. According to their morphological structure conjunctions fall into the following types:

1. Simple conjunctions:

and, or, but, till, after, that, so, where, when.

2. Derived conjunctions;

until, unless, seeing, supposing, provided.

3. Compound conjunctions:

whereas, wherever.

4. Composite conjunctions:

as well as, in case, for fear, on condition that, on the ground that, as long as, etc.

Several conjunctions form correlative pairs, though strictly speaking the first element is not a conjunction:

both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor, not only ... but (also), whether ...or.

Semantic characteristics

§ 251. Unlike prepositions, most conjunctions usually retain their specific meaning,

No one was pleased when he came.

No one would be pleased if he came.

No one was pleased because he came.

No one was pleased though he came.

Exceptions are those conjunctions which may be used in more than one function (that, if, whether, as). Of these the conjunction that possesses the most vague semantic content.

According to their meaning (or rather the semantic relation they express) all conjunctions fall into two types: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

Coordinating conjunctions express copulative, disjunctive, adversative and causative-consecutive connections. These four main types of coordinative connection allow of different shades of meaning,* depending on the context. Thus copulative conjunctions (and, nor, as well as, both ... and) denote not only simple addition, but sometimes express opposition, explanation, consequence. Nor expresses copulative connection and negative meaning at the same time, it very often correlates with negation in the preceding clause.

* See also the paragraph on conjuncts which are more specialized connectors, expressing a more specific connection.

He didn't doubt it for a moment, nor had he any fears about the possible turn of the events.

Note 1:

The coordinating conjunction and may be used in a somewhat different function if it joins the same nouns;

the effect may be to suggest that different types of persons or objects should be distinguished:

There are teachers and teachers. (There are good and bad teachers.)

If the noun is repeated more than once, the effect is to suggest a large number:

There were faces and faces and faces all around him.

The repetition of verbs produces an effect of continuous action or of increase in degree:

He talked and talked and talked.

Note 2:

If the pronouns you and I , or their case forms are joined by the conjunction and, conventions of politeness require that you should always come first:

you and I; you or me; you and they; you and them.

The disjunctive conjunctions or, otherwise denote a choice between two alternatives.

I’ll call on you on Saturday or on Sunday.

Did it matter where he went, what he did, or when he did it?

The adversative conjunctions but, not that denote contrast or contradiction.

He was tall but did not look it because of his broad shoulders.

They were silent, but there was no resentment on their faces.

There is only one causal conjunction for, which denotes reason or cause, and one resultative conjunction so.

He was never in the know of things, for nobody told him anything.

It was Saturday, so they were back from school early.

Combinability of conjunctions and their functions

§ 252. Coordinating conjunctions connect homogeneous parts of a simple sentence (words, phrases), clauses of equal rank in a composite sentence or independent sentences. Some of them can only join coordinated clauses (so, for), others only homogeneous parts of simple sentences (both ... and), others are used to join both clauses and homogeneous parts of the sentence (and, but, or, either ... or, nor, not only ... but also, etc.).

Coordinating conjunctions always stand between the elements they join. The most common coordinating conjunction is and:

Slowly and painfully he worked through the first volume.

He spoke for the first motion and against the second motion.

She moved quickly and with grace.

I approached the girl who stood in the corner and who looked so shy.

Subordinating conjunctions join subordinate clauses to main clauses, although some of them may join a word or a phrase within a simple sentence. They are positionally less fixed than coordinating conjunctions and need not necessarily be between the elements they join, but may precede both the subordinate and the main clauses.

Conjunctions which usually join subject, predicative, object attributive and appositive clauses (that, whether, if) are very vague in their meaning and may therefore be used to join clauses of different syntactic value. Other conjunctions retain their lexical meaning.

That the man didn’t call the police surprised nobody.

Somehow I felt that his feelings had changed.

Conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses are conjunctions of place:

where, wherever, whence, wherein.

Wherever he turned, he saw flowers.

time:

as, as soon as, as long as, when, whenever, while, now that, since, till, until, after, before, while, the

moment, the time, the instant, directly, instantly, etc.

When I leave town I never tell my people about it.

What happened after I left you?

I wouldn’t worry as long as I am not bothered.

She was feeling very cheerful as they walked from the station.

reason or cause:

as, because, since, seeing, so ... that, lest, considering.

His work was of vital importance to him, since all his life was devoted to it.

One day, because the days were so short, he decided to give up algebra and geometry.

As she had never heard of such stories, she was puzzled at first.

condition:

if, unless, in case, provided, supposing (that), suppose (that), on condition (that).

If you tell this to anybody I’ll never forgive you.

Tom simply could not work unless all the conditions were to his liking.

Vagabonds may get a bed there for a week, provided their papers are in order.

purpose:

lest, that, in order that, so that, for fear that, so as, so.

They made me hide so that the soldier should not see me.

He wanted to be great in the world's eyes in order that the woman he loved should be proud of him.

He rose gently to his feet lest he should disturb her.

consequence:

that, so that.

The box was so heavy that I could not lift it.

manner and comparison:

as, the way, as ... as, not so ... as, than, as if, as though.

And do you know why she carries herself the way she does?

As quickly as he could he set forth.

He told him this as though his discovery was his own fault.

concession:

though, although, as, that, even if, whether .. . or.

Though they were so poor, Christine and Andrew knew happiness.

Most subordinating conjunctions introduce more than one kind of clause. For instance that may introduce subject clauses, predicative clauses, object clauses, appositive clauses, adverbial clauses of purpose and consequence. The conjunction if may introduce subject, object, predicative, appositive, and conditional clauses. The conjunction whether can introduce subject, predicative, object and appositive clauses and can also express a disjunctive coordinating connection when used with or. The conjunction as may introduce adverbial clauses of time, cause, concession and comparison. The conjunctions as though, as if may introduce predicative and adverbial clauses of comparison.

The subordinating conjunction that is very often omitted:

He said that John would come soon.

He said John would come soon.

He said that John would come soon and that he would take them by car.

He said that John would come soon and he would take them by car.

Of all subordinating conjunctions only if, though, while and when may be used to link single words and phrases:

a pleasant if talkative child; a cosy, though somewhat dark room; a simple, though profound idea; he did it willingly, if sceptically; she moved quickly, though awkwardly; when at home, he never spoke about business.

Two conjunctions may be used alongside each other in two cases:

1) if each of them introduces a separate clause, and one of the clauses is inserted into the other:

She knew that unless her calculations were all at fault he was not going to go.

2) if both conjunctions are combined to express a complex relation.

The butler took his time far more casually, far more naturally, than if Dicky had offered to shake hands

with him.

His father was a vigorous out-of-door man, who was never happier than when he had a gun or a rod in his

hands.

THE CONJUNCTS

§ 253. Alongside conjunctions there is a numerous group of conjuncts. They are words or phrases which like conjunctions are used to link clauses, sentences and sometimes single words. Conjuncts are mainly derived from adverbs:

further, moreover, again, besides, however, now, next, then, yet, still, though*, nevertheless, notwithstanding, otherwise, else, therefore, thus, accordingly.

* Though as conjunct differs from the conjunction though: it in characterized by its non-fixed position and by its combinability with other conjunctions (but though).

Three of them originated from particles: also, too, only; others are phrases: on the contrary, at the same time, for all that, etc. Many of conjuncts, unlike conjunctions, are less fixed as to their position and often occur in the middle of the sentence as a parenthesis.

Conjuncts express more specific relations than conjunctions. Those expressing a copulative connection may be divided into several subgroups.

1. Enumerative:

first, second, etc., firstly, secondly, etc., next, then, last, lastly, finally, in the first place, in the second

place, etc.

First he bought a reading lamp, then pens and books.

2. Additive. Most of these suggest a reinforcement of what has already been said before:

again, also, further, furthermore, more, moreover, above all, etc.

Her husband was told that he was too old to work. More, he was discharged with no pension.

3. Equative, suggesting similarity in characterization or content:

equally, likewise, too, also, similarly, in the same way.

The boy was forbidden to go out. Younger children likewise stayed at home.

4. Summative:

then, thus, all in all, to sum up, then, etc.

5. Explanatory:

namely, in other words, for example (e.g.), for instance, that is (i.e.), viz., to wit, say.

6. Reformulatory:

rather, better, in other words.

7. Transitional, denoting temporal transition or indicating a continuation of the narration:

meantime, meanwhile, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, now, by the way, by the by.

There is such a comic dignity about cats... Now there is nothing haughty about a dog.

Conjuncts do not express disjunctive connection.

Adversative conjuncts may be divided into the following subgroups:

1. Concessive:

however, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, though, yet, in any case, at any rate, for

all that, at the same time, all the same.

Her voice still gave charm to her most commonplace remarks, yet it was different from the voice he

remembered.

Such an answer would have satisfied any one; it had no effect at all, though, on this shameless creature.

He was received with respect. Nevertheless he felt awkward.

2. Antithetic:

instead, oppositely, on the contrary, on the one hand... on the other hand, etc.

He could ask anyone about the house, instead he sulkily went from one house to the other.

3. Inferential:

else, otherwise, in that case, etc.

The man evidently suspected something, else he wouldn't have asked me all these questions.

Consecutive conjuncts are not divided into subgroups. They form one indivisible group:

accordingly, consequently, hence, therefore, then, thus, as a result.

She liked to be alone, hence she hated Sundays when everybody was at home.

Conjuncts often combine with conjunctions:

and so, but then, but though, or else, or again, and besides, and still, and yet, but still, but yet, and

nevertheless, but nevertheless, because otherwise, etc.

THE PARTICLE

§ 254. The particle is a part of speech the meaning of which is difficult to define. It either emphasizes or limits the meaning of another word, or phrase, or clause. Particles are invariable and have no syntactical function in the sentence. They form a whole with the part of the sentence (a word or a phrase) they refer to.

Particles may combine with any part of speech.

Don’t worry – that’s just Aunt Fanny practising her balancing act.

- John is very proud of his daughter. - I should just think so.

Isn’t that just beautiful?

She lives just round the corner.

I said just what I thought.

Just as we thought the sun would sink, it grew still redder.

Particles generally stand before the word they refer to but they may also follow it. This book is for advanced students only.

According to their meaning particles fall into six groups.

1. Intensifying particles:

just, even, yet, still, all, simply.

They emphasize the meaning of the word (or phrase, or clause) they refer to or give special prominence to the notion expressed by it.

The skirt comes just below my knees.

They even offered him higher wages.

Maggie felt all the safer for that.

These days we’re working with still greater efficiency.

We had yet another discussion.

The particles all, still, yet, mostly intensify the comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs.

Play yet more softly.

2. Limiting particles:

only, merely, solely, but, alone.

They single out the word or phrase they refer to or limit the idea (notion) expressed by them.

I only wanted to ask you the time.

Man cannot live on bread alone.

Time alone will show who was right.

She is still but a child, she wants to play.

Mr. Green merely hinted at the possibility.

Just, merely, simply can be used at the beginning of imperative sentences.

You don’t have to be present. Just (merely, simply) send a letter of explanation.

3. Specifying particles:

right, exactly, precisely, just.

They make the meaning of the word or phrase they refer to more precise.

Draw a circle right in the middle of the map (точно, прямо по середине).

We were just about to start (как раз собирались ...).

They arrived precisely at ten (ровно, точно в десять).

The room looks exactly as it did when I was here last year (точно так, как).

What exactly do you mean (что именно ...)?

4. The additive particle else. It combines only with indefinite, interrogative and negative pronouns and interrogative adverbs. It shows that the word it refers to denotes something additional to what has already been mentioned:

Something else, nobody else, what else, where else.

5. The negative particle not.

Not a word was said about it.

Not saying anything was a bad idea.

Not everyone likes this book.

Do you want to go? - Not me!

6. Connecting particles: also, too, which may function as conjuncts (see § 253 on conjuncts).

Were you at the film? - I was also there.

I went there too.

Won’t you come too?

Traditionally particles were classed with adverbs with which some are homonymous:

just, simply, yet, still, exactly, precisely, right, too, barely, etc.

She is old too (particle).

She is too old (adverb).

He’s just the man I’m looking for (particle).

He has just arrived (adverb).

Other particles are homonymous with

adjectives (only, even),

conjunctions (but),

pronouns (all),

statives (alone).

Only a doctor can do that (particle).

She is the only person for the job (adjective).

THE INTERJECTION

§ 255. The interjection is a part of speech which expresses emotions, without naming them. They are invariable, whereas the emotions expressed by the interjections vary.

Interjections express different kinds of feelings, such as:

joy (hurray, hurrah),

grief, sorrow (alas, dear me, dear, oh),

approval (bravo; hear, hear),

contempt (pooh, gosh, bosh, pah, bah, fie),

triumph (aha),

impatience (bother),

anger (damn),

surprise or annoyance (Goodness gracious, My God).

Some interjections are used merely to attract attention (hallo, hi, hey, here).

Hallo! What’s happening now?

Hey! Is anybody here?

Oh dear! I’ve lost my pen.

Mr. Smith is ill again. “Dear me! I’m sorry to hear that.”

Bother! I’ve missed my train!

For goodness’ sake, stop misbehaving!

The meaning of other interjections is very vague, they express emotion in general and the specific meaning depends either on the context, or the situation, or the tone with which they are pronounced. Thus Oh may express surprise, joy, disappointment, anger, etc.

Oh! Really? (surprise)

Oh! How glad I am to see you. (joy)

Oh! I’m sorry! (disappointment)

Oh! Don’t be a stupid ass. (anger)

As a rule they do not make part of a phrase, but there are some cases when interjections may be connected with a preposition plus a noun (pronoun) phrase.

We’ve done it. Hurray for us!

Alas for my hopes!

Note:

In these combinations the interjections acquire some verbal character.

Syntax

INTRODUCTION

Syntax is the part of grammar which deals with sentences and combinability of words. The core of syntax is the study of the sentence. Syntax embraces on the one hand the structure of the sentence, that is, its components, their structure and the relations between these components, and on the other hand structural and communicative types of sentences.

THE SENTENCE

§ 1. Anything that is said in the act of communication is called an utterance. Most utterances are sentences, although there are some which are not sentences and are called non-sentence utterances. Thus utterances fall into two groups: sentences and non-sentence utterances.

Sentences may be regarded from the point of view of their structure and their communicative value.

Structural classification of sentences

§ 2. From the point of view of their structure, sentences can be:

1. Simple or composite (compound and complex).

2. Complete or incomplete (elliptical).

3. Two-member (double-nucleus) or one-member (single-nucleus).

These three classifications are based on different approaches to the structural organisation of sentences and reflect its different aspects.

The difference between the simple sentence and the composite sentence lies in the fact that the former contains only one subject-predicate unit and the latter more than one. Subject-predicate units that form composite sentences are called clauses.

Honesty is the best policy. (one subject-predicate unit)

Still waters run deep. (one subject-predicate unit)

You can take a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink, (two subject-predicate units, or two

clauses)

You never know what you can do till you try. (three subject-predicate units, or three clauses)

The difference between the compound and complex sentence lies in the relations between the clauses that constitute them (see § 137, 138, 144).

Complete and incomplete (or elliptical) sentences are distinguished by the presence or absence of word-forms in the principal positions of two-member sentences.

In a complete sentence both the principal positions are filled with word-forms.

When did you arrive?

I came straight here.

In an incomplete (elliptical) sentence one or both of the main posi­tions are not filled, but can be easily supplied as it is clear from the context what is missing.

Cheerful, aren’t you?

Ready?

Could’ve been professional.

Wrong again.

Elliptical sentences are typical of conversational English. One-member and two-member sentences are distinguished by the num­ber of principal parts (positions) they contain: two-member sentences have two main parts - the subject and the predicate, while one-member sen­tences have only one principal part, which is neither the subject nor the predicate.

Two-member sentences:

The magpie flew off.

We are going to my house now.

One-member sentences:

An old park.

Mid-summer.

Low tide, dusty water.

To live alone in this abandoned house!

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

Two-member sentences

§ 3. The basic pattern of a simple sentence in English is one subject-predicate unit, that is, it has two main (principal) positions: those of the subject and of the predicate. It is the pattern of a two-member sentence. There are several variations of this basic pattern, depending mainly on the kind of verb occupying the predicate position. The verb in the predicate position may be intransitive, transitive, ditransitive or a link verb.

Here are the main variants of the fundamental (basic) pattern:

1. John ran.

2. John is a student.

3. John is clever.

4. John learned French.

5. John gives Mary his books.


6. John lives

in London.

there

7. We found John guilty.

8. We found John a bore.

The basic pattern may be unextended or extended.

An unextended sentence contains two main positions of the basic pattern, that of the subject and tlie predicate.

Mary laughed.

Mary is a doctor.

Mary is happy.

An extended sentence may contain various optional elements (including attributes, certain kinds of prepositional objects and adverbial modifiers).

John ran quickly to me.

My friend John is a very kind student.

Mary laughed heartily at the joke.

Obligatory extending elements are those which complete the meaning of other words, usually verbs, or pronouns, which without them make no or little sense. Therefore obligatory elements are called complements.

John learned French. (the meaning of “learned” is incomplete without the object “French”)

John gives Mary his books. (the meaning of “gives Mary” conveys different meaning without the object

“his books”)

John lives in London, (the meaning of “lives” is incomplete without an adverbial of place)

One-member sentences

§ 4. One-member sentences in English are of two types: nominal sentences and verbal sentences.

Nominal sentences are those in which the principal part is expressed by a noun. They state the existence of the things expressed by them. They are typical of descriptions.

Nominal sentences may be:

a) unextended.

Silence. Summer. Midnight.

b) e x t e n d e d.

Dusk - of a summer night.

The grass, this good, soft, lush grass.

English spring flowers!

Verbal sentences are those in which the principal part is expressed by a non-finite form of the verb, either an infinitive or a gerund. Infinitive and gerundial one-member sentences are mostly used to describe different emotional perceptions of reality.

To think of that!

To think that he should have met her again in this way!

Living at the mercy of a woman!

Elliptical (incomplete) sentences

§ 5. A two-member sentence may be either complete or incomplete (elliptical). An elliptical sentence is a sentence in which one or more word-forms in the principal positions are omitted. Ellipsis here refers only to the structural elements of the sentence, not the informational ones. This means that those words can be omitted, because they have only grammatical, structural relevance, and do not carry any new relevant information.

In English elliptical sentences are only those having no word-forms in the subject and predicate positions, i. e., in the positions which constitute the structural core of the sentence.

There are several types of elliptical sentences.

1. Sentences without a word-form in the subject position.

Looks like rain.

Seems difficult.

Don’t know anything about it.

2. Sentences without word-forms in the subject position and part of the predicate position. In such cases the omitted part of the predicate may be either a) an auxiliary verb or b) a link verb.

a) Going home soon?

See what I mean?

Heard nothing about him lately.

b) Not bad.

Free this evening?

Nice of you to come.

Susan’s father?

3. Sentences without a word-form only in part of the predicate position, which may be an auxiliary or a link verb.

You seen them?

Everything fixed?

You sure?

All settled.

4. Sentences without word-forms both in the subject and the predicate position. Such ellipses occur in various responses.

What time does Dave come for lunch? - One o’clock.

What were you thinking about? - You.

What do you want of us? Miracles?

Where’re you going? - Home.

5. Sentences without a word-form in the predicate position. Such ellipses occur only in replies to questions.

Who lives there? - Jack.

What’s happened? - Nothing.

The Structural Types of Sentence

Sentence


Simple

Composite

One-member

Two-member

Complex

Compound

Complete

Incomplete

Complete

Incomplete

COMMUNICATIVE TYPES OF SENTENCES

§ 6. The sentence is a minimal unit of communication. From the viewpoint of their role in the process of communication sentences are divided into four types, grammatically marked: declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory sentences. These types differ in the aim of communication and express statements, questions, commands and exclamations respectively.

Dickens was born in 1812.

When shall I see you again?

Do you know Italian?

Come up and sit down.

What a quiet evening!

These types are usually applied to simple sentences. In a complex sentence the communicative type depends upon that of the main clause, as in:

I waited till the light turned to green. (statement)

Do you always wait till the light turns to green? (question)

Wait till the light turns to green. (command)

How thoughtless of you not to have waited till the light turned to green! (exclamation)

In a compound sentence, coordinate clauses may as well belong to different communicative types.

Look out, or you may meet with an accident. (command-statement)

I obeyed, for what else could I do? (statement-question)

Declarative sentences

§ 7. A declarative sentence contains a statement which gives the reader or the listener some information about various events, activities or attitudes, thoughts and feelings. Statements form the bulk of monological speech, and the greater part of conversation. A statement may be positive (affirmative) or negative, as in:

I have just come back from a business trip.

I haven’t seen my sister yet.

Grammatically, statements are characterized by the subject-predicate structure with the direct order of words. They are mostly two-member sentences, although they may be one-member sentences, as in:

Very early morning.

No curtain. No painting.

Statements usually have a falling tone; they are marked by a pause in speaking and by a full stop in writing.

In conversation, statements are often structurally incomplete, especially when they serve as a response to a question asking for some information, and the response conveys the most important idea.

Where are you going? - To the library.

Thanks to their structure and lexical content, declarative sentences are communicatively polyfunctional. Thus, besides their main function as information-carriers, statements may be used with the force of questions, commands and exclamations, as in:

I wonder why he is so late.

You mustn’t talk back to your parents.

Interrogative sentences

§ 8. Interrogative sentences contain questions. Their communicative function consists in asking for information. They belong to the sphere of conversation and only occasionally occur in monological speech.

All varieties of questions may be structurally reduced to two main types, general questions (also called “yes-no” questions) and pronominal questions (otherwise called “special” or “wh” - questions). Both are graphically identified by a question mark. The two main types have a number of structural and communicative modifications.

General questions

§ 9. In general questions the speaker is interested to know whether some event or phenomenon asked about exists or does not exist; accordingly the answer may be positive or negative, thus containing or implying “yes” or “no”.

A general question opens with a verb operator, that is, an auxiliary, modal, or link verb followed by the subject. Such questions are characterized by the rising tone.

Does your sister go figure-skating?

Is that girl a friend of yours?

Can you speak French?

“Yes-no” questions may be incomplete and reduced to two words only: Can you? Does he?

A negative "yes-no" question usually adds some emotional colouring of surprise or disappointment.

Haven’t you posted the letter yet? (Why?)

General questions opening with will/would may be considered as commands and requests according to their communicative role (see § 17).

Owing to their occasional emotional colouring, “yes-no” questions may function as exclamations (see § 22).

Tag questions

§ 10. A tag question is a short “yes-no” question added to a statement. It consists only of an operator prompted by the predicate verb of the statement and a pronoun prompted by the subject. Generally the tag has a rising tone.

You know French, don’t you? - Yes, a bit.

George is a football fan, isn’t he? - He certainly is.

A tag question is added to a statement for confirmation and therefore is sometimes called aconfirmative question. It corresponds to such Russian tag questions as He так ли? Не правда ли? Ведь так? The speaker expects the listener to share his view of some situation rather than to give him some new information. The most usual patterns of sentences with tag questions are as follows.

Positive statement - negative tag - positive answer

You knew that before, didn’t you? - Yes, I did.

Negative statement - positive tag - negative answer

You didn’t know that before, did you? - No, I didn’t.

The answer, however, may be unexpected, as in: You didn’t know that before, did you ? - But I did.

The falling tone of the tag is also possible. It makes the whole sentence sound like a statement. The speaker actually knows the answer and can do without it.

There is one more sentence pattern with a tag question which is less frequently used.

Positive statement - positive tag

You knew about it before, did you?

Negative statement - negative tag

You didn’t know about it before, didn’t you?

This sentence pattern is used when the speaker comes to a conclusion concerning some event. Such sentences may begin with the conjunction so.

So you knew about it before, did you?

A sentence pattern with a tag question may serve as a response to the previous remark. Thus it forms a comment having some emotional attitude, such as surprise, anger, sarcasm.

They even put the car on the ship for you.

- They do, do they? Who takes it off again?

He brought these flowers, too. - He did, did he? - Yes.

Alternative questions

§ 11. An alternative question implies a choice between two or more alternative answers. Like a “yes-no” question, it opens with an operator, but the suggestion of choice expressed by the disjunctive conjunction or makes the “yes-no” answer impossible. The conjunction or links either two homogeneous parts of the sentence or two coordinate clauses. The part of the question before the conjunction is characterized by a rising tone, the part after the conjunction has a falling tone.

Will you go to the opera or to the concert to-night?

An alternative question may sometimes resemble a pronominal question beginning with a question word:

Which do you prefer, tea or coffee?

Where shall we go, to the cinema or to the football match?

Actually such structures fall into two parts, the first forms a pronominal question, the second a condensed alternative question.

Would you prefer tea or coffee?

Shall we go to the cinema or to the football match?

Sometimes the alternative contains only a negation:

Will they ever stop arguing or not?

Suggestive questions

§ 12. Suggestive questions, also called declarative questions, form a peculiar kind of "yes-no" questions. They keep the word order of statements but serve as questions owing to the rising tone in speaking and a question mark in writing, as in:

You really want to go now, to-night?

- Yes, nothing could make me stay.

By their communicative function suggestive questions resemble sentences with tag questions; they are asked for the sake of confirmation. The speaker is all but sure what the answer will be (positive or negative), and by asking the question expects confirmation on the part of the ad­dressee.

You are familiar with the town?

- I spent winter here many years ago.

You still don’t believe me, Aunt Nora?

- No, I don't.

The answer is sometimes unexpected.

A child like you talking of “we women”! What next? You’re not in earnest?

- Yes, I am.

Unlike ordinary “yes-no” questions, suggestive questions may con­tain independent elements, such as interjections, modal words or phrases, the conjunction so, parenthetical clauses, etc., as in:

You are joking, eh?

Surely you are not offended?

So you knew about, it before?

Suggestive questions are frequently used as question responses with various kinds of emotional colouring, most often that of surprise or incredulity.

He said you were a very good ski-teacher.

- He said that?

You sound surprised.

Because of their main communicative function, suggestive questions are very useful as leading questions to get exact information, as seen in the following passage:

You mean to say he at no time asked you the actual purpose of your visit?

- Not at that interview.

- And it did not occur to you to force this information on him ?

- Indeed it did...

Pronominal questions

§13. Pronominal questions open with an interrogative pronoun or a pronominal adverb, the function of which is to get more detailed and exact information about some event or phenomenon known to the speaker and listener.

The interrogative pronouns and adverbs which function as question words are as follows: what, which, who, whom, whose, where, when, why, how and the archaic whence (= where from), whither (= where, where to), wherefore (= what for, why).

Adverbial phrases such as how long, how often may also function as question words.

Question words may have various syntactical functions in the sentence, depending upon the information the speaker wants to obtain:

1. Who came first? (subject) - I did.

2. What makes you think so? (subject) - Your behaviour.

3. Whose team has won the match? (attribute) - Ours.

4. Which story did you like best? (attribute) - The last.

5. Who is that man? (predicative) - He is my brother.

6. What are you doing there? (object) - Nothing.

7. When are you going to come back? (adverbial of time) - Tomorrow.

8. How can I get to your place? (adverbial of manner) - By bus.

As can be seen from the above examples, word order in a pronominal question is characterized by inversion of the operator and the subject. Inversion does not take place when the question word is the subject or an attribute to the subject (see examples 1, 2, 3).

A question word may be preceded by a preposition.

On what resolution do you insist?

In colloquial English it is preferable to shift the preposition to the end of the question.

What are you laughing at?

What did you argue about?

In colloquial English the pronoun who is used as a question word functioning either as subject or object.

Who has done it?

Who do you see there?

The tone of pronominal questions is usually a falling one.

§ 14. Pronominal questions are often used as short responses. They usually consist of (a) a question word or (b) a question word followed by a preposition.

a) I’m leaving for home. - When?

George won’t come to-night. - Why?

Let’s meet again. - Where?

I think I can help you. - How?

b) I want to talk with you. - What about?

Come again. - What for?

Open the tin. - What with?

The patterns (a) and (b) are employed when some information is missing and the listener asks for the necessary information. The tone is falling.

§ 15. Question words preceded by prepositions are usually employed as echo questions. No information is missing in the previous remark, the whole idea is questioned. The tone is rising and the question word is heavily stressed. They express surprise, incredulity and sometimes incomprehension.

Let’s talk about life on Saturn. - About what?

I opened the door with a pin. - With what?

You are a shameless liar, - I am a what?

Our neighbour was born in 1973. - She was born when?

The whole of the question may be reduced to the question word, with the article repeated if necessary.

- Your husband was telling us all about the chromosomes.

- The what?

- The chromosomes, the genes... or whatever they are.

- The Boss wants to see you.

- The who?

The whole of the pronominal question may be re-addressed to gain time for the answer. The re-addressed question takes a rising tone.

When are you going to see me? - When am I going to see you? -Yes, when? - On Sunday, if it suits you.

Rhetorical questions

§ 16. Both general and pronominal questions may serve as rhetorical questions. A rhetorical question contains a statement disguised as a question. Usually it is a positive question hiding a negative statement. No answer is expected.

Can any one say what truth is? (No one can say what it is.)

Do we always act as we ought to? (We do not always act as we ought to.)

What else could I do? (I could do nothing.)

Who would have thought to meet you here? (Nobody would.)

In their form and intonation rhetorical questions do not differ from standard question types. The difference lies in their communicative aim. A rhetorical question does not ask for any new information. It implies a statement and is always emotionally coloured. Besides, it is employed to attract the listener's attention. Since rhetorical questions do not require an answer, they are not followed by a response. The speaker may give an answer himself to clarify his idea. Rhetorical questions are employed in monological speech, especially in oratory, and poetry in the writer’s digressions.

To me what is wealth? - it may pass in an hour.

If tyrants prevail, or if Fortune should frown:

To me what is title? - the phantom of power;

To me what is fashion ? - I seek but renown. (Byron)

And what, after all, can it be other than modesty that makes him [Roy Kear] even now write to the reviewers of his books, thanking them for their praise and ask them for luncheon? (Maugham)

Rhetorical questions occur in colloquial English too, as in this fragment of dialogue:

Will you give me a picture of yours? - What for?... I’m not Marilyn Monroe or Jane Mansfield.

Imperative sentences

§ 17. Imperative sentences express commands which convey the desire of the speaker to make someone, generally the listener, perform an action. Besides commands proper, imperative sentences may express prohibition, a request, an invitation, a warning, persuasion, etc., depending on the situation, context, wording, or intonation.

Stand up! Sit down. Open your textbooks.

Be quick!

Formally commands are marked by the predicate verb in the imperative mood (positive or negative), the reference to the second person, lack of subject, and the use of the auxiliary do in negative or emphatic sentences with the verb to be.

Commands are generally characterized by the falling tone, although the rising tone may be used to make a command less abrupt. In writing commands are marked by a full stop or an exclamation mark.

A negative command usually expresses prohibition, warning or persuasion.

Don’t cross the street before the light turns to green.

Don’t allow children to play with matches.

Don’t worry.

Commands can be softened and made into requests with the help of the word please, the rising tone, a tag question or a “yes-no” question beginning with will or would.

Speak louder, please.

Repeat the last word, will you?

Would you do me a favour?

The falling tone and an exclamation mark at the end of a sentence opening with will express irritation and impatience, as in:

Will you stop arguing!

Will you be quiet!

§ 18. Though in the vast majority of commands the subject is only implied, the subject expressed by the pronoun you occurs when it is necessary (a) to specify the subject, sometimes for the sake of contrast; (b) to convey the speaker’s personal attitude to the event presented in the sentence (for example, irritation, anger, threat, impatience); (c) to soothe somebody. The subject in these cases is heavily stressed.

a) You come first, and I’ll wait a little.

You come first, and he will have to wait.

b) You say it again, and I’ll turn you out of here!

Just you wait, Mr Higgins.

c) You be a good girl, and don’t worry.

Note the initial position of the operator in negative commands with a subject.

Don’t you interrupt me.

§ 19. In the case of first person plural and third person singular and plural subjects, the imperative let is followed by a personal pronoun in the objective case.

Let him try again.

Let them come in.

Let us have some tea.

A first-person command often implies invitation or suggestion and may be followed by the tag shall we.

Lets do it together, shall we ?

There are two negative constructions with let for the first person.

Let’s not quarrel about trifles.

Don’t let’s quarrel about trifles.

A third-person command admits of only one negative construction:

Don't let him interfere in our affairs.

A third-person command may begin with a noun or a pronoun denoting the person addressed.

Somebody switch off the light.

Mary and John fetch dictionaries.

Here the corresponding negative is:

Don’t anybody switch off the light!

§ 20. The imperative of some verbs may acquire interjectional force. Thus the forms listen, look (here), see (here) (Am.) - are used to attract attention.

Look here, let’s pull ourselves together, shall we?

Come (often doubled) may express encouragement or blame.

Come, come, don’t be so foolish. There’s nothing to worry about. (Ну, что ты, ну, полно.)

Come, come, you can’t expect me to believe you. (Ну нет уж.)

Hear! hear! expresses approval of somebody’s words at a meeting, etc. (Правильно, правильно.)

Verbless Commands

§ 21. Commands are sometimes expressed without an imperative verb, as in:

Silence!

Water, please.

To the right!

Off with you!

Gently, darling.

Careful, please.

No smoking!

Hush!

Exclamatory sentences

§ 22. The main distinctive feature of this communicative type of sentence is a specific intonation; structurally it is variable.

You do look a picture of health! (statement)

Hurry up! (command)

The most common pattern of an exclamatory sentence opens with one of the pronominal words what and how. What refers to a noun, how to an adjective or an adverb. An exclamatory sentence has a subject-predicate structure; the order of the subject and the predicate verb (or the operator) is not inverted. An exclamation has a falling tone in speaking and an exclamation mark in writing.

What a funny story she told us!

What valuable advice you’ve given us!

How beautiful her voice is!

How beautifully she sings!

Exclamatory sentences can be reduced to the word or phrase immediately following the exclamatory signals what or how.

What a situation!

What a terrible noise!

How kind of you to let me in!

Besides these patterns an exclamation as a communicative sentence type often follows the pattern of other sentence types. Thus it may be formed on the pattern of the following structures:

1. Statements:

You do look a picture of health!

2. Commands:

Hurry up!

3. Questions. These are “yes-no” questions functioning as exclamations owing to the falling tone in speaking and an exclamation mark in writing. The most common pattern has a negative question form with the operator heavily stressed.

Isn’t it funny! (How funny it is!)

Wasn’t it a funny story! (What a funny story it was!)

Doesn’t she sing beautifully! (How beautifully she sings!)

A positive “yes-no” question has not only the falling tone but also stress on both the operator and the subject.

He said he had to talk. Did he surprise me! (How he surprised me!) Am I fired! (I am very tired)

4. Pseudo-subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunctions if and that.

If only I were young again!

That this should be the result!

5. One-member sentences conveying signals of alarm such as Fire! Bandits! and highly emotional infinitive or nominal one-member sentences followed by a clause.

To think that she should have said so!

The idea that they should have behaved like this!

NON-SENTENCE UTTERANCES

§ 23. There are utterances which do not constitute sentences (non-sentence utterances). They are:

1. Vocatives.

Charles?

Mr West!

2. “Yes-no” utterances. These are mostly responses to “yes-no” questions.

Are you coming? - Yes/No.

3. Interjections.

Hi! (Hey!) Oh!

Dear me! - Боже мой!

Look here! - Послушай!

Well, I never! - Вот те на! Вот так так! Ну и ну!

Goodness gracious! - Боже мой! Господи! Вот те на!

4. Different conversational formulas.

Thanks.

Good-bye.

Bye-bye.

NEGATION

§ 24. Both structural and communicative types of sentences fall into affirmative sentences and negative sentences. A sentence is made negative by the particle not which is the most widely used negator. It is put immediately after the auxiliary or modal verb. The negator not has two forms: uncontracted and contracted. The former occurs mainly in formal English; the latter is usual in informal (conversational) English. There are two possible forms of negation contraction: one is when the operator is contracted and the negator uncontracted, and the other is when the negator is contracted but the operator is used in its full form.

Positive

Negative

Uncontracted

Contracted

They’ve come.

They have not come.

They’ve not come.

They haven’t come.

Tom is arriving tomorrow.

Tom is not arriving tomorrow.

Tom isn’t arriving tomorrow.

Tom’s not arriving tomorrow. (The 1st form is more common.)

You ought to have come.

You ought not to have come at all.

You oughtn’t to have come at all.

Note that the contracted negative forms of can and will are can’t and won’t and the uncontracted negative of can is cannot. The corresponding forms of shall are shall not and shan’t.

He will be late.

I can come early.

I shall come early.

He will not be late.

I cannot come early.

I shall not come early

He’ll not be late.

He won’t be late.

I can’t come early.

I shan’t come early.

Only the full negative form is possible for the first person singular of the verb to be in declarative sentences, I'т not late, the form ain’t being used only in dialects and uneducated forms of English. However, the verb contraction I'т is possible.

If the predicate verb is in the present or past indefinite, the auxiliary do is used with not to form the negative.

I like that idea.

He understands you well.

I do not like that idea.

He does not understand you at all.

I don’t like that idea.

He doesn’t understand you at all.

As a rule, a sentence can contain only one negator. Not is usually , attached to the predicate verb, and other negative words are unnecessary in the sentence, unlike similar cases in Russian.

I don’t know anything about it. (one negator)

I didn’t say anything to anybody. (one negator)

Я ничего не знала об этом. (two negators)

Я никому ничего не сказала. (three negators)

In negative questions the place of the negator not depends on whether it is contracted or uncontracted. The contracted form n’t is not separated from the auxiliary or modal verb, whereas the uncontracted not comes after the subject. The latter is more formal.

Don’t you see?

Can’t you come with me?

Haven’t you finished your letter?

Do you not see?

Can you not come with me?

Have you not finished your letter?

Negative questions are often used as

a) exclamations.

Isn’t it funny! (= It is very funny!)

Aren’t* I tired! (= I am very tired)

* This is the first-person form of the verb to be in negative questions in British English.

b) invitations.

Won’t you come in and have a cup of tea?

In answer to negative questions yes and no are used according to the facts and not according to the form of the question.

Haven’t you seen the film? - Yes (I have seen it). Or: No (I haven’t seen it).

Isn’t it raining? - Yes (it is raining). Or: No (it isn’t raining).

Compare with the Russian:

Дождь не идет?

- Нет, идет.

- Да, не идет.

In imperative sentences not follows the do-auxiliary.

Do not speak so loudly.

Don’t worry.

The same is used for the negative imperative with the verb to be.

Don’t be so rude.

Don’t be lazy.

§ 25. Not can be attached to other parts of the sentence, not only the predicate verb. In this case it comes before the word or phrase it negates.

It’s here, not upstairs.

It’s a tiger, not a cat.

The operation was quick, but not carefully planned.

The question is important and not easy to answer.

Negative infinitives are made by putting not or never before the infinitive (and before the paricle to if there is one). Negative ing-forms are made in the same way.

It was impossible not to invite the Butlers.

He left never to return.

He was desperate at not having seen her.

§ 26. In short answers or orders with the verbs of mental activity think, believe, hope, suppose, be afraid and after the conjunction if the negator not may replace the sentence or clause it negates.

Will it rain today? - I hope not.

Can you come today? – I’m afraid not.

Drop that gun! If not, you’ll be sorry.

§ 27. After the verbs of mental activity think, believe, suppose and imagine the negation which belongs to the object clause is transferred to the principal clause. This is called transferred negation.

I don’t think you've heard about it (= I think you haven’t heard about it).

I don’t believe he has come (= I believe he hasn’t come).

I don’t suppose any one will learn about it (= I suppose no one will learn about it).

Compare with the Russian:

I don’t think you are right. - Думаю, что вы не правы.

§ 28. Besides not there are other words that can serve as negators and make the sentence negative. They are: no, nobody, nothing, nowhere, none (of) no one, and also neither (of), never and the conjunction neither... nor.

No sensible man would say that.

Nobody knows about it.

None of the applicants were German.

He has nothing to say.

He was nowhere to be found.

He never gets up early.

Neither of the statements is true.

I saw neither you nor your wife.

No is a determiner and is used with a noun when it has no other determiner (neither an article nor a possessive or demonstrative pronoun).

No is the usual negator with a noun subject after there is/are, and with a noun object after the predicate verb have.

There are no letters in the letter-box today.

I have no relatives in this city.

No can add emphasis to the sentence, implying the opposite of what is expressed by the word that follows.

He is no fool (= He is a clever man).

He showed no great skill (= He showed very little skill).

He had no small part in its success! (= He had a large part...)

This is no unimportant question (== It is really an important question).

She is no teacher (= She is a bad teacher).

In the same way never may add emphasis to the sentence and is often used in colloquial speech.

That will never do.

I should never have believed it.

Why did you sign those documents? - But I never did. (Я ничего не подписывал.)

Surely you never told him about it! (Ты не мог ему это сказать!)

If there is an article or a possessive or demonstrative pronoun before the noun, none of or neither of is used with the same meaning as no (see the above examples).

Neither of the books is of any use to me.

I want none of these things.

None can be used without a noun as a noun substitute.

You have money, but I have none.

Bad advice is worse than none at all.

§ 29. Besides negators there are other words that make a sentence negative in meaning. They are:

seldom, rarely... (= not often);

hardly, scarcely, barely... (= almost... not, hardly ever, scarcely ever).

As they also make the whole sentence negative they have the same effect on the sentence as other negators, that is exclude other negators.

a) The pronoun some and its derivatives are changed to any or its derivatives.

The rain continued with scarcely any pause.

He hardly thinks of anything else.

b) The adverbs sometimes and already are changed to ever and yet respectively.

Mrs. Greene hardly ever plays tennis now.

c) They are generally followed by positive, not negative, tag question.

She scarcely seems to care, does she?

Little and few have the same effect on sentences.

There’s little point in doing anything about it, is there?

§ 30. Double negatives are sometimes possible in standard English, but only if both negative words have their full meaning and this serves for the sake of emphasis.

You’ve no reason not to trust me.

Do you think Julius will try to see you? - No, he won’t. But he won’t try not to either.

She wouldn’t like to live in a place not so nice.

John hadn’t been a crime reporter for nothing.

Not only would he do nothing to advance them; he impeded them.

It’s not only not important, it’s not a fact.

In standard English double negatives, rare as they are, may neutralize each other and then the ultimate meaning of the sentence is positive.

You’ve no reason not to trust me (= You must trust me).

I just couldn’t do nothing (= I had to do something).

By removing one of the negators the sentence is made negative in meaning.

I just could do nothing.

PARTS OF THE SENTENCE

§ 31. Almost every sentence can be divided into certain components which are called parts of the sentence. Parts of the sentence are usually classified into main and secondary. The main parts of the sentence are the subject and the prediсate. They constitute the backbone of the sentence. The secondary parts of the sentence are the object, the attribute, the apposition and the adverbial modifier. The secondary parts of the sentence modify the main parts or each other.

Besides these two kinds of sentence components there are so-called independent elements, that is, elements standing outside the structure of the sentence, and therefore of lesser importance. The independent elements are parenthesis and direct address.

Ways of expressing parts of the sentence

§ 32. Any part of the sentence may be expressed in four ways, that is, by a single word-form or a word-form preceded by a formal word, by a phrase, by a predicative complex, or by a clause. The only exception is the verbal predicate which can be neither a predicative complex nor a clause.

Word-forms

§ 33. A word-form is any form of the grammatical paradigm of the word. Girl, girls, girl’s, girls'; to write, writes, wrote, is writing, has been written, will have been writing, etc.; pale, paler; brilliant, more brilliant, most brilliant are all word-forms.

As seen from the above a word-form may contain either one component or more than one. One-component word-forms are various synthetic forms of the word, while multi-component word-forms are analytical forms of the word which are composed of оne or more auxiliary components and one notional component. The auxiliary components may be verbs (be, have, do, shall, will), adverbs (more, most), particles (to).

Note:

In grammar we usually deal with word-forms, not words, though it is customary to make use of the term

“word” in the sense of “word-form” as well. So in the following chapters both these terms will be used in

the sense of “word-form”, “word-form” being more exact, “word” having the advantage of being shorter.

Phrases

§ 34. A phrase is a group of two or more notional words functioning as a whole. Besides notional words a phrase may contain one or more formal words. Compare: to see her - to look at her.

Depending on the relation between its components, phrases may be divided into two kinds: phrases which are divisible both syntactically and semantically, and phrases which are indivisible either syntactically or semantically, or both.

Phrases which are divisible both syntactically and semantically

§ 35. Phrases of this kind contain a headword and one or more word-forms dependent on it. Here the following kinds of phrases may be distinguished: nominal, verbal, adjectival, adverbial and statival phrases.

1. In nominal phrases the headword is a noun, a noun-pronoun, or a numeral modified by one or more word-forms. The latter are mostly adjectives, nouns, or pronouns with prepositions, although they may be participles or infinitives. They may have dependent words of their own: a new way, a very good friend, a recently built house, the years to come, etc.; something curious, anything so unexpected, everybody staying here, all of them, nothing to say; tire first of May, the second to enter, etc. Their relation to the headword is attributive. Phrases of this kind function as nouns treated separately.

The man sat on the sofa.

(subject and adverbial modifier expressed by nouns)

The old man was sitting in a big armchair.

(subject and adverbial modifier expressed by nominal phrases)

2. In verbal phrases the headword is a verbal which has one or more word-forms dependent on it. The latter are mostly nouns, noun-pronouns, or adverbs, each of which may have its own dependent words: to know him, to see her again, going home in the evening, speaking a foreign language. In all these phrases syntactical relations between the headwords and dependent words are either objective (him, her, a language) or adverbial (again, home, in the evening). Phrases of this kind function according to the nature of their headwords, that is, in the same way as their headwords do when used separately.

To see is to believe.

(subject expressed by an infinitive)

To see you here is a real pleasure.

(subject expressed by an infinitive phrase)

Do you like swimming?

(object expressed by a gerund)

I hate swimming in cold water.

(object expressed by a gerundial phrase)

3. In adjective phrases the headword is an adjective which has some words dependent on it. They are usually adverbs or nouns with a preposition, or an infinitive. These may have dependent words of their own: quite true, too big, wonderfully clever, kind enough, absent from classes, true to his word, unable to say a word, etc. Their relation to the headword is either adverbial (where the dependent word is an adverb) or objective (where the dependent word is a noun with a preposition or an infinitive). Such phrases perform the same functions as adjectives used alone.

She has a kind heart.

(attribute expressed by an adjective)

It was a very dark night.

(attribute expressed by an adjective phrase)

Are you angry? (predicative expressed by an adjective)

Are you quite ready?

(predicative expressed by an adjective phrase)

4. In adverbial phrases the headword is an adverb modified by some other adverb or (very seldom) by a noun/pronoun with a preposition: very happily, rather well, heartily enough, fortunately for the boy, etc. Their relation to the headword is either adverbial (in this case the modifying word is an adverb) or objective (in this case it is a noun with a preposition). Such phrases function like separate adverbs.

She thanked him warmly.

(adverbial modifier expressed by an adverb)

He set to work heartily enough.

(adverbial modifier expressed by an adverbial phrase)

5. Instatival phrases where the headword is a stative modified either by a noun with a preposition, or by an adverb, or by an infinitive, each of which may have dependent words of its own: aware of the danger, afraid of cold water, so deeply asleep, quite alone, afraid to go home, ashamed to tell her about it, etc. Their relation to the headword is either adverbial (the dependent word is an adverb) or objective (in this case it is a noun with a preposition or an infinitive). Such phrases function as the corresponding statives do when used separately.

The whole land was aflame.

(predicative expressed by a stative)

The sky above them seemed afire with stars.

(predicative expressed by a statival phrase)

As is seen from the above, the relations between the headword and dependent words within these phrases (1-5) may be of three kinds: attributive, objective, or adverbial.

Phrases which are indivisible either syntactically or semantically or both

§ 36. Phrases of this kind contain two or more notional word-forms used together to designate a person or a non-person, an action or a quality. Syntactical relations between their components are not always explicit, and so they are not analysed separately.

Here belong:

1.Groups of words that name one thing or one unit.

Will you allow me another half an hour?

Here is your needle and thread.

2. Groups of words denoting an indefinite number or amount of things.

A lot of unpleasant things have been said.

3. Groups of words denoting arithmetical calculations.

Two plus two is four.

Ten by three equals thirty.

Four from nine leaves five.

4. Groups of words consisting of two or more proper names belonging to one person.

George Gordon Byron was born in 1788.

5. Groups of words which form one geographical name.

New York is the largest city in the United States of America.

6. Groups of words containing a proper name and a noun denoting an occupation, a title, a rank, a relatioship, or naming a species of animal.

How do you do, Doctor Brown?

Mrs. Poppets brought the tray in.

The boy looked up at Colonel Julian.

He always reminds me of my Uncle Podger.

The dog Charlie was full of importance.

Note:

However these groups of words allow of another interpretation: the first word may be treated as a non-

detached apposition. See § 92.

7. Groups of words containing a verb and a noun denoting an action.

She looked at him and gave a sigh.

Please, don’t make trouble.

8. Adverbial groups of words.

He came two minutes ago.

A week later she began to recover.

Phrases of this kind (1-8) function in the sentence in accordance with their nominal, verbal or adverbial nature as one whole. (See the examples above.)

Predicative complexes

§ 37. Predicative complexes differ from phrases in that they have two words with predicative relation between the nominal and the verbal parts of the phrase. These words in their turn may have one or more words dependent on them. Though the predicative relation within a complex is grammatically only implicit, its presence makes it possible to turn any predicative complex into a clause, which cannot be done to a phrase.

I saw him run —— > I saw that he was running.

He still found life interesting ——> He still found that life was interesting.

Predicative complexes are dealt with in full in § 124-132.

Clauses

§ 38. Clauses, like predicative complexes, contain two words connected predicatively, but unlike predicative complexes the predicative relation in clauses is expressed explicitly in the grammatical forms of the subject and the predicate.

I don’t know what you mean.

She came when nobody was in.

Levels of syntactical analysis

§ 39. Within the sentence we usually distinguish two syntactical levels of analysis, one belonging to the sentence proper, which is called the sentence level, and one belonging to various phrases treated as a whole and functioning in the sentence with the same force as separate words. This level is called the phrase level.

The subject and the predicate belong to the sentence level only. The object, the adverbial modifier, the attribute, and the apposition may belong either to the sentence level or to the phrase level.

He did not tell me anything about it. (Me, anything, about it are objects to the verb-predicate - the

sentence level.)

You are unhappy about something, aren’t you? (About something is an object to the predicative unhappy,

which is part of the predicate - the sentence level.)

He will come tomorrow. (Tomorrow is an adverbial modifier to the verb-predicate - the sentence level.)

You seem very tired. (Very is an adverbial modifier to the adjective tired, which is part of the predicate –

the sentence level.)

Poor Amy could not answer. (Poor is an attribute to the noun, which is the subject - the sentence level.)

In other cases objects, adverbial modifiers, attributes and appositions are included in various phrases within which they are not usually treated separately, the whole phrase functioning as part of the sentence on the sentence level.

He insisted on going by train. (On going by train is an object to the verb-predicate - the sentence level;

within the phrase on going by train we distinguish an adverbial modifier by train referring to the word-

form going - the phrase level.)

When analysing a sentence we deal mainly with the sentence level only, unless it is necessary for some reason to state the syntactical relations between the words within a phrase.

The subject

§ 40. Every English sentence but the one-member and the imperative one must have a subject. The subject is one of the two main parts of the, sentence. The most important feature of the subject in English is that in declarative sentences it normally comes immediately before the predicate, whereas in questions its position is immediately after an operator . It means that in English sentences any word or words which occur in these positions are to be treated as the subject of the sentence.

The subject determines the form of the verbal part of the predicate as regards its number and person.

Ways of expressing the subject

§ 41. The subject is expressed by:

1. A noun in the common case (including substantivized adjectives and participles) or a nominal phrase with a noun.

The fog is thinning.

Science is not omnipotent.

The blue of the sky deepened visibly.

The dying must be left in peace.

From Marlow up to Sonning is even fairer yet.

Four and three is seven.

A great number of frees were felled.

Occasionally a noun in the genitive case is the subject. This may be if a noun denotes someone’s place of business or residence, as in:

The grocer’s was full.

It may be the result of ellipsis as in:

Jim’s was a narrow escape. (= Jim’s escape was a narrow one.)

The latter type of subject is rather emphatic.

2. A personal pronoun in the nominative case.

I shall do the best I can.

She is very beautiful.

3. Any other noun-pronoun.

Nothing can be done about it.

This is the last straw.

Hers was the final judgement.

One learns by experience.

Who told you this?

4. A numeral (either cardinal or ordinal) or a nominal phrase with a

numeral.

Seven cannot be divided by two.

Two of them were left in the camp.

The third was a young man with a dog.

5. An infinitive or an infinitive phrase.

To understand is to forgive.

To deny the past is to deny the future.

6. A gerund or a gerundial phrase.

Talking mends no holes.

Working for someone keeps a woman calm and contented.

7. An infinitive or a gerundial predicative complex.

For her to fall asleep in broad daylight was not at all usual.

His walking out of the room in the very middle of the argument was quite unexpected.

8. Any word or words used as quotations.

“And” is a conjunction.

The “how” and the “why” of things never seems to occur to children.

His “How do you do” never sounds cordial enough.

“The War of the Worlds” was first published in 1898.

9. A clause (then called a subject clause), which makes the whole

sentence a complex one.

What girls of her sort want is just a wedding ring.

This kind of subject is treated in full in § 147-148.

Grammatical classification of the subject

§ 42. From the point of view of its grammatical value the subject may be either notional or formal.

The notional subject denotes or (if expressed by a pronoun) points out a person or a non-person.

The formal subject neither denotes nor points out any person or non-person and is only a structural element of the sentence filling the position of the subject. Thus a formal subject functions only as a position-filler. In English there are two such position-fillers: it and there.

The notional subject

§ 43. The notional subject denotes or points out a person or non-person, that is, various kinds of concrete things, substances, abstract no­tions or happening.

Persons:

The policeman stepped back.

The audience cheered wildly.

I know all about it.

Whoever said that was wrong.

Non-persons, including animals, whose name may be substituted by if or they.

A house was ready there for the new doctor. It stood on a hill.

These beasts are found only on four southern islets.

Building houses becomes more difficult.

To be a friend takes time.

Whatever he said is of no importance.

Look at the cat. It is very small.

The formal subject

The formal subject it

§ 44. The formal subject expressed by it is found in two patterns of sentences: those with impersonal it and those with introductory it .

1. The formal subject it is impersonal when it is used in sentences describing various states of nature, things in general, characteristics of the environment, or denoting time, distance, other measurements.

It’s spring. - Весна.

It’s cold today. - Сегодня холодно.

It’s freezing. - Морозит.

It’s still too hot to start. - Еще слишком жарко, чтобы отправ­ляться в путь.

It seems that he was frank. - Кажется, он был откровенен.

It turned out that she was deaf. - Оказалось, что она глухая.

Sentences with impersonal it are usually rendered in Russian by means of impersonal (subjectless) sentences.

2. The formal subject it is introductory (anticipatory) if it introduces the notional subject expressed by an infinitive, a gerund, an infinitive/gerundial phrase, a predicative complex, or a clause. The sentence thus contains two subjects: the formal (introductory) subject it and the notional subject, which follows the predicate.

It’s impossible to deny this.

It thrilled her to be invited there.

It gave him a pain in the head to walk.

It was no good coming there again.

It would be wonderful for you to stay with us.

It was lucky that she agreed to undertake the job.

It did not occur to her that the idea was his.

Sentences with introductory it can be transformed into sentences with the notional subject in its usual position before the predicate.

It was impossible to deny this —— > To deny this was impossible.

The difference between the two structural types lies in that the pattern with the introductory subject accentuates the idea expressed by the notional subject, whereas the pattern without it accentuates the idea expressed in the predicate.

Sentences with introductory it must be distinguished from certain pat­terns of sentences with impersonal it:

a) sentences with the predicate expressed by the verbs to seem, to appear, to happen, to turn out followed by a clause, as in It seemed that he didn’t know the place.

In these sentences describing a certain state of affairs it is impersonal, not introductory and the clause is a predicative one. So it cannot fill the position of the subject:

It seemed that he did not know the place — /—> That he did not know the place seemed. (Transformation is impossible)

b) sentences with predicative adjectives preceded by too and followed by an infinitive as in It was too late to start.

Here it is used in sentences describing time, etc. and is therefore impersonal. The infinitive is an adverbial of consequence, not the subject, and so cannot be placed before the predicate:

It was too late to start —/ —> To start was too late.

c) sentences with the predicative expressed by the noun time followed by an infinitive, as in It was high time to take their departure.

In such sentences it is also impersonal, the infinitives being attributes to the noun time. These sentences cannot therefore undergo the transforma­tion which is possible in the case of sentences with introductory it :

It was time to take their departure ―/→ To take their departure was time.

Thus, the subject it may be personal, impersonal, and introductory. In the latter two cases it is formal, (see the scheme after § 45).

The formal subject there

§ 45. Sentences with a notional subject introduced by there express the existence or coming into existence of a person or non-person denoted by the subject. Such sentences may be called existential sentences or sentences of presentation. They are employed where the subject presents some new idea or the most important piece of information.

The notional subject introduced by there is expressed:

1. By any noun or by a noun phrase denoting an inseparable unit or an indefinite amount of something.

There, was silence for a moment.

There was a needle and thread in her fingers.

There were a lot of people in the street.

As the notional subject usually introduces a new idea, the noun expressing it is generally used with the indefinite article.

2. By some noun-pronouns:

a) indefinite.

Is there anybody there?

There was something wrong about the whole situation.

b) negative.

There was nobody in.

There was nothing to do.

c) universal (only some of them).

There were all of them on the bank.

There were both of them present.

The pronouns of these three classes are the most frequent in existential sentences. The ones that follow are very seldom used:

d) detaching.

There was the other to be asked.

e) demonstrative.

There is this which is to be settled.

3. By a gerund or a gerundial phrase.

There was no talking that evening.

There’s no going against bad blood.

4. By a clause.

First, there is what we might call a pattern.

The predicate in such sentences is generally a simple verbal predicate expressed by the verbs to be, to appear, to live, to come, to go, or some other similar verbs.

At last far off there appeared a tiny spot.

Once upon a time there lived a king.

Then there came a lightning.

Occasionally the predicate may be a compound verbal modal predicate or a predicate of double orientation. In both cases their second parts are expressed by the verb to be, or one of the others mentioned above.

a) There must be something wrong with him.

There may come a time when you’ll regret this.

b) There seemed to be only two people in the room.

There did not appear to be anything of importance in what he said.

There are said to be those who are “unfit for living”.

Negative sentences with introductory there are formed in the usual way for the verbs which are their predicates, that is, by means of appropriate auxiliaries for all the verbs but to be. In the latter case two negative constructions are possible:

a) either with the negative pronoun no, as in:

There was no sign of him in the hall.

There is no knowing when he will come.

b) or with the negation not, often followed by the indefinite pronoun any, or without it, as in:

There weren’t (were not) any flowers on the balconies.

There isn’t a cloud in the sky.

The sentence is also negative if the subject itself is a negative pronoun:

There was nobody in.

There was nothing to say.

The predicate

§ 46. The predicate is the second main part of the sentence and its organizing centre, as the object and nearly all adverbial modifiers are connected with, and dependent on, it.

The predicate may be considered from the semantic or from the structural point of view. Structurally the predicate in English expressed by a finite verb agrees with the subject in number and person. The only exception to this rule is a compound modal and a simple nominal predicate, the latter having no verb form at all (see § 49).

According to the meaning of its components, the predicate may denote an action, a state, a quality, or an attitude to some action or state ascribed to the subject. These different meanings find their expression in the structure of the predicate and the lexical meaning of its constituents.

Structural classification of the predicate

§ 47. From the structural point of view there are two main types of predicate: the simple predicate and the compound predicate. Both these types may be either nominal or verbal, which gives four sub-groups: simple verbal, simple nominal, compound verbal, compound nominal. Compound verbal predicates may be further classified into phasal, modal and of double orientation Compound nominal predicates may be classified into nominal proper and double nominal.

The simple predicate

The simple verbal predicate

§ 48. The simple verbal predicate is expressed by:

1. A verb in a synthetic or analytical form.

John runs quickly.

I was sent in to get my tea.

Perhaps you will even remember that woman.

When did life begin on earth?

I didn’t care about the consequence.

Don’t come too late.

2. A verb phrase (a phraseological equivalent of a verb denoting one action).

Here belong:

a) Phrases denoting single actions:

to have a look, to have a smoke, to have a talk, to give a look, to give a laugh, to give a cry, to take a

look, to make a move, to make a remark, to pay a visit, etc.

They comprise a transitive verb and a deverbal noun with the indefinite article.

Nurse Sharp gave him a look and walked out.

The man gave a violent start.

Did you have a sleep?

It’s time we were making a move.

b) Phrases denoting various kinds of actions. In most cases they comprise an abstract noun used with no

article but often preceded by an attribute:

to change one's mind, to get rid (of), to get hold (of), to lose sight (of), to make fun (of), to make up

one's mind, to make use (of), to take care (of), to take leave (of), to take part (in), etc.

I have never taken much interest in German songs.

She paid little heed to what was going on in the world outside.

Are you taking part in the concert?

The simple nominal predicate

§ 49. The simple nominal predicate is expressed by a noun, or an adjective, or a verbal, ft does not contain a link verb, as it shows the incompatibility of the idea expressed by the subject and that expressed by the predicate; thus in the meaning of the simple nominal predicate there is an implied negation.

He a gentleman!

You a bother! Never.

Fred, a priest!

Rondal, jealous!

Nick, dishonest!

Such an old lady to come so far!

Ну какой же он джентльмен!

Ты - зануда! Ну, что ты!

Чтобы Фред был священником!

Рондел - ревнует! (Быть того не может!)

Ник - нечестный! Не может быть!

Чтобы такая пожилая дама пришла издалека!

Sentences with the simple nominal predicate are always exclamatory evidently owing to the implication of a negation or of an evaluation.

The predicate is mostly commad off (separated by a comma), but a comma is not regarded as a strict rule.

These predicates are used in colloquial English, although not fre­quently.

The simple nominal predicate can be expressed by:

1. A noun.

My son a clergyman!

She, a nun!

Me, a liar!

2. An adjective.

My ideas obsolete!

Ronnie, good-looking!

You sad!

3. An infinitive or an infinitive phrase.

Hercule Poirot to sleep while murder is committed!

My boy insult a gentleman at my table!

4. Participle I or a participial phrase.

She spying!

Me trying to be funny!

The compound predicate

§ 50. The compound predicate consists of two parts: the notional and the structural. The structural part comes first and is followed by the notional part.

The notional part may be expressed by a noun, an adjective, a stative, an adverb, a verbal, a phrase, a predicative complex, or a clause.

The structural part is expressed by a finite verb - a phasal verb, a modal verb, a verb expressing attitude, intention, planning, etc., or a link verb.

From the point of view of meaning the most important part of the compound predicate is the notional part as it contains the information about the person or non-person expressed by the subject.

From the point of view of structure the most important part of the predicate is the first one, since it is expressed by a finite verb and carries grammatical information about the person, number, tense, voice, modal, attitudinal and aspective (phasal) meaning of the whole predicate.

The compound verbal predicate

The compound verbal phasal predicate

§ 51. The compound verbal phasal predicate denotes the beginning, duration, repetition or cessation of the action expressed by an infinitive or a gerund. It consists of a phasal verb and an infinitive or a gerund, Accordingly its first component may be a phasal verb of:

1.Beginning:

to begin, to start, to commence, to set about, to take to, to fall to, to come.

Andrew and he began to talk about the famous clinic.

Jack started training out at Hogan’s health farm.

So I took to going to the farm.

He fell to poking the fire with all his might.

I come to think that you are right.

2. Duration:

to go on, to keep, to proceed, to continue.

The talk kept running on the possibility of a storm.

As we continued to laugh his surprise gave way to annoyance.

3. Repetition:

would, used (denoting a repeated action in the past).

Alfredo used to talk to me about it.

During her small leisure hours she would sit by the window or walk in the fields.

4. Cessation:

to stop, to finish, to cease, to give up, to leave off.

The band had ceased playing.

Give up smoking.

Note the difference in the functions of the gerund and the infinitive after the verb to stop:

She stopped talking to him. (part of a compound verbal phasal predicate) - Она перестала с ним

говорить.

She stopped to talk to him. (an adverbial modifier of purpose) - Она остановилась, чтобы поговорить с

ним.)

The compound verbal modal predicate

§ 52. The compound verbal modal predicate consists of a modal part and an infinitive (or a gerund). It shows whether the action expressed by an infinitive is looked upon as possible, impossible, obligatory, necessary, desirable, planned, certain, permissible, etc. In most cases it denotes the attitude to the action of the person expressed by the subject or by the speaker.

The modal part may be expressed by:

1. A modal verb.

You must forget it.

He can’t say a word, he can’t even apologize.

I had to bite my lip to prevent myself from laughing.

Ought he not to treat her generously?

May I ask you a question?

2. A modal expression of nominal nature:

to be able, to be allowed, to be willing, to be going, to be anxious, etc.

You are going to attend the college at Harvard, they tell me.

Are you able to walk another two miles?

We were anxious to cooperate.

The modal part may have two modal verbs or a modal verb and a modal expression.

He may have to return.

She must be willing to come here again.

З. Аn attitudinal verb such as to like, to hate, to attempt, to expect, to hope, to intend, to mean, to plan, to try, to have a mind, to wish, to want followed by an infinitive denote the attitude of the person expressed by the subject to the action denoted by the infinitive.

The predicate of this type may be called a compound verbal attitudinal predicate.

He hoped to see them the next day.

I mean to find out the truth.

The compound verbal predicate

of double orientation

§ 53. The compound verbal predicate of double orientation consists of two parts. The first part is a finite verb which denotes the attitude to, evaluation of, or comment on, the content of the sentence expressed by the speaker or somebody not mentioned in the sentence. The second part denotes the action which is (was/will be) performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject.

The Gadfly seemed to have taken a dislike to her ———>It seemed (to the people) that the Gadfly had

taken a dislike to her.

Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune ———> They knew that Philip Bosinney

was a young man without fortune.

He is said to be looking for a new job. (Говорят, что он ищет новую работу)

The plane is reported to have been lost. (Сообщают, что самолет пропал)

In this case we see different orientation of the actions which are regarded from two points of view: that of the speaker and that of the person (or non-person) expressed by the subject. .

In a number of cases semantically this type of predicate has much in common with the compound verbal modal predicate, as in: You can’t have misunderstood me, but formally these predicates are different, because in the compound verbal modal predicate the first component is a modal verb, whereas in the compound predicate of double orientation it is a verb or phrase expressing attitude, evaluation, or comment. They belong to one of the following verb groups:

1. Intransitive verbs of seeming or happening with the general meaning of evaluation in the active voice:

to seem, to appear, to prove, to turn out, to happen, to chance.

He seemed to understand everything I said.

Money just doesn’t happen to interest me.

No one appears to have noticed his escape.

2. Some verbs in the passive voice:

a) Verbs of saying:

to say, to declare, to state, to report, to rumour.

This country is said to be rich in oil.

The rocket is reported to have started its night at 6.30.

b) Verbs of mental activity:

to believe, to consider, to expect, to find, to know, to mean, to presume, to regard, to suppose, to think,

to understand.

Mr. Sharp was always expected to say he preferred cold meat.

He has never been known to lose his temper before.

c) Verbs of perception:

to feel, to hear, to see, to watch.

My dog was heard to bark in the yard.

The lady was seen to leave the house.

3. Phrases with some modal meaning:

to be (un) likely, to be sure, to be certain.

The adjectives likely, unlikely, sure and certain indicate the speaker's attitude to the future:

The weather is not likely to change.

This event is certain to produce a sensation.

If you don’t post the letter at once, it is unlikely to arrive in time.

George is sure to see Mary. (Sure indicates the attitude of the speaker, it is the speaker rather than George

who is sure)

The compound nominal predicate

The compound nominal predicate proper

§ 54. The compound nominal predicate consists of a link verb and a predicative (nominal part). The link verb is the structural element of the predicate, as it joins the subject and the predicative. It expresses the grammatical categories of person, number, tense, aspect and mood.

The predicative is the notional part of the compound nominal predicate. It characterizes the person or non-person expressed by the subject. The characterization may concern the following:

1. The properties of the person or non-person (the state or quality or quantity of it).

The girl looked tired but pretty.

I felt sore for a minute.

But he is not always alone.

The visibility seemed very good.

He was forty and in his prime.

We are seven.

2. The identity of the person or non-person, that is, what class of persons or things they belong to.

This man is my father.

Old Mr Clare was a clergyman.

Miss Sedley’s papa was a man of some wealth.

My wish is to learn many languages.

§ 55. Among the class of link verbs we may distinguish:

1. Those which have lost their original lexical meaning (to be, to get).

He is just the kind of man I want.

Elisabeth got very restless.

2. Those which have only partly lost their lexical meaning (to remain, to become, to grow, to turn, to look, to seem).

That request seemed superfluous.

The room looked snug and cheerful.

Ellen’s eyes grew moist.

In both cases (1,2) the link verbs proper are used.

3. Those which have fully preserved their lexical meaning but still serve as link verbs followed by a predicative. They are used in the passive voice: to elect, to call, to leave, to keep, to make.

The boy was called John.

She was left alone.

He was elected president.

According to their semantic characteristics link verbs fall into three groups: link verbs of being, of becoming, of remaining.

l. Link verbs of being:

to be, to feel, to sound, to smell, to taste, to look, to appear, to seem, etc.

Of these only the verb to be is a pure link verb of being, as the others may have some additional meaning (see examples below).

When he was seven, starting school had been a nightmare and a torture to him.

His face looked awful all the time.

I felt better pleased than ever.

His voice sounded cold and hostile.

He seemed bewildered.

Everything appeared very grand and imposing to me.

Note how the link verbs to taste and to feel are translated into Russian:

Lemons taste sour. - Лимоны кислые на вкус.

The fur feels soft. - Мех мягкий на ощупь.

2. Link verbs of becoming:

to become, to grow, to turn, to get, to make.

The noise of the rattling dishes becomes intolerable.

The Elephant’s Child’s nose grew longer and longer.

The girl’s face suddenly turned red.

The girl will make a good teacher.

3. Link verbs of remaining:

to remain, to continue, to keep, to stay.

She remained vexed with him.

The children kept suspiciously silent.

Ways of expressing the predicative

§ 56. The predicative can be expressed by:

1. A noun in the common case or in the genitive case.

Miss Sedly’s father was a merchant.

The face was Victoria's.

2. An adjective or an adjective phrase.

Ellen’s eyes grew angry.

She was full of enthusiasm.

The man was difficult to convince,

Note:

It should be remembered that in some cases a predicative adjective in English corresponds to an adverbial modifier expressed by an adverb in Russian.

The apples smell good.

Яблоки хорошо пахнут.

The music sounded beautiful.

Музыка звучала прекрасно.

She looks bad - Она плохо выглядит

feels чувствует себя

In English the verbs to smell, to sound, to look, to feel are link verbs and are the first part of the compound nominal predicate. The predicatives (which form the second part of these predicates) qualify the subject and can therefore be expressed only by adjectives. In Russian the corresponding verbs form simple verbal predicates and are therefore modified by adverbials expressed by an adverb.

3. A pronoun.

It was he.

It’s me. (There is a growing tendency to use personal pronouns as predicatives in the objective case.)

She is somebody.

The hat is mine. (In this function only the absolute form of the possessive pronoun is used.)

Who are you?

She was not herself yet.

4. A numeral.

He was sixty last year.

I’m the first.

5. An infinitive (or an infinitive phrase or construction).

His first thought was to run away.

My idea is to go there myself.

The only thing to do is for you to whip him.

6. A gerund (or a gerundial phrase or construction).

My hobby is dancing and his is collecting stamps.

The main problem was his being away at the moment.

7. A participle or a participial phrase.

The subject seemed strangely chosen.

Participle I seldom occurs in this function unless it has become an adjective.

That sounded quite distressing.

8. A prepositional phrase.

She is on our side,

9. A stative.

I was wide awake by this time. .

10. An indivisible group of words.

It is nine o’clock already.

11. A clause.

That’s what has happened.

Semantic characteristics of the predicative

§ 57. The three most typical semantic characteristics of a predicative are: identification, classification and characterisation.

1. An identifying predicative expresses equality between the notion expressed by the predicative and by the subject, or means that they are of the same rank or value. In this case the predicative and the subject are positionally interchangeable. Such predicatives are expressed by a noun with the definite article.

London is the capital of Britain. = The capital of Britain is London.

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. = The highest mountain in the world is Mount

Everest.

2. A classifying predicative names a class of persons or non-persons to which that denoted by the subject belongs. The predicative in this case is expressed by a noun with the indefinite article.

John is a student.

My father is a teacher.

This is a book.

3. A characterizing predicative denotes a state or quality of a person or non-person and is expressed by an adjective or a stative.

The room is dark.

The sky was blue.

The patient fell asleep.

The house was aflame.

A characterizing predicative may also be a noun which in this case has no article.

He turned traitor.

He was elected president.

The compound nominal double predicate

§ 58. The compound nominal double predicate combines, as its name suggests, the features of two different types of predicate. It has the features of the simple verbal predicate and those of the compound nominal predicate. It consists of two parts, both of which are notional. The first one is verbal and is expressed by a notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject. From this point of view it resembles the simple verbal predicate. But at the same time the verbal part of this predicate performs a linking function, as it links its second part (which is a predicative) to the subject.

The second part of the compound nominal double predicate is expressed by a noun or an adjective which denotes the properties of the subject in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper does.

The moon was shining cold and bright.

The predicate here denotes two separate notions:

1) The moon was shining, and at the same time

2) The moon was cold and bright.

There are a number of verbs that often occur in this type of predicate, performing the double function of denoting a process and serving as link verbs at the same time. They are: to die, to leave, to lie, to marry, to return, to rise, to sit, to stand, to shine, etc. As in Modern English there is a growing tendency to use this type of predicate, the verbs occurring in it are not limited by any particular lexical class.

My daughter sat silent.

He died a hero.

She married young.

The light came gray and pale.

The men stood silent and motionless,

They met friends and parted enemies.

The moon rose round and yellow.

Mixed types of compound predicate

§ 59. Compound predicates can combine elements of different types. Thus we have:

1. The compound modal verbal nominal predicate.

Jane must feel better pleased than ever.

She couldn’t be happy.

He may have been ill then.

2. Тhe compound modal nominal verbal predicate.

Are you able to walk another two miles?

We were anxious to cooperate.

3. The compound phasal nominal predicate.

He was beginning to look desperate.

George began to be rather ashamed.

4. The compound modal phasal predicate.

You ought to stop doing that.

He can’t continue training.

5. The compound nominal predicate of double orientation.

Mrs Bacon is said to be very ill.

Walter seems to be unhappy.

Agreement of the predicate with the subject

§ 60. The most important type of agreement (concord) in English is that of the subject and the predicate in number and person. Thus a singular noun-subject requires a singular verb-predicate, a plural noun-subject requires a plural verb-predicate.

This rule of purely grammatical agreement concerns all present tenses (except modal verbs) and also the past indefinite of the verb to be.

World literature knows many great humorists.

Great humorists know how to make people laugh.

This rule remains true for:

a) All link verbs irrespective of the number of the predicative noun, as in:

Our only guide was the Polar star.

Our only guide was the stars.

b) The predicate of emphatic constructions with the formal subject it .

It was my friends who suddenly arrived.

It’s they who are responsible for the delay.

§ 61. The verb-predicate is in the singular if the subject is expressed by:

1. An infinitive phrase or phrases.

To know everything is to know nothing.

To be loved and to be wanted is always good.

2. A prepositional phrase.

After the meeting is the time to speak.

3. A clause introduced by a conjunction or conjunctive adverb.

Where you found him does not concern me.

How you got there is beyond my understanding.

Whether you find him or not does not concern me.

Note:

Subject clauses introduced by conjunctive pronouns what, who may be followed by either a singular or plural verb.

What I want to do is to save us.

What were once precious manuscripts were scattered all over the floor.

What I say and what I think are my own affair.

4. A numerical expression, such as arithmetical addition, subtraction, division.

Four and four is eight.

Four minus two is two.

Ten divided by five is two.

Note:

However multiplication admits of two variants.

Twice two is/are four.

5. The group many a + noun.

Many a man has done it.

Ни один человек проделал такое. (Многие...)

6. With there - constructions followed by subjects of different number, the predicate agrees with the subject that stands first. The same holds true for sentences with here.

There was a textbook and many notebooks on the table.

There were many notebooks and textbook on the table.

Here was Tom and Peter.

Here was a man, was experience and culture.

In informal style, however, the singular verb is often used before the subject in the plural if the form of the verb is contracted.

Is there any place in town that might have them? – There’s two.

Both closed.

There’s too many of them living up there.

There’s two kinds of men here, you’ll find.

7. Plural nouns or phrases when they are used as names, titles, quotations.

“Fathers and Sons” is the most popular of Turgenev’s novels.

Note:

However, the titles of some works which are collections of stories, etc., may have either a singular or a plural verb.

The “Canterbury Tales” consist of about seventeen thousand lines of verse.

Turgenev’s "Hunter’s Tales" was/were published in 1852.

Pronouns as subject

§ 62.

1. Indefinite pronouns (somebody, someone, anybody),

universal pronouns (everybody, everyone, everything, each, either),

negative pronouns (nobody, no one, neither, etc.)

take a singular predicate.

Somebody is asking for you.

Nobody has come except me.

Everyone of us is present.

Neither of the students has made a mistake.

Each has answered well.

However, none has a plural verb-predicate.

None were here.

None of us understand it.

None of them have come.

All in the sense of «всё» has a singular verb, while all in the sense of «все» takes a plural verb.

All is well that ends well.

All that glitters is not gold.

All were in favour of the plan.

2. Interrogative pronouns who, what take a singular verb-predicate.

Who has come? What is there?

But if the pronoun denotes more than one person or thing a plural verb-predicate is used.

Who are walking in the garden?

Who have agreed to act?

3. With relative pronouns the form of the verb depends on the noun or pronoun which is its antecedent.

Do you know the girl who lives next door?

(The girl lives...)

Do you know the girls who live next door?

(The girls live...)

Mary is one of those girls who never know what they will do next.

Even I , who have seen it all, can hardly believe it.

It is you who are right. It is I who am wrong.

But: It’s me who is wrong.

4. The universal pronoun both has a plural verb-predicate.

Which of the letters are yours? Both are mine.

Conjunctions connecting two or more homogeneous subjects

§ 63. A plural verb-predicate is used in the following cases:

1. With homogeneous subjects connected by and.

Sun and air are necessary for life.

Tom and Mary are my friends.

The ebb and the flow of the tide are regular.

Note:

However, with structures where coordinated nouns refer to one thing or person a singular verb-predicate is used.

Bread and butter is not enough for breakfast. (one object is meant)

Bacon and eggs makes a traditional English breakfast. (one dish is meant)

The painter and decorator is here. (one person is meant)

If the article is repeated, the reference is to two persons or objects, and a plural verb-predicate is used.

The bread and the butter are on the table. (two separate object are meant)

The painter and the decorator are here. (two persons are meant)

Likewise, when a singular noun-subject has two attributes characterizing the same person or non-person connected by and it has a singular verb and the article is not repeated.

A tall and beautiful girl was waiting in the office.

A black and white kitten was playing on the hearth rug.

But if the attributes characterize different persons or non-persons the verb is in the plural and the article is repeated.

A black and a white kitten were playing on the hearth rug. (A black kitten was playing and a white kitten was playing.)

The yellow and the red car were badly damaged.

However, the article is repeated before each attribute only with countable nouns. Uncountables have no article.

In modern hotels hot and cold water are supplied in every room.

American and Dutch beer are both much lighter than British.

Good and bad taste are shown by examples.

With plural nouns only one article is used.

The Black and Mediterranean Seas never freeze.

2. With homogeneous subjects connected by both... and.

Both the bread and the butter are fresh.

Both the teacher and the students have come.

§ 64. With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions not only... hut also, either... or, or, neither... nor the verb-predicate agrees with the nearest noun-subject. (This is the so-called “proximity rule”.)

Either my sister or my parents are at home.

Either my parents or my sister is at home.

Neither you nor I am right.

Neither I nor you are right.

Not only my parents but also my brother knows about it.

Not only my brother but also my parents know about it.

Is Tom or Mary eager to meet you at the station?

§ 65. With homogeneous subjects connected by the conjunctions as well as, rather than, as much as, more than the verb-predicate agrees with the first one.

My parents as well as my sister are teachers.

My sister as well as my parents is a teacher.

The manager as well as/rather than/more than/as much as the members of the board is responsible for the

present situation.

Notional agreement

§ 66. Notional agreement is to be found in the following cases:

1. In modern English agreement there may be a conflict between form and meaning. It refers first of all to subjects expressed by nouns of multitude (see § 176, II), which may denote plurality being singular in form. In such cases the principle of grammatical agreement is not observed and there appears the so-called notional agreement, when the choice of the number is based on the fact whether the group of beings is considered as one whole or, as a collection of individuals taken separately (as discrete ones).

Thus the nouns of multitude (band, board, crew, committee, crowd, company, clergy, cattle, family, gang, group, guard, gentry, infantry, jury, militia, police, poultry, team) may have both a plural verb-predicate and a singular one depending on what is meant - a single undivided body or a group of separate individuals.

A new government has been formed.

The government have asked me to go, so I am leaving now.

It was now nearly eleven о' clock and the congregation were arriving...

The congregation was small.

How are your family?

Our family has always been a very happy one.

The commanding officer does not know where his cavalry is and his cavalry are not completely sure of

their situation.

The crowd was enormous.

The crowd were silent.

The police is already informed.

I don’t know what the police are doing.

The cattle is in the mountains.

The cattle have stopped grazing. They know before you hear any sound that planes are approaching.

The jury decides whether the accused is guilty or not.

While the jury were out, some of the public went out for a breath of fresh air.

2. Subjects expressed by nouns denoting measure, weight, time, etc., have a singular verb-predicate when the statement is made about the whole amount, not about the discrete units.

Ten years is a long time.

Another five minutes goes by.

A million francs is a lot of money.

3. Notional agreement is also observed with subjects expressed by word-groups including nouns of quantity: a/the number of..., a/the majority of..., (a) part of..., the bulk of..., a variety of... . These admit of either a singular or a plural verb-predicate.

The number (количество) of pages in this book isn’t large.

It was Sunday and a number (многие) of people were walking about.

In Elisabeth’s reign the bulk of English vegetable supplies were imported from Holland.

4. Subjects expressed by such invariable plural nouns as goods (товар, товары), contents (содержание, содержимое), riches (богатство, богатства), clothes (одежда), wages (зарплата), eaves (карниз крыши) have a plural verb.

His wages were only 15 shillings a week.

I asked her what the contents were about.

His clothes were shabby.

The goods were delivered on time.

5. Subjects expressed by such invariable singular nouns as hair, money, gate, information (сведения), funeral (похороны), progress (успехи), advice have a singular verb-predicate. These are called “singularia tantum” “всегда единственное число», as they have no plural.

Her hair is beautiful.

The money is mine.

The gate is open.

The information was unusually interesting.

If the funeral is so detestable to you, you don’t have to go to it.

The corresponding Russian nouns used as subjects are either plural invariables (деньги, ворота, похороны) or have both the singular and the plural forms (совет - советы, новость - новости).

6. Subjects expressed by invariable nouns ending in -s (“pluralia tantum” «всегда множественное число») and denoting an indivisible notion or thing have a singular verb-predicate : measles (корь), mumps (свинка), billiards, dominoes, linguistics, economics, news, headquarters (штаб), works (завод).

No news is good news.

The new works that has been built in our district is very large.

Though nouns in -ics which are names of sciences and other abstract notions have a singular agreement when used in their abstract sense; they may have a plural verb-predicate when denoting qualities, practical applications, different activities, etc. (ethics – “moral rules”, gymnastics – “physical exercises”). Thus these nouns may be followed by either a singular or a plural verb.

statistics

a branch of science

collected numbers, figures representing facts

Statistics is a rather modern branch of mathematics.

These statistics show deaths per 1,000 of population.

Statistics on this subject are available,

tactics

the art of arranging military forces for battle

methods

Tactics is one of the subjects studied in military academies.

Your tactics are obvious. Please, don’t insult my intelligence.

politics

a profession

political affairs, political ideas

Politics is a risky profession.

Politics have always interested me.

What are your politics?

ceramics

the art of making bricks, pots, etc.

articles produced in this way

Ceramics is my hobby.

Where he lives isn’t the provinces as far as ceramics are concerned, it’s the metropolis.

7. Subjects expressed by substantivized adjectives denoting groups of people (the blind, the dumb and deaf, the eminent, the mute, the old, the poor, the rich, etc.) always take the plural verb-predicate.

He did not look an important personage, but the emminent rarely do.

The object

§ 67. The object is a secondary part of the sentence referring to some other part of the sentence and expressed by a verb, an adjective, a stative or, very seldom, an adverb completing, specifying, or restricting its meaning.

She has bought a car.

I’m glad to see you.

She was afraid of the dog.

He did it unexpectedly to himself.

Ways of expressing the object

§ 68. The object can be expressed by:

1. A noun in the common case or a nominal phrase, a substantivized adjective or participle.

I saw the boys two hours ago.

The nurses were clad in grey.

First of all she attended to the wounded.

Greedily he snatched the bread and butter from the plate.

2. A noun-pronoun. Personal pronouns are in the objective case, other pronouns are in the common case, or in the only form they have.

I don’t know anybody here.

I could not find my own car, but I saw hers round the corner.

He says he did not know that.

3. A numeral or a phrase with a numeral.

At last he found three of them high up in the hills.

4. A gerund or a gerundial phrase.

He insists on coming.

A man hates being run after.

5. An infinitive or an infinitive phrase.

She was glad to be walking with him.

Every day I had to learn how to spell pages of words.

6. Various predicative complexes.

She felt the child trembling all over.

I want it done at once.

Everything depends on your coming in time.

7. A clause (then called an object clause) which makes the whole sentence a complex one.

I don’t know what it was.

He thought of what he was to say to all of them.

Thus from the point of view of their structure, objects may be simple, phrasal, complex or clausal.*

* Complex objects with verbal and non-verbal second elements (objective predicatives) are treated in detail in § 124-129.

Types of object

§ 69. From the point of view of their value and grammatical peculiarities, four types of objects can be distinguished in English:

the direct object, the indirect object, and the cognate object.

1. The direct object is a non-prepositional one that follows transitive verbs, adjectives, or statives and completes their meaning. Semantically it is usually a non-person which is affected by the action of the verb, though it may also be a person or a situation. The situation is expressed by a verbal, a verbal phrase, a complex, or by a clause.

I wrote a poem.

You like arguing, don’t you?

Who saw him leave?

I don’t know what it all means.

She was ready to sing.

When the direct object is expressed by an infinitive (or an infinitive phrase or a clause) it may be preceded by the formal introductory object it (see § 78).

I find it exciting to watch tennis.

He found it hard to believe the girl.

2. The indirect object also follows verbs, adjectives and statives. Unlike the direct object, however, it may be attached to intransitive verbs as well as to transitive ones. Besides, it may also be attached to adverbs, although this is very rare.

From the point of view of their semantics and certain grammatical characteristics indirect objects fall into two types:

a) The indirect object of the first type is attached only to ditransitive verbs. It is expressed by a noun or pronoun which as a rule denotes (or, in the case of pronouns, points out) a person who is the addressee or recipient of the action of the verb. So it is convenient to call an object of this type the indirect recipient object. It is joined to the headword either without a preposition or by the preposition to (occasionally for). The indirect recipient object is generally used with transitive verbs.

He gave the kid two dollars.

She did not tell anything to anyone.

Will you bring a cup of coffee for me?

b) The indirect object of the second type is attached to verbs, adjectives, statives and sometimes adverbs. It is usually a noun (less often a pronoun) denoting an inanimate object, although it may be a gerund, a gerundial phrase or complex, an infinitive complex or a clause. Its semantics varies, but it never denotes the addressee (recipient) of the action of the governing verb. So it may be called the indirect non-recipient object. The indirect non-recipient object can only be joined to its headword by means of a preposition.

One must always hope for the best.

She’s not happy about her new friend.

The indirect non-recipient object is used mainly with intransitive verbs. It is usually the only object in a sentence, at least other objects are not obligatory.

3. The cognate object is a non-prepositional object which is attached to otherwise intransitive verbs and is always expressed by nouns derived from, or semantically related to, the root of the governing verb.

The child smiled the smile and laughed the laugh of contentment.

They struck him a heavy blow.

4. The retained object. This term is to be applied in case an active construction is transformed into a passive one and the indirect object of the active construction becomes the subject of the passive construction. The second object, the direct one, may be retained in the transformation, though the action of the predicate-verb is no more directed upon it. Therefore it is called a retained object.

They gave Mary the first prize —— >

(direct object)

Mary was given the first prize

(retained object).

§ 70. The direct object is used irrespective of the absence or presence of other objects attached to the same verb.

He wrote the article two weeks ago.

Tommie did not know anything about it.

Ned ordered him to start.

Some English verbs which take a direct object correspond to Russian verbs followed by an indirect non-recipient object with a preposition. These verbs are:

to address smb

to affect smb, smth

to answer smth

to approach smb, smth

to attend smth

to enjoy smth

to enter smth

to follow smb, smth

to join smb, smth

to mount smth

to need smth, smb

to play smth

to reach smth

to watch smb, smth

- обращаться к кому-либо

- влиять на кого-либо, что-либо

- отвечать на что-либо

- подойти, приблизиться к кому-либо, чему-либо

- присутствовать на чем-либо

- получать удовольствие от чего-либо

- входить во что-либо

- следовать за кем-либо, чем-либо

- присоединяться к кому-либо, чему-либо

- сесть верхом, взобраться на что-либо

- нуждаться в чем-либо, ком-либо

- играть на чем-либо, во что-либо

- дойти, достать до чего-либо

- следить за кем-либо, чем-либо

The position of the direct object

§ 71. The most usual position of the direct object is that immediately after the predicate verb it refers to.

Then he found her in the hall.

The direct object is separated from the predicate verb in the following cases:

1. If there is a non-prepositional indirect recipient object to the same verb in the sentence. In this case the direct object follows the indirect one.

I never told him anything.

Note:

The direct object may come before the non-preposi­tional indirect object if it is the pronoun it, and the indirect object is any other personal pronoun.

I never told it him.

Give it me, will you?

2. If the direct object is modified by a phrase or a clause. In this case it may be separated from the verb by a prepositional indirect non-recipient object or an adverbial.

Ged had kept for his winter journey the cloak lined with fur.

He took into his hands a small beast.

3. If the direct object is expressed by a noun or a pronoun (except a personal pronoun) referring to a phrasal predicate verb consisting of a verbal part and a postposition such as about, back, down, in, off, on, out, over, through, up.

He laid down his stick.

Ged took off his cloak that was heavy with water.

With most of those verbs, however, the direct object may also precede the adverb.

He laid down his stick. = He laid his stick down.

If expressed by a personal pronoun, the direct object always precedes the postposition.

He laid down his stick. = He laid it down.

§ 72. The direct object comes before the predicate verb it refers to in the following cases:

1. In pronominal questions referring to the direct object or to its attribute.

What did they give you?

Whose car was he driving?

Which piece shall I take?

2. In certain exclamatory sentences.

What a wonderful boat he has built!

3. In case it is necessary to connect the idea expressed in this sentence with the preceding one. This makes the object more emphatic.

The people of the village gathered in silence to watch his quick hands.

This job too he did well and patiently.

4. For the sake of emphasis or contrast.

I enjoyed arithmetic, as always. Grammar I could not understand in the least.

The indirect object

The indirect recipient object

§ 73. As has been mentioned above, the indirect recipient object is used mainly with transitive verbs, which thus take two objects, and are accordingly called ditransitive. Verbs governing the indirect recipient object fall into two classes, which in accordance with their general semantics are called verbs of benefaction and verbs of inducement.

Verbs of benefaction denote an action that is addressed to a person or is done for that person's sake or benefit.

First she gave him his supper.

I’ve bought a pair of beautiful earrings for you , dear.

Verbs of inducеment denote an action which causes a person to do some other action.

Ann told him to leave her alone.

I beg you to forgive me.

§ 74. The indirect recipient object is generally used together with the direct object and precedes it (see the examples above).

If the indirect object is attached to a verb of benefaction, the direct object is usually a noun, a pronoun, or a clause.

Bring the man his things.

I told her everything.

They did not show him what it was.

Some verbs of benefaction can take an infinitive or a gerund as their direct object.

Help me (to) do it.

She promised me to be punctual.

Miss Craggs taught them singing.

If the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb of inducement, the direct object can only be an infinitive or an infinitive phrase.

She asked him to come to dinner.

When attached to verbs of benefaction, the indirect recipient object may sometimes be used alone, that is, without a following direct object. This occurs:

a) Where it is attached to the predicate verb in the passive.

At last the check was given her and she left.

b) After the verbs to answer, to ask, to envy, to forgive, to help, to teach.

She used to teach me once.

I’ve helped you all my life.

Note:

The indirect recipient object may also be used alone after the verbs to read, to explain, to dictate, to spell, to sing, to write, but in the case of the first five it always takes the preposition to, whereas with to write both forms are possible.

Why do you never read to me now?

Will she sing to us tonight?

At first she wrote to him twice a week.

Write me back as soon as you get the cable.

When attached to verbs of inducement, the indirect recipient object can never be used alone.

Form and position of the indirect recipient objects

§ 75. As to their form and position the following cases must be distinguished:

1. If the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb of inducement, it is always non-prepositional and has a fixed position in the sentence just before the direct object.

Mother ordered me to get down.

He urged her to write a story about it.

2. If it is attached to the verbs of benefaction to announce, to ascribe, to attribute, to communicate, to contribute, to dedicate, to dictate, to disclose, to explain, to interpret, to introduce, to open, to point out, to repeat, to submit, to suggest, it is always prepositional and has two possible positions in the sentence, either before the direct object or after it. In both cases it is governed by the preposition to. It usually precedes the direct object if the latter is modified by an attribute.

He dictated the letter to his secretary.

Up to her death in 1935 she did not open to me her secret.

Then she explained to me the cause of her refusal.

3. If the indirect recipient object is attached to a verb of benefaction other than those listed above, its form and position vary according to certain rules:

a) The indirect recipient object is non-prepositional when it precedes the direct object.

She offered him a sandwich.

Jane sang me a song.

b) The indirect recipient object is prepositional when it follows the direct object. In this case the most frequent preposition is to.

She has given some kind of task to each girl.

I’m going to offer something to you.

If the indirect recipient object denotes a person for whose benefit the action is done, it has the preposition for.

I’ll buy this for you.

с) The position of the indirect recipient object after the direct object is sometimes obligatory. This is the case either when both objects are personal pronouns, as in:

Give him to me.

Send me to them.

or when the direct object is a personal pronoun, while the indirect object is a noun, as in

Give them to Nanny.

Show it to John.

If the direct object is the pronoun it and the indirect recipient object is any other personal pronoun, the indirect recipient object may take the preposition or not.

Give it to him = Give it him.

The latter is more colloquial.

§ 76. Sometimes the indirect recipient object may be placed before the predicate verb. This occurs in the following cases:

1. In pronominal questions referring to the indirect recipient object or its attribute.

Whom did you show the brooch to ?

To whom did you send the parcel?

Which boy has she given the money to ?

To which porter did you give your suitcase?

As seen from the examples, the preposition to can either retain its position after the direct object or come before the question word. Questions of the first type are characteristic of colloquial style, while those of the second type are formal.

Note:

In colloquial speech the nominative case form who often replaces the objective form whom. In this case the preposition can only be placed at the end of the sentence.

Who did you give the money to ?

2. In attributive clauses.

This friend of his whom she had shown the letter to did not appear to know anything.

The man to whom she had given two loaves of bread never came back.

3. If the object is to be made more emphatic for the sake of contrast.

To you he’s telling his tales, not to me.

The indirect non-recipient object

§ 77. The indirect non-recipient object is a prepositional object that follows both transitive and intransitive verbs and completes their meaning, The indirect non-recipient object may be preceded by various prepositions.

I thought about it a good deal.

Invention arises from idleness.

How would you deal with the problem?

I could hardly stand on my skates then.

The formal object it

§ 78. Some verbs cannot take an infinitive object or a clausal object. In this case the formal object it precedes the notional object. It is called introductory (or anticipatory) it. The sentence thus has two objects, the formal object it and a notional object, which is an infinitive or a clause. The formal object it may be either a direct object, or an indirect non-recipient object.

1. As a direct object it occurs after the verbs to take, to like, to find, to understand, to learn and some others.

Is she to take it that everything is О.К.?

I understand it that you are my wife’s brother.

We found it difficult to talk to him.

2. As an indirect non-recipient object it occurs after certain verbs which take objects with obligatory prepositions: to count (on), to depend (on), to hear (of), to insist (on), to object (to) and some others.

He objected to it that they should be taken to the island too.

§ 79. There is another use of it as о formal object: it can be attached to transitive or intransitive verbs to convey a very vague idea of some kind of an object.

I was angry. I made him take the present away. An hour later he returned and we made it up.

We therefore decided that we would sleep out on fine nights, and hotel it , and inn it , and pub it , when it

was wet.

The cognate object

§ 80. The verbs that most frequently take a cognate object are:

to live (a life), to smile (a smile), to laugh (a laugh), to die (a death), to sigh (a sigh), to sleep (a sleep), to

dream (a dream), to run (a race), to fight (a, fight,, a battle).

He died the death of a hero.

Here she stopped and sighed a heavy sigh.

One must live one's own life, you know.

The cognate object is always used with words modifying it, never alone:

the death of a hero, a heavy sigh, one’s own life, etc.

to die the death of a hero = to die like a hero;

to sigh a heavy sigh = to sigh heavily, etc.

Semantically cognate objects characterize the action expressed by the predicate-verb. Nevertheless they are considered to be objects, not adverbial modifiers, because:

a) they are expressed by nouns without prepositions, which is not characteristic of adverbials;

b) they may occur in the position of the subject of a passive construction.

He never doubted that life should be lived as he lived.

Objects to adjectives

§ 81. There are quite a number of adjectives that can take an object, although not quite in the same way as verbs do. In the sentence these adjectives are mainly used as predicatives. The objects they take are of two kinds:

1. Direct objects expressed only by infinitives or infinitive phrases. No noun or pronoun is ever possible in this position.

Mack was very glad to get home.

Mary was happy to have met us.

II. Indirect non-recipient objects governed by various prepositions. These objects are usually expressed by a noun or pronoun, sometimes by a gerund, a gerundial phrase or complex, or by a clause, depending on the combinability of the adjective.

Now she was ready for anything.

I was surprised at her being so shy.

She was only half conscious of what was going on.

As can be seen from the above examples, structurally objects to adjectives may be of the same types as objects to verbs, that is, simple, phrasal, complex, or clausal.

Objects to statives

§ 82. The statives that can take objects are few in number. The most frequent of them are: afraid, aware, alive, ashamed, ahead, akin. Their objects may be direct infinitive or clausal objects, or an indirect non-recipient object. The latter may be expressed by a noun (pronoun), a gerund, a gerundial phrase or predicative complex, or a clause.

She had never been afraid to experiment.

I think he was afraid I shouldn’t remember him.

I was afraid of you, my pretty.

I was not aware of your being a scoundrel.

He was fully aware of what he was doing.

Objects to adverbs

§ 83. There are some adverbs which can take objects, but these can only be indirect non-recipient objects.

Fortunately for himself, he could not be present.

The attribute

§ 84. The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence which characterizes person or non-person expressed by the headword either qualitatively, quantitatively, or from the point of view of situation. Attributes may refer to nouns and other words of nominal nature, such as pronouns gerunds and substitute words, as in:

It was a letter from his devoted friend.

I mentioned it to him when he was his usual self.

One day I put the picture up again, the lifesize one.

An attribute forms a nominal phrase with its headword.

Ways of expressing attributes

§ 85. An attribute may be expressed by different parts of speech:

1. By (a) adjectives or (b) adjectival phrases, which characterize the person or non-person qualitatively or express the speaker’s attitude.

a) The sand glittered like fine white sugar in the sun.

I’ve never seen a better place.

There is nothing unusual about the letter.

Some composite adjectives may be derived from other parts of speech by means of the participle-forming suffix -ed, as in:

It was a low-ceilinged L-shaped room.

They sat on the pine-needled sand.

Some adjectives have developed from former participles II, as in;

Martin lived with his widowed mother.

He looked for his long-lost friend everywhere.

b) In any case it gave no clue to the thought then uppermost in Hercule Poirot’s mind.

He stood and raged within himself with sour despair, unable to move or say a word.

2. By pronouns or pronominal phrases, which help to identify or define persons or non-persons.

The woman by no change of face showed that his words meant anything to her.

Here’s some money for you.

Can you see those children of mine anywhere?

3. By numerals, ordinal or cardinal, which state the number or order, or serve to identify persons or non-persons, as in:

He arrived just three weeks ago.

Robert has always been the first boy in his class.

Is it part two of the book?

4. By (a) nouns in the common case singular or (b) prepositional nominal phrases, which characterize the person or non-person either qualitatively or from the point of view of its locative, temporal, or other features.

The nouns are always premodifying attributes, the prepositional nominal phrases are post modifying:

a) It happened on a December evening (декабрьский вечер).

The boy started to eat a ham roll (булочка с ветчиной).

The garden wall was almost ruined (садовая стена).

There was a honeymoon couple among the passengers (пара, проводящая медовый месяц).

b) The new secretary, on promotion from the general office, was a widow of fifty.

He was a man of very regular habits.

Anything of interest this morning, Miss Lemon?

In some cases the attribute and its headword form a closely connected unit, such as the continent of Europe (Европейский континент), the name of Brighton Kurby (имя Брайтон Кёрби), the village of Crowie (деревня Кроул). Although the prepositional group is a subordinate and characterizing element, modifying the first word, its informative value is much greater than that of the first element.

In structures of this type the semantic roles of the elements may be reversed: the first (subordinating) element becomes a modifying word, the second (subordinated) - the modified one, as in:

his carrot of a nose (нос морковкой; не нос, а морковка),

an angel of a girl (не девушка, а ангел),

a hell of a noise (адский шум, шум как в аду),

a jewel of a nature (золотой характер; не характер, а золото).

Though logically his carrot of a nose means that the nose is characterized as resembling a carrot, syntactically it is the word carrot that is modified by the of-phrase of a nose, the indefinite article performing its usual classify­ing function. The modified word is not always semantically acceptable as part of the sentence without the of -phrase, which shows the semantic dependence of the modified element on the modifying one. This, together with the fact that logical and syntactic relations are reversed, accounts for the marked stylistic effect of these structures.

His left hand was holding a skyscraper of a silver cup.

High above the bank is another eagle’s nest of a castle.

Russian phrases of a similar kind - не девка, а огонь; не ребенок, а сущий дьяволенок, unlike the parallel English phrases, are rarely included in extended sentences.

Note:

Phrases like sort of tired (I feel sort of tired), kind of tiresome (The situation becomes kind of tiresome), etc., form one syntactic whole and cannot be treated as free syntactic phrases consisting of a headword modified by a prepositional attribute. The first element expresses approximation - a moderate degree of the quality denoted.

5. By nouns or pronouns in the genitive case.

He caught the sound of the children’s voices.

The ocean’s vastness was so great that it held him spellbound.

Nelson had asked Mary’s father’s consent before proposing.

If the headword is omitted (when the sentence is elliptical) the modifying word should still be considered as an attribute.

Suppose those postcards are a lunatic’s?

She heard the voice of another man, perhaps it was the water-carrier’s and then a woman’s, shrill and

hysterical.

6. By statives, although these are rarely used as attributes. They usually postmodify the headword, though may occur as premodifying.

No man alive would ever think of such cruelty.

She gazed at us with an aloof air.

7. By (a) participles I and II and (b) participial phrases, characterizing the person or non-person through an action, process, or reaction.

a) He made his way down the creaking stairs.

The mild day died in a darkening flush of twilight.

They stood contemplating the suited dummies in the lighted windows of the shop.

They stood at the car being refuelled and watched the meter.

b) Captain Nichols dragged Strickland, bleeding from a wound in his arm, into the street.

There was a tiny smile playing about the corners of his mouth.

Vincent glanced over at Christine knitting by the fire.

Beside her stood a straw basket stuffed with many towels and a pair of beach shoes.

8. By (a) gerunds, (b) gerundial phrases, or (c) gerundial complexes. Gerunds generally characterize non-persons from the point of view of their function or purpose.

a) Back at the hotel he slipped on a white rowing blazer (the blazer which the members of the boat-club

wore).

Her walking shoes were elegant (shoes which she wore when walking).

(Compare these with attributes expressed by participle I, in the sentences given above (7), which denote an action, process or reaction sometimes figuratively.)

b) He would not run the risk of being too late.

She showed no sign of having ever known me.

The young man had the most irritating habit of joking at the wrong moment.

c) The silence was interrupted by the sound of a door being banged.

There is no chance of our seeing him again.

9. By (a) infinitives, (b) infinitivel phrases, or (c) complexes, which characterize a person or non-person through some real or hypothetical action in which this person or non-person is or may be involved. Owing to the hypothetical nature of the action, an infinitive as attribute often imparts a modal shade of meaning to the action.

a) You are the one to blame (who is to blame).

I haven’t any time to spare (which I could spare).

b) He looked around for a weapon to strike his insulter with.

He was not a man to experiment with acquaintance.

There was nothing in the look of him to show the courage of the man (nothing which could show

courage).

He was the last to tell of this extraordinary raid from the deeper sea (who could tell).

c) This is a problem for you to solve. (which you could/must solve).

10. By (a) adverbs or (b) adverbial phrases, which characterize a person or non-person through spatial or temporal characteris­tics, or through circumstances or facts concerning this person or non-person.

a) No sounds came from the quarters above.

The then Government did not respond to this just claim.

Somebody appeared on the upstairs balcony.

“I see that woman downstairs has a couple of sailors sitting there.”

An immense effort of imagination was needed to link himself now with himself then.

The most usual position of such attributes is to follow the headword.

b) Most people living in out of the way places expect the latest news from home with impatience.

11. By sentences used as a whole (the so-called “quotation nouns”). These are used mainly as hyphenated chains before the headword.

She looked at me with a kind of don’t-touch-me-or-I’ll-slap-you air.

It was a ‘You-must-take-us-as-you-find-its’ attitude to things, and it saved me a lot of trouble... In this ‘a-

place-for-everything-and-everything-in-its-place’ kitchen he felt ill at ease.

12. By a clause (then called an attributive clause) which makes the whole sentence a complex one.

Some called me by the name which no one here knew.

The position of attributes

§ 86. The position of an attribute depends on the following:

1. The morphological nature of the attribute. Adjectives, participles, gerunds, nouns in the common and the possessive cases, pronouns, ordinal numerals, and quotation nouns generally premodify the headword.

He was a little man, with a thin voice.

Val had just changed out of riding clothes and was on his way to the party.

The apple trees were in blossom.

It’s not always easy to understand a child’s language.

The third attempt gave no result.

His eyes travelled over the landscape at their feet.

Adverbs, statives, cardinal numerals and infinitives are generally postmodifying attributes.

Participles II, statives, and adjectives of verbal origin used as attrib­utes also tend to occupy the position after the headword.

The people involved were reported to the police.

When we build cities we think about generations unborn.

Adjectives ending in -able, -ible are mostly postpositive as attributes. They often follow a headword preceded by only or a similar word with a limiting meaning.

The only person visible was the policeman (who could be seen).

The only way of escaping imaginable was through the window (which could be imagined).

2. Тhe extension of the attribute. Non-detached attributes are postmodifying when expressed by extended phrases or complexes.

The influence of extension can be illustrated by the following pairs of examples:

It is a sensible suggestion.

He found himself in a difficult situation.

It is a suggestion sensible in many ways.

He found himself in a situation difficult from his point of view.

Here are some more examples:

They passed the bodies of British soldiers killed that night.

It was a little log house with whitewashed walls.

He held a letter in his hands, a letter from his mother.

He appeared to be a small man of about fifty.

They chose a way longer than the other.

3. The morphological nature of the headword. Such words as demonstrative or indefinite pronouns and numerals cannot have an attribute in preposition.

Those coming first occupied the best seats.

Most of their time animals spend in search of something eatable.

There is nothing interesting in this book.

All present were disgusted by his behaviour.

Note 1:

Non-detached postmodifying attributes are found in traditional phrases borrowed from French or Latin, such as blood royal, time immemorial, the second person plural, heir apparent (heir presumptive). Lords spiritual, Lords temporal.

Note 2:

There are cases when the headword is embedded between parts of the attribute, as in:

I was told that you were the best man available (the best available man).

Types of connection between an attribute and its headword

§ 87. From the point of view of their connection with the headword and other parts of the sentence, attributes may be divided into nondetached (close) and detached (loose) ones.

Non-detached attributes

§ 88. Non-detached attributes form one sense group with their head­word and are not separated from it by commas.

They generally adjoin the headword, either premodifying, postmodify­ing, or embedding it, and are connected with other parts of the sentence only through the headword.

Non-detached premodifying attributes may be unextended, consisting of one word only, or form chains of homogeneous attributes with identical reference, as in: a nice girl, a pretty house; crimson, white, and yellow flowers.

Attributes with identical reference (crimson flowers, white flowers, and yellow flowers - crimson, white, and yellow flowers) are usually inter­changeable (yellow, white, and crimson flowers) and are set off by commas (crimson, white, yellow flowers) or joined by a conjunction as they are in the example given above.

Attributes may form a string with different reference, that is, those of them which are closer to the noun form one whole with subsequent words:

her usual (good temper);

a clever (young man) (compare with crimson, white, yellow flowers);

a large black and white (hunting dog).

In the word-group a large black and white hunting dog the adjective large refers to black and white hunting dog, black and white, refers to hunting dog, and hunting refers to dog. This relation of attributes embedded inside a string of them requires a fixed order and no comma is used to separate them. The phrase an old lady’s hat allows of two possible interpretations: (An old lady)’s hat and an old (lady’s hat).

If there are relations other than attributive within the string of premo­difying words, the whole string functions as one attribute. In this case they are usually hyphenated, as in:

most deeply-felt emotions; too-new shoes, a word-for-word translation, a brass-coffee-pot-like thing (a

thing looking like a brass coffee-pot);

a dirty-collar, unbrushed-coat man (a man with a dirty collar and in an unbrushed coat).

One of the characteristic features of English, especially in academic and newspaper style is a marked tendency to form long strings of phrasal attributes (usually called compositional phrases), which express in a com­pressed form the content of a clause or sentence and which can be easily turned into one, if necessary form words are added (prepositions, link verbs, etc.) and the morphological changes are introduced, as in:

Fish-breeding plants. (Plants that breed fish.)

Efficient salt-producing mines. (Mines that produce salt efficiently.)

The uranium-supply industry. (Industry that supplies uranium to...)

The last decade’s scarcity of hands in the country. (In the last decade hands were scarce in the country.)

The long-looked-for hours. (The hours which were looked for long.)

Detached attributes

§ 89. A detached attribute is only loosely connected with its headword and is often optional from the point of view of structure, although very important semantically. It forms a separate sense group in speech and is accordingly separated by commas in writing.

A detached attribute may be placed in preposition, post-position, or often at some distance from the headword.

Carrie looked about her, very much disturbed and quite sure that she did not want to work here.

Unlike non-detached attributes, a detached attribute may modify personal and relative pronouns.

Big and strong, he impressed us greatly.

Very often a detached attribute refers not only to the headword, but also to another part of the sentence, thus forming a double connection. For example, a detached attribute referring both to the subject of the sentence and to the predicate may have in addition to its attributive meaning some adverbial shade of meaning, such as conditional, causal, or concessive.

And for a moment I hesitated, unable to start talking (as I was unable to start talking).

Familiar with these details, Michael paid them little attention (because he was familiar with these

details).

The apposition

§ 90. An apposition is a part of the sentence expressed by a noun or nominal phrase and referring to another noun or nominal phrase (the headword), or sometimes to a clause.

The apposition may give another designation to, or description of, the person or non-person, or else put it in a certain class of persons or non-persons. In the latter case it is similar to an attribute, as it characterizes the person or non-person denoted by the headword.

Beyond the villa, a strange-looking building, began the forest.

He had remembered her at once, for he always admired her, a very pretty creature.

He knows about everything - a man of the world.

The whole thing was indescribable - a terrific spectacle, a stupendous symphony of sound.

Like the attribute, the apposition may be in preposition or postposition. However, unlike the attribute, which is always subordinated to its headword and is usually connected with other parts in the sentence only through it, words in apposition are, at least syntactically, coordinated parts, that is, both the headword and the apposition are constituents of the same level in the sentence. This may be illustrated by two possible types of transformation of sentences with words in apposition.

Mr Smith, the local doctor,

was known to everybody.

The local doctor, Mr Smith,

was known to everybody.

However, an apposition can rarely replace the headword in the sentence. Substitution is possible only if the apposition meets the following conditions:

1. It denotes the same person or non-person as the headword.

Winterbourne was back on the Somme, that incredible desert, pursuing the retreating enemy.

If it puts the person or non-person in a certain class of persons or nonpersons, no substitution is possible. Thus the sentence Mr Smith, a local doctor, was known to everybody cannot be transformed into the sentence *A local doctor was known to everybody.

2. It is expressed by words of the same morphological class as its headword. Otherwise the apposition may be unacceptable in the structure of the sentence because of its grammatical or lexical meaning. This can be illustrated by the sentence: She was seized by a gust of curiosity to see that wife of his, which does not allow the substitution of the apposition for the headword - She was seized by a gust of to see that wife of his.

3. It follows the headword immediately and has no dependent words which may hinder substitution. Otherwise, the dependent words may block the connection and make the apposition unacceptable in the structure of the sentence. Thus, the sentence John, at that time a student, wrote several articles on architecture cannot be transformed into At that lime a student wrote several articles on architecture, for it changes the meaning of the sentence altogether.

The sentences discussed above show the peculiarity of the appositive relation: although it resembles coordination syntactically (in that the headword and the apposition are constituents of the same level within the sentence), communicatively they are not of the same rank.

Appositions may be joined by a coordinating conjunction, or follow one another asyndetically. In both cases appositions refer directly to the headword.

Dr and Mrs Macphail were left alone.

A man of action and a born leader, now forced into a state of thought, he was unhappy.

A daughter of poor but honest parents, I have no reason to be ashamed of my origins.

Types of connection between an apposition and its headword

§ 91. From the point of view of their relation to the headword, appositions, like attributes, are subdivided into non-detached (close) and detached (loose) ones.

Non-detached appositions

§ 92. Non-detached appositions form one sense group with their headword and very often enter into such close relation with it that the two words form one whole. This is especially true in the case of titles, military ranks, professions, kinship terms, geographical denotations, etc., used as apposition.

Sir Peter, Mr Brown, Doctor Watson, Colonel Davidson, Uncle Podger, Mount Everest, the River Thames.

Being very closely connected with each other such appositions and their headwords may be treated as indivisible word-groups.*

* See also § 36 item 6.

Detached appositions

§ 93. Detached, or loose appositions form separate sense groups and are wider in their meaning than close appositions: they may give identification, explanation, etc., especially when referring to pronouns. They may follow the headword immediately or be separated from it.

He actually envied Jolyon the reputation of succeeding where he, Soames, had failed.

Cooper was three inches taller than Mr Warburton, a strong, muscular young man.

An apposition may also refer to a clause or a sentence, usually as an explanatory remark.

The night was muggy, a bit drizzly, windless, and very dark - the ideal conditions for a gas bombardment.

The adverbial modifier

§ 94. The adverbial modifier (or the adverbial) is a secondary part of the sentence which modifies another part of the sentence expressed either by a verb (in a finite or non-finite form), or an adjective, or a stative, or an adverb.

In case it modifies a verb the adverbial characterizes the action or process expressed by tlie verb and denotes its quality, quantity, or the whole situation.

The adverbial modifier may refer to:

a) The predicate-verb or to a verbal phrase.

John spoke in a whisper.


Bowen read the telegram aloud .


b) The whole of the sentence, especially if placed at the beginning of the sentence.

In the evening they gathered together again.


If an adverbial modifies a non-finite form, it becomes part of a gerundial, participial, or infinitive phrase or construction.

Felicity fell to the ground and after lying still for a moment began to crawl forward.

Scobie watched the bearers go slowly up the hill, their bare feet very gently flapping the ground.

Adverbials modifying adjectives, statives and adverbs usually denote degree or quantity. These adverbials modify:

a) Adjectives in their attributive or predicative function.

It was a very long story.


The story was extremely long.


He is six feet tall.


b) Statives in their predicative function.

I am quite aware of the situation.


c) Adverbs in their main function as an adverbial.

You speak English rather fluently.


Obligatory and non-obligatory adverbial modifiers

§ 95. Adverbials are structurally more independent of the verb than objects. Their use is often optional. However, when introduced into the sentence, adverbials are of great communicative value. Thus in the sentence Professor Brown is leaving for London to-morrow, both adverbials for London and to-morrow give important pieces of information, although grammatically the sentence Professor Brown is leaving is complete.

Adverbials are obligatory when the sentence structure demands one or when their absence changes the meaning of the verb. This is the case:

a) After the verbs to behave, to act, to treat.

He behaved bravely. *He behaved has no sense.

The Murdstones treated David cruelly. - Мердстоны жестоко обращались с Давидом.

The doctor treated David - доктор лечил Давида.

b) After statal and durative verbs, such as to live, to dwell, to wait, to last, to weigh.

John lives in London. (John lives has a different meaning: ‘he exists’, ‘he is alive’.)

The lecture lasted two hours.

c) After transitive verbs implying direction, such as to put, to take, to send.

Put the book on the shelf.

Take these letters to the post-office.

d) After intransitive verbs of motion and position in space, such as

to come, to go, to arrive, to return, to step, to sit, to lie, to stand.

Brett went to the dressing-room.

Robert was standing at the window.

The absolute use of the above verbs, that is without adverbials, is possible if the speaker is interested in the process itself or if the use of an adverbial is unnecessary because of the situation.

He was too weak to stand.

Everybody has come.

e) When an adverbial influences the meaning of a verb form .

I am going to the library to-morrow, (‘am going’ denotes intention, not an action).

f) When its absence changes the measing of the rest of the sentence.

Can you speak English without making mistakes?

I’ve never been there since my childhood.

Non-obligatory adverbials are those which are not necessary for the structure of the sentence. They neither influence the meaning of the verb form, nor change the structure or the meaning of the rest of the sentence, no matter how important they are from the communicative viewpoint.

She left the room without saying a word.

Before speaking he pressed the bell at his side.

Detached adverbial modifiers

§ 96. Detached adverbials being more loosely related to the modified parts of the sentence than non-detached adverbials are never obligatory. They are separated from the rest of the sentence by intonation in speaking and by commas in writing. Detachment of adverbials may be caused by various factors, the most important of which are their meaning, the form of expression, their extension, their position in the sentence, or the speaker’s desire for emphasis. Owing to their structure and meaning, absolute constructions are nearly always detached:

Wesley saw the boat, its decks deserted.

Participial phrases as adverbials also tend to be detached.

She then returned to her place, not having spoken another word.

Adverbials are detached when they are placed m an unusual position, as in the following examples:

Like him, she saw danger in it.

Randall, for all his tiresomeness and badness, had always been her Randall.

Any adverbial may be detached if the speaker wishes to emphasize its meaning.

“He was her father,” said Frances Wilmot, gravely.

Ways of expressing adverbial modifiers

§ 97. Adverbials are grouped according to their structure (ways of expression) and their meaning. There is no one-to-one correspondence between these two groupings, though we may observe certain tendencies in the ways of expressing this or that kind of adverbial modifier.

An adverbial modifier may be expressed by:

1. An adverb (sometimes preceded by a preposition).

Jane sings beautifully.

George is always busy.

The ship sailed east.

2. An adverbial phrase, with an adverb as headword.

We met ten years ago and parted two years later.

They worked till late at night.

3. A noun, pronoun or numeral preceded by a preposition or prepositional nominal phrase.

A dim light was burning in the archway under the inner gate.

Beyond it Mr Watson could see the outer gate.

Behind him he could hear Kirstie sobbing.

We met in 1975.

Classes begin on the first of September.

4. A noun without a preposition or a non-preposi­tional noun phrase, the latter usually containing such words as this, that, every, last, next.

Wait a minute!

Come this way, please.

We meet every day.

5. A non-finite verb form:

a) a gerund or a gerundial phrase.

Remember to open the window before doing your morning exercises.

One day, on returning to his hotel, he found a note in his room.

b) an infinitive or an infinitive phrase.

The problem is too difficult to solve.

We’ve come here to ask you a favour.

c) a participle or a participial phrase.

Sighing, Betty returned to the kitchen.

Pounding the house, they entered a quiet, walled garden.

6. A predicative complex:

a) a gerundial construction.

Are you angry because of my being late?

b) a for-to-infinitive construction.

The problem is too difficult for a child to solve.

c) a non-prepositional or prepositional absolute construction.

The meal over, they went to the fuel store.

There having been no rain, the earth was dry.

Earphones on, Fred sat alone in Ivor’s room.

I don’t want to quarrel with the children listening.

7. An adjective, an adverb, a participle, a noun, a prepositional phrase, an infinitive, an infinitive or participial phrase introduced by a conjunction.

I’ll come earlier if necessary.

Her conduct when there was most unaccountable.

When argued with, Ida had one answer.

As a little girl she used to make daisy-chains.

I began to wonder whether he'd manage to give an interview while still in his right mind.

He quickly did this, and while doing it dropped his umbrella.

As if to bring matters to a focus, Tess’s father was heard approaching at that moment.

8. A Clause (as part of a complex sentence).

Won’t you stay till the rain stops?

We stayed at home because it rained.

Structural classification of the adverbial modifier

§ 98. From the point of view of its structure the adverbial modifier, may be simple, phrasal, complex, clausal.

We started early.

We started at five in the morning.

John sat with his elbows on the table and his hands clasped.

When the cat is away, the mice will play.

Semantic characteristics of the adverbial modifier

§ 99. Semantically adverbials denote place, time, manner, cause, purpose, result, condition, concession, attendant circumstances, comparison, degree, measure, exception, thus forming semantic classes, such as adverbials of place, time, etc.

The semantic class of an adverbial may be identified directly (absolutely) or indirectly (relatively). It is identified directly by lexical meaning of the word or phrase used as an adverbial, as in:

I saw him yesterday. (time)

She spoke in a loud voice. (manner)

In other cases the semantic type is identified relatively, that is, only through the relationship of the adverbial to the modified part of the sentence, as is often the case with participles, infinitives, and some preposi­tional phrases. Thus the phrase with fear functions as an adverbial of manner in the sentence She spoke with fear and as an adverbial of reason in the sentence She shook with fear. The phrase Walking along the track to Buckmaster’s denotes motion in some direction, but in the sentence Walk­ing along the track towards Buckmaster’s Bowen burst into song it acquires temporal meaning and serves as an adverbial of time.

In the majority of cases, an identifying question may help to distinguish between adverbial modifiers from the semantic point of view. When? suggests time, where? - place, in what case? - condition, etc. However, it is not always possible to find an identifying question for every adverbial. Sometimes one and the same question word may correspond to different kinds of adverbials. Thus how? may suggest manner, comparison and degree. On the other hand such adverbials as those of result and attendant circumstances have no corresponding question words.

Semantic classes of adverbial modifiers

The adverbial of place

§ 100. This adverbial expresses:

a) Place proper.

John was born in Australia, but lives in England.

b) Direction or destination.

He moved to Australia in 1975.

c) Distance.

He lives far from his parents.

The identifying questions are where? for place proper, where to? where from? - for direction, where? how far? - for distance.

The adverbial of time

§ 101. The adverbial of time has four variations:

a) The adverbial of time proper denotes the time of some event. It may be expressed in almost all the ways enumerated in § 97.

We shall meet tomorrow.

Ten days later she returned.

When angry count a hundred.

b) The adverbial of frequency indicates how often the event denoted by the predicate takes place. It is mostly placed before the notional part of the predicate (if it is expressed by an adverb).

I am always careful.

We often see each other.

Does he ever visit museums? - Once in a blue moon.

He calls me from time to time.

We have a get-together every year.

Adverbials of frequency are expressed by adverbs and adverbial phrases.

c) The adverbial of duration indicates the period of time during which some event takes place. They are often expressed by preposi­tional phrases with prepositions for, during, since, till, until. The preposition since denotes the starting point and the preposition till/until - the final point of some period.

Have you been there long? - A couple of hours.

They want to rest (for) a day or two.

The sun gives us light during the day.

We are to wait till the end of the exam.

This has been going on since our arrival.

He lived to be ninety.

Note:

The preposition for is optional after the verbs of duration.

d) The adverbial of time relationship presents the idea of time as related to some other event in time. This adverbial is expressed by such adverbs as still, yet, already, at last, before, after, by a noun, a gerund, or a prepositional phrase with the prepo­sitions by, before, after.

Thus the sentence It was still raining implies that it had been raining for some time before.

He hasn’t given his consent yet means that up to now we do not know anything about his consent.

The train has left already means that it has left by this time.

He graduated at last suggests after a long time or delay.

Here are some other examples of adverbial of time relationship:

Promise to come back by the end of the week.

We’ll see about it after classes.

Before answering the Boss stepped back to the chair and sank into it.

The same relationship can be seen in sentences with participial phrases, as in:

Arthur, having read the letter twice, put it in an envelope. (After he had read the letter twice...)

The adverbial of manner

§ 102. The adverbial of manner characterizes the action of the verb by indicating the way it is performed or by what means it is achieved. The identifying questions are how? in what way? by what means?

Adverbials of manner are mainly expressed by adverbs or prepositional phrases (including gerundial phrases) introduced by the prepositions with, without, by, by means of, or with the help of, the latter three suggesting means.

Hooper danced badly, but energetically.

She walked with short quick steps.

You begin learning a language by listening to the new sounds.

Thoughts are expressed by means of (with the help of) words.

Adverbials of manner may also be expressed by participial phrases and absolute constructions.

I looked up again and saw that coming from the door behind Palmer, she had entered the room.

She said the last words with a voice lowered.

Some adverbials of manner border on the instrumental object in cases like the following:

He opened the tin with a knife.

The identifying questions are either How did he open the tin? or What did he open the tin with?

The adverbial of cause (reason)

§ 103. The identifying questions, of this adverbial are why? for what reason? because of what? due to what? Adverbials of reason are expressed by prepositional nominal phrases, participial and infinitive phrases, sometimes by absolute constructions.

Most prepositions of reason are composite and the causal meaning of the phrase, and thus of the adverbial modifier, is due to the meaning of the preposition, for example, because of, due to, owing to, on account of, for the reason of, thanks to and some others.

You mean you’ve failed because of me?

The accident happened owing to bad driving.

Thanks to my parents I got a decent education.

A number of polysemantic prepositions acquire causal meaning when combined with nouns denoting a psychological or physical state.

She couldn’t speak for happiness (anger, fear, joy).

She cried out of fear (anger).

She did it out of pity (spite).

Many people have come here from curiosity.

He was trembling with hatred.

Participial phrases and nominative absolute constructions are freely used as adverbials of reason, most often with the verb to be and verbs of feeling, wish, or mental perception.

I was happy just being with him.

Wanting a cigarette, I took out my case.

There being nothing else to do, we went home.

The adverbial of purpose

§ 104. This adverbial answers the identifying questions what for? for what purpose? It is most frequently expressed by an infinitive, an infinitive phrase or complex.

Jane has come to help us.

I’ve repeated my words for you to remember them.

The meaning of purpose may be emphasized by the composite prepositions in order or so as, which are never used before an infinitive complex.

We must go early in order not to be late.

We hurried so as not to be late.

The adverbial of purpose may also be expressed by a noun, a preposi­tional phrase, nominal or gerundial, introduced by the preposition for.

We reserved this table for lunch.

We use the thermometer for measuring temperature.

After the imperative of the verbs to go and to come another imperative is preferable to the infinitive, as in:

Go and help him. (Not Go to help him.)

Come and wash up. (Not Come to wash up.)

The use is optional for the verb to see.

Come to see me, or Come and see me.

Go to see him, or Go and see him.

The adverbial of result (consequence)

§ 105. The adverbial of result has no identifying questions. It refers to an adjective, a noun with qualitative meaning, or an adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree, such as too, enough, sufficiently, so... (as). The adverbial of result is expressed by an infinitive, an infinitive phrase, or complex.

It is too cold to go out.

The lecturer spoke slowly enough for us to take down everything he said.

He was fool enough to believe it.

John was so fortunate as to get the first prize.

He felt he was enough of a citizen of the world not to mind it.

The adverbial of degree too signals a negative result, enough suggests the necessary amount of quality to perform the action. The correlative phrase so... as implies a realized action, unlike the phrase so as before adverbials of purpose suggesting a hypothetical event. Compare these sentences:

John was so fortunate as to get the first prize (and he got it) - result.

John trained hours so as to get the first prize for boating (we do not know whether he has got it or not) –

purpose.

The adverbial of condition

§ 106. The identifying questions are in what case? or on what condition? The adverbial of condition is generally expressed by a noun or a pronoun, or by a prepositional phrase (nominal or sometimes gerundial) with the prepositions but for, except for, without.

But for you I wouldn’t be here at all.

Except for the sound of his breathing I wouldn’t have known he was there.

Without faith there can be no cure.

This adverbial is sometimes expressed by a participle or an adjective with the conjunctions if or unless.

Jane won’t sing unless asked to.

We’ll come earlier if necessary.

Less frequently it is an infinitive or a participle.

I would have done better to have followed my first thought.

Skilfully managed, conversation with him might prove amusing.

The adverbial of concession

§ 107. This adverbial expresses some idea that contradicts what is stated in the modified part of the sentence. Thus in its meaning it is opposite to the adverbial of reason. The identifying question is in spite of what?

The adverbial of concession is expressed by a prepositional phrase introduced by in spite of, despite, for all, with all and phrases introduced by the conjunction though.

In spite of his anger John listened to me attentively.

Cleary, for all his reputation, was already out of date.

With all his faults, I like him.

Though a bad painter, he had a delicate feeling for art.

Note:

The conjunction if introduces concessive adverbials in cases like the following:

Your remark is witty, if rather cruel (...хотя и несколько жестокое).

Adverbials of attendant circumstances and subsequent events

§ 108. These adverbials have no identifying questions. The adverbial of attendant circumstances expresses some fact that accompanies the event presented by the modified part of the sentence. This adverbial may be expressed by a gerundial phrase, a participial phrase, any kind of absolute construction, and rather rarely by an infinitive phrase.

We walked three miles without meeting anyone (and did not meet anyone)

“No,” said Gabriel, turning to his wife (and turned to his wife)

I dropped my fists and walked away, “Scout’s a coward” ringing in my ears.

In the study with the door closed, he stood before the window, smoking his pipe.

The adverbial of subsequent events points out an event following the event presented in the modified part of the sentence. This adverbial is most frequently expressed by an infinitive, or sometimes by a participle.

He woke up to see that it was daylight.

They said something to her, receiving no answer.

The adverbial of comparison

§ 109. This adverbial is introduced by the conjunctions than, as, as if, as though or the preposition like. The adverbial with than is preceded by the comparative of the adverb or the adjective it modifies, the adverbial with as - by the correlative adverbs as or so:

A mountain is higher than a hill.

The boy is now as tall as his father.

Tom is not so tall as his brother.

Tom speaks French as fluently as a born Frenchman.

Tom speaks French like a Frenchman.

The difference between the use of like and as is important.

Ann talked to us like a teacher means that Ann is not a teacher, whereas the sentence Ann talked to us as a teacher implies that she is a teacher and in talking to us her professional manner was apparent.

The conjunctions as if and as though give the comparison a modal shade of meaning: They precede a participle, an infinitive, or a prepositional phrase, as in:

As if obeying him, I turned and stared into his face.

He prospered greatly, almost as though against his will.

The adverbial of degree

§ 110. This adverbial modifies various parts of the sentence expressed by verbs, adjectives, adverbs and statives, characterizing actions, states and quality from the viewpoint of their intensity. The identifying questions being how much? to what extent?

Adverbials of degree are expressed mainly by adverbs and by preposi­tional phrases with the preposition to.

The story is extremely long.

All was planned to the split second.

Now you may read to your hearts content.

Sometimes nouns can be modified by an adverbial of degree, as in:

You are quite a man, my boy.

The adverbial of measure

§ 111. This adverbial is expressed by a noun denoting a unit of measure (length, time, weight, money, temperature).

It is used after statal verbs denoting processes, states, or characteristics allowing measurement, such as to measure, to last, to wait, to sleep, to walk, to run, to weigh, to cost. Nouns as adverbials of measure are preceded by numerals or the indefinite article in its, numerical function.

The room measures 30 feet across.

We walked (for) five miles.

The box weighs a ton.

The temperature went down ten degrees below zero.

The adverbial of exception

§ 112. This adverbial is expressed by nouns or prepositional phrases introduced by the prepositions but, except, save, but for, except for, save for, apart from, aside from, with the exclusion of.

I looked everywhere except in the bedroom.

Your English is decent apart from spelling.

The road was empty except for a few cars.

The prepositions save and save for are more formal and occur in writing, as in:

These men were in fact quite civil save during certain weeks of autumn and winter.

Independent elements of the sentence

§ 113. Independent elements of the sentence, as the term implies, generally are not grammatically dependent on any particular part of the sentence, but as a rule refer to the sentence as a whole. Only occasionally they may refer to a separate part of the sentence. The independent element may consist of a word or a phrase. Its position is more free than that of any other parts of the sentence and accordingly it may occur in different positions in the sentence.

There are two groups of independent elements:

I. Direct address. A direct address is the name of a person (or occasionally a non-person) to whom the rest of the sentence is addressed. It may be emotionally charged or neutral, but semantically it does not influence the sentence.

I’m sorry, Major, we had an arrangement.

Jenny, darling, don’t say such things.

How’s the world, good friend?

II. Parenthesis. As to its meaning the parenthesis may be of several types:

a) It may express the speaker’s attitude to the relation between what is expressed in the sentence and reality (perhaps, maybe, certainly, of course, evidently, oh, Goodness Gracious, etc.).

Undoubtedly you are both excellent engineers.

Surely he had too wide a mouth.

The cottages were, in fact, boxlike and rather towny.

Oh, we can’t go.

b) It may connect the sentence it belongs to with the preceding or the following one expressing different relations (first, firstly, secondly, finally, after all, moreover, besides, by the way, on the contrary, that is (i.e.), for example (eg), etc.).

I was listening and thinking. Besides, I wanted to tell you something.

After all, he'd only been doing his duty.

Finally the whole party started walking.

c) It may specify that which is said in the sentence or express a comment (according to my taste, in my opinion, to tell the truth, in other words, as is known, by the way, etc.).

According to your theory, we’re in a mighty soulful era.

To tell you the truth, the total was more than a thousand francs.

As a rule a parenthesis refers to the sentence (or clause) as a whole.

Frankly speaking, he had been amazed at his failure.

This streak of light was, in all likelihood, a gleam from a lantern.

Sometimes, however, a parenthesis refers only to, a secondary part of the sentence.

Miss Barlett might reveal unknown depths of strangeness, though not, perhaps, of meaning.

As to its morphological nature, a parenthesis can be expressed by:

1. A modal word:

perhaps, no doubt, indeed, certainty, in fact, evidently, maybe, etc.

Perhaps they would go soon.

2. An interjection:

oh, ah, eh, dear me, by God, Good heavens, etc.

You like the outfit, eh?

Dear me, I had no idea you were such a determined character.

3. A conjunct (that is, an adverb combining the function of a parenthesis with that of a connector):

finally, anyway, consequently, besides, moreover, otherwise, etc.

But there’s no chance here. Besides, he couldn’t make two ends meet on the job.

4. A prepositional phrase:

in my opinion, in short, by the way, on the other hand, on the contrary, at least, to one's surprise, etc.

In my opinion you are wrong.

You can’t make me! In short, I won’t do it.

5. An infinitive phrase:

to tell the truth, to be sure, to begin with, to do smb justice, etc.

That was, so to speak, another gift for you.

To do that lady justice, Miss Spencer bore the ordeal very well.

6. A participial phrase:

frankly speaking, strictly speaking, generally speaking, etc.

Generally speaking I think you’re right.

7. A clause (see the item on parenthetical clauses).

As it was, Nell departed with surprising docility.

WORD ORDER

§ 114. The words in an English sentence are arranged in a certain order, which is fixed for every type of the sentence, and is therefore meaningful. We find several principles determining word order in a sentence, so that word order fulfils several functions - grammatical, emphatic, or communicative, and linking. These functions are manifested in different arrangements of the parts of the sentence.

The grammatical function of word order

§ 115. The main function of word order is to express grammati­cal relations and determine the grammatical status of a word by fixing its position in the sentence. There exist two ways of arranging words - direct word order and inverted word order.

Direct word order

§ 116. The most common pattern for the arrangement of the main parts in a declarative sentence is Subject - Predicate - (Object), which is called direct word order. Direct word order is also employed in pronominal questions to the subject or to its attribute.

Direct word order allows of only few variations in the fixed pattern, and then only for the secondary parts. Thus if there are two objects, the indirect one precedes the direct one, or the prepositional follows the direct one. Thus the pattern has the following form:

Subject - Predicate -

Indirect object - Direct object

Direct object - Prepositional object

The birds have come.

Ann has seen this film.

The boy gave me no answer.

The boy gave no answer to me.

As to other secondary parts of the sentence, such as attributes and adverbial modifiers, their position is less fixed. Usually those words that are closely connected tend to be placed together. Accordingly secondary parts referring to their headwords are placed close to them, or are incorporated into, or else frame them up. Thus attributes either premodify or postmodify or frame up their headwords: a bright morning, the problems involved, the scene familiar to us, the happiest man alive, the best skier in the world.

Adverbials and different form words seem to be the most movable parts in the sentence. Their mobility is partly accounted for by their varied reference to different parts of the sentence.

The place of adverbials

§ 117. When referring to a verb adverbials may be placed in:

1.Front position.

Again he was late.

2. Contact preposition.

He often said it. He occasionally sees them.

3. Interposition between the elements of a composite verbal part.

He has never seen her.

The latter position is occupied mainly by adverbs of indefinite time and degree: already, always, sometimes, often, hardly, still, just.

In case the predicate includes more than one auxiliary or a modal verb and an auxiliary, the adverbial is usually placed after the first one, although it may also occur after the second one.

This principle must constantly be borne in mind.

It must be constantly borne in mind.

Adverbials may sometimes separate the particle to from the infinitive. This construction is called the split infinitive.

I don’t expect you to thoroughly understand it.

4. Contact post-position.

They are never on time.

He demanded angrily to see the manager.

5. End position.

Are you married yet?

Tom works carefully, but slowly.

Positions 1, 4 and 5 are usually occupied by adverbials of place, time (definite time adverbs) and attendant circumstances.

He left the stage amid thunderous applause.

In the evening we came to the place again.

He returned from London.

When adverbials refer to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, numerals, or pronouns they are usually placed close to these words, generally preceding them.

He is quite a hero.

Mother was much upset about it.

Note:

The adverbial expressed by enough always follows the adjective it refers to.

Are you warm enough?

He is a decent enough fellow.

For adverbials allowing of different reference (to a verb, to an adjective, etc.) any change of position may result in a change of meaning. Compare the following sentences:

Nearly all died. (They died with few exceptions.)

All nearly died. (Everybody was on the verge of dying.)

The place of prepositions

§ 118. The usual place of a preposition is between the words the relation of which it denotes. However, in some cases it may be placed at the end of the sentence. These cases are:

1. When the prepositional object (a word or a clause) is in front

position.

This I can dispense with.

What he says you can rely on.

2. When the prepositional object is made the subject of a passive

construction.

He was much laughed at.

The bed has not been slept in.

3. In questions and exclamations, when the object is placed in front

position.

Who are you speaking to ?

What a nice girl she has grown into!

4. In contact attributive clauses in which the object to the predicate

belongs to the main clause or is only implied.

It is the very thing I've always dreamed of.

It appeared better than we dared to hope for.

Inverted word order

§ 119. Another common pattern of word order is the inverted one (or inversion). We distinguish full inversion (when the predicate precedes the subject, as in Here comes the lady of the house) and partial inversion (when only part of the predicate precedes the subject, as in Happy may you be!). Some grammarians also distinguish double inversion (when parts of the predicate are placed separately before the subject, as in Hanging on the wall was a picture).

§ 120. In some cases inversion may be taken as a normal order of words in constructions with special communicative value, and is thus devoid of any special colouring. In other cases inversion is a sort of reordering for stylistic effect or for emphasis. First we enumerate those cases where inversion is a normal word order.

1. Inversion is used to distinguish between the communicative types of sentences. With this function it is employed in:

a) General questions, polite requests and in tag questions.

Is it really true?

Won’t you have a cup of tea?

You are glad to see me, aren’t you?

b) Pronominal questions, except questions to the subject and its

attribute, where direct word order is used.

What are the police after?

c) Th ere -sentences with the introductory non-­local there, followed

by one of the verbs denoting existence, movement, or change of

the situation .

There has been an accident.

There is nothing in it.

There appeared an ugly face over the fence.

There occurred a sudden revolution in public taste.

There comes our chief.

d) Exclamatory sentences expressing wish, despair, indignation, or other strong

emotions.

Long live the king!

Come what may!

e) Exclamatory sentences which are negative in form but positive

in meaning.

Have I not watched them! (= I have watched them.)

Wouldn’t that be fun ! (= It would be fun.)

f) Negative imperative sentences.

Don’t you do it.

2. Inversion is used as a grammatical means of subordination in some complex sentences joined without connectors:

a) In conditional clauses.

Were you sure of it, you wouldn’t hesitate.

Had she known it before, she wouldn’t have made this mistake.

b) In concessive clauses.

Proud as he was, he had to consent to our proposal.

c) In the second part of a sentence of proportional agreement

(although inversion is not obligatory in this case).

The more he thought of it, the less clear was the matter.

3. Inversion is used in sentences beginning with adverbs denoting place. This usage is traditional, going back to OE norms.

Here is another example.

There goes another bus (туда идет еще один автобус, еще автобус идет).

4. Inversion is used in stage directions, although this use is limited to certain verbs.

Enter the King, the Queen.

Enter Beatie Bryant, an ample blond.

5. Inversion may be used in sentences indicating whose words or thoughts are given as direct or indirect speech. These sentences may intro­duce, interrupt, or follow the words in direct or indirect speech, or may be given in parenthesis.

“That’s him,” said Tom (Tom said).

How did he know, thought Jack, miserably.

Direct word order can also be used here.

6. Inversion is used in statements showing that the remark applies equally to someone or something else.

I am tired. - So am I.

He isn’t ready. - Neither is she.

Note:

If the sentence is a corroboration of a remark just made, direct word order is used.

You promised to come and see me. - So I did.

We may meet him later. - So we may.

The emphatic and communicative functions of word order

§ 121. The second function of word order is to make prominent or emphatic that part of the sentence which is more important or informative in the speaker’s opinion. These two functions (to express prominence or information focus, and emphasis) are different in their purpose, but in many cases they go together or overlap, and are difficult to differentiate.

Prominence and emphasis are achieved by placing the word in an unusual position : words normally placed at the beginning of the sentence (such as the subject) are placed towards the end, whereas words usually occupying positions closer to the end of the sentence (such as objects and predicatives) are shifted to the beginning.

End position is always emphatic for the subject. Very often this reor­dering results in the detachment of the subject.

Must have cost a pretty penny, this dress of yours!

Fronting of an object or a predicative is also often accompanied by detachment.

Horrible these women are, ugly, dirty.

Many and long were the conversations they held through the prison wall.

For debt, drink, dancers he had a certain sympathy; but the pearls - no!

If the object is prepositional, the preposition may be put after the verb or verb-group, or else after the whole sentence.

This nowadays one hears not of.

However, front position of an object does not always mean that this part is emphasized. In some cases this sort of reordering is employed to get the predicate (or what is left of it) emphasized. Talent Mr. Macowber has, capital Mr. Macowber has not.

Front position is emphatic for adverbials (of time, manner, degree) usually attached to the predicate. It is often accompanied by inversion.

Well do I remember the day.

Many a time has he given me good advice.

With words functioning now as adverbs, now as postpositions, front position reveals their adverbial nature most distinctly, as postpositions are never placed here. With this reordering the emphasis is thrown upon the predicate.

Off he went.

Up they rushed.

For attributes emphasis may be achieved by putting them after their headword. In this way the modifier becomes the focus and has the principal stress of the word-group.

The day following was to decide our fate.

Note:

In assessing the emphatic effect of a postmodifying attribute we should bear in mind that for certain attributes this position is normal (see § 86).

However, the fixed patterns in English limit the opportunities to shift prominence or emphasis from one part of the sentence to another, especially for main parts. Therefore prominence and emphasis are generally achieved not by reordering, but by using special constructions. One such construction used for emphasizing the subject is the introductory non-local there + verb + noun, followed by an attributive clause.

There was a girl whom he loved.

There comes a time when one should make up one’s mind.

Another device for shifting emphasis is the construction with the introductory it , the main information being supplied by the subordinate clause. By means of this construction emphasis may be thrown upon any part of the sentence, except the predicate. Such sentences are called cleft sentences. This can be illustrated by the following:

It was she who opened the door.

It is not easy to find a position.

It was to Moscow that she went.

Special emphasis on words functioning as direct or indirect object may be achieved by the use of the passive construction, in which the words to be emphasized are moved either to front position or closer to the end.

Compare the sentences:

The teacher gave the children an easy task.

The children were given an easy task by the teacher.

An easy task was given to the children by the teacher.

The linking function of word order

§ 122. The third function of word order is to express continuity of thought in sentences (or clauses) following one another. This continuity is often supported by demonstrative pronouns and adverbs.

Some people looked down on him. Those people he despised.

They must sow their wild oats. Such was his theory.

And, oh, that look! On that look Euphemia had spent much anxious thought.

Women are terribly vain. So are men - more so, if possible.

Similarly, for purposes of enumeration, a word (or words) marking continuity is sometimes placed at the beginning of the sentence, with the verb immediately following.

Next comes the most amusing scene.

THE PREDICATIVE COMPLEXES

Predicative complexes (or constructions) are structures intermediate between a phrase and a clause. Unlike phrases they contain two words I which semantically are in subject-predicate relations to one another, as one (the nominal part) denotes the doer of the action or the bearer of the state or quality, while the other (the predicated part) may be either verbal (an infinitive, a participle, a gerund) or non-verbal (an adjective, a stative, an adverb, a noun). But unlike clauses the subject-predicate relations in complexes are not grammatically explicit, that is there is no finite verb-form in them, functioning as the verbal predicate or as a link-verb of a nominal predicate. Therefore complexes have neither real subject, nor real predicate.

Still as they have two parts with subject-predicate relations between them the complexes may be transformed into a clause, as in:

I heard him cry —— > I heard that he cried.

Other peculirities result from their structural features:

The fact that they are devoid of the finite verb form renders them dependent on the embedding sentence, and the very absence of the finite verb form is sufficient to show their dependent status as will be shown in the case of different constructions:

It raining cats and dogs, we stayed at home (adverbial).

It is for you to decide it (predicative).

I saw him cross the streat. (object)

But in most cases the dependent status of the construction is manifested by special structural devices of linking:

1. It may be overlapping (наложение) when the embedding sentence and the complex share a common element, as in the case of objective predicative complexes:


I saw him enter this door.


where him has a double role, referring formally to the predicate of the embedding sentence (I saw him) and referring semantically to the complex, as it denotes the doer of the action ( he entered this door); in such cases the construction functions as one part of the sentence (a complex object).

In some cases overlapping is possible with verbs taking a preposition, then the latter is retained between the verb and predicative comples:


We listened to him talking to his neighbour.


2. It may be blending (слияние), when elements of two structures blend into one syntactical part, usually into а соmpound predicate of double orientation when two elements refer to different doers of the action, as in the subjective predicative construction:


He is supposed to have arrived already —> It is supposed (they suppose) that he has arrived already.


The first part of the predicate refers to an implied doer not expressed in the sentence, though formally it agrees with the subject he. The second part to have arrived refers to the doer expressed by the subject, though grammatically the reference is not expressed. The elements of the complex structurally make two parts of the sentence - the subject and part of the predicate of double orientation.

Predicative complexes comprise the following structures: subjective predicative construction, objective predicative construction, nominative absolute predicative constructions, for-to-infinitive constructions, gerundial complexes.

The first two constructions have permanent functions in the sentence, the functions of the last three may vary.

Due to the nature of the second part of the constructions (verbal or non-verbal) all the constructions (complexes) fall into two large classes:

1. verbal constructions and 2. non-verbal constructions.

I. Verbal constructions can be transformed into clauses with a verbal predicate:

We saw the storm approaching ———> We saw that the storm was approaching.

It raining cats and dogs, we stayed at home. ——> As it was raining cats and dogs, we stayed at home.

The train is reported to have landed. ———> lt is reported (They report) that the plane has landed.

II. Non-verbal constructions can be transformed into clauses too, but with a compound nominal predicate.

The door was painted green.——> The door was painted and it became green.

They elected him president.——> They elected him and he became president (and he is president now).

He stood there trembling with his face ablaze. ——> He stood and his face was ablaze.

Verbal constructions fall into two groups:

1. those containing an infinitive and 2. those containing a participle.

The infinitive constructions are:

the objective infinitive construction, the subjective infinitive construction, the for-to-infinitive construction

and the absolute nominative infinitive construction.

The participial constructions are:

the objective participial construction, the subjective participial construc­tion, the nominative absolute

participial construction and the prepositional absolute participial construction.

The subjective predicative constructions *

* It is traditionally called the Complex Subject. The other term often used the Nominative with the infinitive construction does not embrace all variants, as the second element may be not an infinitive.

The subjective construction with an infinitive

§ 123. The construction consists of a noun (or a noun-pronoun) in the common case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case and an infinitive. The peculiarity of the construction is that the first element is separated from the second one by a finite verb-form which together with the infinitive forms a compound verbal predicate of double orientation, whereas the nominal part of the construction forms the subject of the sentence. Thus the construction does not function as one part of the sentence but falls into two parts each functioning separately.

Semantically of these two parts of the predicate only the second one refers to the subject, as only this part denotes either the action or the state of the person or non-person expressed by the subject. Thus in the sentence: He is said to know five languages it is the relation. He knows five languages that is important.

In between the subject and the infinitive there is a part of the predicate expressed by a finite verb which grammatically indicates subject-predicate relations. However, Semantically this finite verb cannot serve as the predicate of the subject, as it denotes some comment, or estimate, or judgement, or conclusion, or attitude to the action or state expressed by the infinitive. The comment or attitude comes from somebody not mentioned in the sentence, therefore such sentences can be transformed into complex ones with the indefinite-personal subject in the principal clause:

He is reported to have left. ————> They report (or somebody reports) that he has left.

The car was heard to turn round the corner. ——> They heard (somebody heard) that the car turned round

the comer.

The subjective infinitive construction is used with a limited number of finite verbs either in the passive or in the active voice:

I. Verbs used in the passive voice fall into four groups:

1) verbs of sense perception (hear, see, observe, watch, etc.). When used in the passive voice they are followed by a to-infinitive. They express the idea of evidence. The same idea is also rendered by some other verbs in the passive voice (such as find, discover).

He was seen to enter the building. (Somebody was a witness of this fact)

They were heard to quarrel. (Somebody heard them and therefore was a witness of their quarrel)

The boy was found to be sleeping at home. (Somebody found the boy and he was sleeping)

2) verbs of mental perception (think, know, mean, believe, expect, consider, assume, presume, suppose) With this construction these verbs denote different shades of expectation, opinion, judgement:

Pat was supposed to come with me tonight.

The Paliament is expected to introduce some changes into the laws.

Programmed instruction is considered to have many advantages.

3) verbs of saying and reporting (say, report, declare, predict, etc). These verbs also express some judgement or opinion:

Blackberries are said to have a lot of vitamins.

A new star was reported to have appeared in the East.

4) Causative verbs (cause, make, order, allow, etc.) The verb to make when used in the passive voice is followed by a to-infinitive.

Jule was made to repeat her words.

The doctor was ordered to change his shift.

No dam was allowed to be built in this part of the country.

II. The following verbs ace used in the active voice:

1. Verbs expressing subjective or personal attitude to facts and their evaluation (to seem, to appear, to happen, to chance, to turn out, etc.).

The structure seemed to have been properly designed.

Your friend turned out to be stronger than we expected.

Everybody appeared to be enjoying themselves.

He chanced to be in the park when I was there.

I was to tell you the news if I happened to run into you.

2. Modal phrases expressing different shades of probability or certainty (to be (un)likely, to be sure, to be certain, to be bound); also adjectives or nouns with the link-verb to be expressing estimate of different kind (pleasant, hard, easy, difficult, terrible, apt, etc.). As probability mostly implies a future action the non-perfect infinitive is generally used after to be likely. With modal phrases expressing certainty both non-perfect and perfect infinitives are possible. The modal phrases to be apt, to be bound generally refer to habitual actions or states and are accordingly followed by the non-perfect infinitive:

We are certain to come to an agreement.

You are not likely to believe my story.

A strawberry, unless fresh-picked, is bound to exude juice.

These objects are sure to be wanted as evidence.

He is always liable to do idiotic things.

A girl is apt to be a little nervous on her wedding day.

Chrisis is apt to strike suddenly like influenza.

Subjective predicative constructions with non-verbal (nominal) second parts

These constructions structurally belong to the same type of subjective predicative constructions, but semantically they are different from those with verbal parts, because the second part of the predicate being a noun or an adjective denotes a new quality or state acquired as a result of the action or denote judgement, opinion of the quality. Because of its meaning the nominal part is sometimes called a subjective predicative.

The door was painted green.

Suddenly the door was flung open.

Some verbs require the second part of the predicate with the preposition as.

The plan was declared as ridiculous and absurd.

The list of verbs used in these constructions partly coincides with verbs mentioned above as preceding the infinitive. Their number is limited.

The following verbs are used in the passive voice:

1. Verbs of mental perception (to accept, to believe, to think, to consider, to expect, to presume, to estimate, to regard, to suppose, etc.); also verbs of saying and reporting (to declare, to describe, to call, to say, to report).

He is believed as honest as anyone here.

The girl was thought clever.

The plan is considered impractical.

He was called ‘rising’, ‘promising’ before.

2. Verbs implying that the result of the action will be a new quality, state, or reaction. These verbs are rather numerous and fall into several subclasses:

A. Verbs with causative meaning (to make, to render)

The room was made comfortable for the child.

He was made a knight.

The audience were rendered speechless by these words.

B. Verbs denoting an action resulting in the change of colour

(to paint, to tinge, to dye, to stain, to dust, etc.).

The walls were painted light pink.

Her hair was dyed red.

After staying on the beach an hour his skin was tinged pink.

His car had been dusted grey by the journey over bad roads.

С. Verbs denoting actions resulting in the change of social rank, status, function of, or giving identification to, a person (to appoint, to call, to christen, to elect, to raise, to select) to mark, etc.); also to train, to bring up, which acquire the meaning of “the change of social status” only in this construction.

He was appointed secretary of the state.

The child was christened Fernando.

The road to the estate was marked private.

The boy had been brought up as a Catholic.

D. Verbs implying movement to a different position or state (to bring, to fling, to set, to tear, etc.).

All the windows were flung open.

The little bird was set free.

The envelope was torn open.

The objective predicative constructions*

* This construction is often called the complex object.

§ 124. The objective predicative construction functions as a complex object. It consists of a nominal part and a part which stands in subject-predicate relations to the first part. The nominal part is a noun or a noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The second element of the construction is a verbal (an infinitive, participle I, participle II) or non-verbal (an adjective or a noun). Accordingly the following objective construction can be distinguished:

I. The objective with the infinitive construction:

I saw Nick take your book.

We hate him to go away.

II. The objective with participle I (or participle II) construction:

They heard somebody knocking at the door.

We found him murdered in his own house.

III. The objective with a non-verbal part construction:

I never thought her clever.

The objective with the infinitive construction

§ 125. This construction is the most recurrent as it may be used after a wider range of verbs, both taking a direct (I didn’t want him to see me here) and an indirect non-recipient object (We were relying on him to put things right ); in the latter case the objective construction is introduced by the preposition generally used with this particular verb.

The objective predicative construction of this type is used after the following verbs:

1. Verbs of wish and intention (to wish, to want, to desire, to choose, to prefer, should/would like, to intend, to mean). Owing to the meaning of these verbs, the infinitive in the construction can be only non-perfect, as it denotes an unfulfilled action.

He would like you to see him in his office.

I did not mean it to be told to her.

2. Verbs of emotion and attitude (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot/could not bear). Those too can be followed only by non-perfect forms of the infinitive.

I can’t bear people to be unhappy or upset.

I hate you to go away.

3. Verbs of mental activity (to think, to suppose, to consider, to believe, to know, to find, to expect, to imagine, to understand, to assume, to acknowledge, to feel, to trust, etc.). After these verbs the infinitive may be used in any form, depending on the time relation between the two actions:

He believed Jennie to be playing in the garden.

I supposed him to have been married to her years ago.

If the action of the infinitive refers to the person denoted by the subject, the corresponding reflexive pronoun is used.

I know myself to be rather slow.

4. Verbs of declaring (to declare, to report, to pronounce). With these all forms of the infinitive are possible.

They reported the plane to have been lost.

5. Causative verbs (to make, to have) take a complex object with a bare infinitive, usually it is a non-perfect infinitive, as the action is the result of inducement. The verb to gel takes a complex object with a to-infinitive.

With other verbs of inducement (to order, to command, to ask, to allow, etc.) the objective with the infinitive construction can have only the passive infinitive.

She would not allow the life of the child to be risked.

Note:

If the infinitive attached to such verbs is active, it does not form a complex with the preceding nominal part; both the elements should be treated as different parts of the sentence, the first as an indirect recipient object, the second as a direct object:

He ordered him to come. (Whom did he order come? What did he order him?)

6. Verbs of perception (to see, to watch, to hear, to feel, to observe, to notice). After these verbs a bare non-perfect active infinitive is used.

We saw planes zoom into the air.

They felt the earth shake under their feet.

After these verbs structures with the link verb to be are not used. Where the need arises, a subordinate clause is used.

I saw that she was pretty. (---/--- > I saw her to be pretty.)

§ 126. As was mentioned in § 125 the objective with the infinitive construction may be used with a few verbs as their indirect non-recipient object. These verbs are to wait (for), to rely (on), to listen (to), to look (for), to count (upon). All of them except the verb to listen take the infinitive with the particle to. With the verb to listen a bare infinitive is used.

Can I really count upon him to undertake the job?

I was relying on him to put things right.

I listened to them talk about me.

The objective with participle I construction

This construction comprises a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and participle I, which is in subject-predicate relation to the nominal part. In comparison with the infinitive in this position participle I shows more clearly the durative character of the action. The construction functions as a complex object.

§ 127. The objective with participle I construction can be used with verbs of three semantic groups, although with two of them it occurs very seldom. In all cases only non-perfect forms of participle I can be used. These groups are as follows:

1. Verbs of sense perception (see, hear, feel).

There we saw the crocodiles swimming about.

Over his shoulder he could hear them snuffing.

I felt tears running down my chieks.

2. Verbs of wish. These verbs combine with the construction only occasionally.

Nobody wanted him going there alone.

3. The causative verbs to have and to get.

He got them running his errands every day.

We’ll have them trembling with fear.

The objective with participle II construction

§ 128. This construction shows that the action expressed by participle II is (or was ) performed not by the person denoted by the nominal part due to the passive meaning of participle II for most verbs. However after the verbs to have, to get, to want participle II may denote an action performed at the request of the person denoted by the nominal part.

The objective with participle II construction can be attached to verbs of four semantic groups.

1. Verbs of sense perception (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch):

We heard the door shut.

They watched him examined by the doctor.

I heard my name echoed in the distance.

2. A few verbs of mental activity (to think, to believe, to consider, to remember).

At first she thought Johnny killed.

3. Verbs of wish.

Nobody wanted it done in such a way.

4. The causative verbs to have and to get. With these verbs the construc­tion means that the action of

participle II is done for the benefit of the person expressed by the nominal part of the construction.

How do you think the men would have their wounds dressed, get themselves washed, have their beds

made if nobody worked on a Sunday?

The objective with participle construction attached to the verbs of this group cannot be transformed into object clauses because these verbs do not take object that- clauses.

Objective constructions with non-verbals

§ 129. Adjectives and nouns which form the second part of these objective constructions are in subject-predicate relations to the first part and show what the person or non-person expressed by it is or becomes, or what quality it acquired. Because of its meaning the nominal part is often called an objective predicative.

These constructions may be used after the following verbs:

I. Verbs of mental activity and sense perception, which acquire in this construction the meaning of judgement, opinion or conclusion (to appreciate, to believe, to claim, to class, to consider, to condemn, to count, to deem, to esteem, to fancy, to feel, to figure, to imagine, to impart, to interpret, to judge, to look (at, on, upon), to perceive, to picture, to place, to pronounce, to recognize, to regard, to see, to sum up, to take, to think, to view, to visualize, etc.); also after some other verbs (to find, to discover, to welcome, etc.) expressing the same meaning. Occasionally a non-verbal element is introduced by the prepositions as or for.

He judged her young and pleasing.

The girl condemned herself as stupid.

They saw him as the greatest man in Europe.

The town esteemed him as a successful man.

I figured you for a good guy.

These constructions may be transformed into object clauses:

I thought it a wonderful opportunity ——> I thought that it was a wonderful opportunity.

He found his life dull ——> He found that his life was dull.

Several verbs of this group (to consider, to deem, to feel, to find, to regard, to suppose, to think, and some others) may take a complex object with the nominal part expressed by a verbal (an infinitive, a gerund) or by a clause. In this case the formal introductory object it is used:

Не thought it useless going to Paris .—— > He thought that going to Paris was useless.

I consider it possible to talk to him now.

They will think it strange that you should be frightened.

II. Verbs implying that the result of the action will be a new quality, state, social standing, or attitude to the action. These verbs are rather numerous and form several semantic subclasses.

A. Verbs with causative meaning (to make, to render, to hit, to have, to worry, to scare, etc.) implying

change of state or impression, as in:

This blow made him crazy.

The sight of the animal scared the boy stiff.

His sudden appearance rendered us speechless.

B. Verbs denoting the action resulting in the change of colour (to paint, to dye, to stain, to tinge, to

dust)

They painted the door green.

She has dyed her hair blonde.

The storm dusted everything grey.

C. Verb denoting actions resulting in the change of social rank, status, function of, or giving

identification to, a person (to appoint, to call, to christen, to elect, to raise, to select, etc.) as in:

They elected him President.

They appointed him chief in the office.

I’ll raise my kid a Catholic.

The parents christened the boy Paul.

They deliberately selected Elizabeth as an ideal mother-substitute.

D. Verbs denoting motion, movement to a different position or state (to bring, to carry, to deliver, to

fing, to kick, to march, to pick, to put, to send, to tear, to toss, etc.).

She pulled the drawer open.

I tore the letter open.

Christin kicked the door open.

The girl clicked her bag shut.

Most of the verbs in group II have a very general vague meaning, they are often incomplete without the adjective or noun denoting the result of the action. Therefore they are very closely connected with it, forming a set expression:


to make

somebody

something

crazy (mad, happy, important, famous, an eager listener, restless, stunned)

invisible (concrete, interesting, handy, certain, clear)

to make oneself agreable (comfortable, cosy)

to set

somebody

something

free

straight

to drive mad (crazy, desperate)

to leave somebody stunned (doubtful, weak, indifferent, blind, crippled)


to keep

somebody

something

busy

clean (handy)

to consider

somebody

something

responsible (famous, big, great, unique, a master, charming, pleasing, awful)

as possible (extreme, ridiculous, dreadful, a nuisance)